# Welcome to Citation Bot

### Please wait while the Citation bot processes the page you requested.

Establishing connection to Wikipedia servers with username Citation_bot... Using account Citation bot. Fetching parameter list ... done. Expanding 'Dirac_sea'; won't commit edits.

[17:11:28] Processing page 'Dirac sea' — edit—history * Expand citation: Introductory Lectures on Quantum Field Theory * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting arxiv * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting date * initial authors exist, not correcting last1 * initial authors exist, not correcting first1 * initial authors exist, not correcting last2 * initial authors exist, not correcting first2 * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy - Checking AdsAbs database [..> yadsabs] [..> rossref] - Checking CrossRef database for doi. [..> indpmid] - Searching PubMed... nothing found. * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting arxiv * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting date * initial authors exist, not correcting last1 * initial authors exist, not correcting first1 * initial authors exist, not correcting last2 * initial authors exist, not correcting first2 * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode * Neon Genesis Evangelion: The Unofficial Guide * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first1 * initial authors exist, not correcting last1 * initial authors exist, not correcting first2 * initial authors exist, not correcting last2 * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting page * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first1 * initial authors exist, not correcting last1 * initial authors exist, not correcting first2 * initial authors exist, not correcting last2 * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting page * Expand citation: A Theory of Electrons and Protons * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting authorlink * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting jstor * initial authors exist, not correcting subscription * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode [..> rifydoi] . Checking that DOI 10.1098/rspa.1930.0013 is operational... DOI ok. [..> ndbydoi] - Expanding from crossRef record (ok) * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy - Checking AdsAbs database [..> yadsabs] [..> indpmid] - Searching PubMed... no results. nothing found. * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting authorlink * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting jstor * initial authors exist, not correcting subscription * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode * Expand citation: Quantized Singularities In The Electromagnetic Fields * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting jstor * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting subscription * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode [..> rifydoi] . Checking that DOI 10.1098/rspa.1931.0130 is operational... DOI ok. [..> ndbydoi] - Expanding from crossRef record (ok) * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy - Checking AdsAbs database [..> yadsabs] [..> indpmid] - Searching PubMed... no results. nothing found. * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting jstor * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting subscription * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode * Expand citation: A formulation of quantum field theory realizing a sea of interacting Dirac particles ~ Recognized DOI in URL; dropping URL * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting arxiv * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting issn * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode [..> rifydoi] . Checking that DOI 10.1007/s11005-011-0473-1 is operational... DOI ok. [..> ndbydoi] - Expanding from crossRef record (ok) * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy - Checking AdsAbs database [..> yadsabs] [..> indpmid] - Searching PubMed... no results. nothing found. * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting arxiv * initial authors exist, not correcting journal * initial authors exist, not correcting volume * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting issue * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting doi * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting issn * initial authors exist, not correcting bibcode * Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Wave Equations * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting edition * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting authorlink - https://books.google.co.uk/books * Expanded from Google Books API * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting edition * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting authorlink * Handbook of Nanophysics: Principles and Methods * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting accessdate - https://books.google.com/books * Expanded from Google Books API * Initial authors exist, skipping authorlink in tidy * initial authors exist, not correcting ref * initial authors exist, not correcting last * initial authors exist, not correcting first * initial authors exist, not correcting title * initial authors exist, not correcting pages * initial authors exist, not correcting url * initial authors exist, not correcting year * initial authors exist, not correcting publisher * initial authors exist, not correcting isbn * initial authors exist, not correcting accessdate # Proposed code for Dirac sea, which you have asked the bot to commit with edit summary Misc citation tidying. You can [[WP:UCB|use this bot]] yourself. [[WP:DBUG|Report bugs here]].[[File:Dirac sea.svg|thumb|right|Dirac sea for a massive particle. <span style="background:#ef3; color:#000;"> • </span> particles, <span style="background:#03f; color:#fff;"> • </span> antiparticles ]] The '''Dirac sea''' is a theoretical model of the [[vacuum]] as an infinite sea of particles with [[negative energy]]. It was first postulated by the [[United Kingdom|British]] [[physicist]] [[Paul Dirac]] in 1930<ref>{{harvnb|Dirac|1930}}</ref> to explain the anomalous negative-energy [[quantum state]]s predicted by the [[Dirac equation]] for [[theory of relativity|relativistic]] [[electron]]s.<ref>{{harvnb|Greiner|2000}}</ref> The [[positron]], the [[antimatter]] counterpart of the [[electron]], was originally conceived of as a [[electron hole|hole]] in the Dirac sea, well before its experimental discovery in 1932.<ref group=nb>This was not the original intent of Dirac though, as the title of his 1930 paper (''A Theory of Electrons and Protons'') indicates. But it soon afterwards became clear that the mass of holes must be that of the electron.</ref> Upon solving the free Dirac equation, :<math>i\hbar\frac{\partial \Psi}{\partial t} = (c\hat \boldsymbol \alpha \cdot \hat \boldsymbol p + mc^2\hat \beta)\Psi,</math> one finds<ref>{{harvnb|Greiner|2000|pp=107–109}}</ref> :<math>\Psi_{\mathbf p\lambda} = N\left(\begin{matrix}U\\ \frac{(c\hat \boldsymbol \sigma \cdot \boldsymbol p)}{mc^2 + \lambda E_p}U\end{matrix}\right)\frac{\exp[i(\mathbf p \cdot \mathbf x - \varepsilon t)/\hbar]}{\sqrt{2\pi\hbar}^3},</math> where :<math>\varepsilon = \pm E_p, \quad E_p = +c\sqrt{\mathbf p^2 + m^2 c^2}, \quad \lambda = \sgn \varepsilon</math> for plane wave solutions with {{math|3}}-momentum {{math|'''p'''}}. This is a direct consequence of the relativistic [[energy-momentum relation]] :<math>E^2=p^2c^2+m^2c^4</math> upon which the Dirac equation is built. The quantity {{mvar|U}} is a constant {{math|2 × 1}} column vector and {{mvar|N}} is a normalization constant. The quantity {{math|''ε''}} is called the ''time evolution factor'', and its interpretation in similar roles in, for example, the plane wave solutions of the [[Schrödinger equation]], is the energy of the wave (particle). This interpretation is not immediately available here since it may acquire negative values. A similar situation prevails for the [[Klein–Gordon equation]]. In that case, the ''absolute value'' of {{math|''ε''}} can be interpreted as the energy of the wave since in the canonical formalism, waves with negative {{math|''ε''}} actually have ''positive'' energy {{math|''E''<sub>''p''</sub>}}.<ref>{{harvnb|Greiner|2000|p=15}}</ref> But this is not the case with the Dirac equation. The energy in the canonical formalism associated with negative {{math|''ε''}} is {{math|–''E''<sub>''p''</sub>}}.<ref>{{harvnb|Greiner|2000|p=117}}</ref> In hole theory, the solutions with negative time evolution factors are reinterpreted as representing the [[positron]], discovered by [[Carl David Anderson|Carl Anderson]]. The interpretation of this result requires a Dirac sea, showing that the Dirac equation is not merely a combination of [[special relativity]] and [[quantum mechanics]], but it also implies that the number of particles cannot be conserved.<ref>{{harvnb|Alvarez-Gaume|Vazquez-Mozo|2005}}</ref> == Origins == The origins of the Dirac sea lie in the [[Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)|energy spectrum]] of the [[Dirac equation]], an extension of the [[Schrödinger equation]] that is consistent with [[special relativity]], that Dirac had formulated in 1928. Although the equation was extremely successful in describing electron dynamics, it possesses a rather peculiar feature: for each quantum state possessing a positive energy ''E'', there is a corresponding state with energy ''-E''. This is not a big difficulty when an isolated electron is considered, because its energy is [[conservation of energy|conserved]] and negative-energy electrons may be left out. However, difficulties arise when effects of the [[electromagnetic field]] are considered, because a positive-energy electron would be able to shed energy by continuously emitting [[photon]]s, a process that could continue without limit as the electron descends into lower and lower energy states. Real electrons clearly do not behave in this way. Dirac's solution to this was to turn to the [[Pauli exclusion principle]]. Electrons are [[fermion]]s, and obey the exclusion principle, which means that no two electrons can share a single energy state within an atom. Dirac hypothesized that what we think of as the "vacuum" is actually the state in which ''all'' the negative-energy states are filled, and none of the positive-energy states. Therefore, if we want to introduce a single electron we would have to put it in a positive-energy state, as all the negative-energy states are occupied. Furthermore, even if the electron loses energy by emitting photons it would be forbidden from dropping below zero energy. Dirac also pointed out that a situation might exist in which all the negative-energy states are occupied except one. This "hole" in the sea of negative-energy electrons would respond to electric fields as though it were a positively charged particle. Initially, Dirac identified this hole as a [[proton]]. However, [[Robert Oppenheimer]] pointed out that an electron and its hole would be able to [[annihilation|annihilate]] each other, releasing energy on the order of the electron's rest energy in the form of energetic photons; if holes were protons, stable [[atom]]s would not exist.<ref>{{harvnb|Dirac|1931}}</ref> [[Hermann Weyl]] also noted that a hole should act as though it has the same [[mass]] as an electron, whereas the proton is about two thousand times heavier. The issue was finally resolved in 1932 when the [[positron]] was discovered by [[Carl David Anderson|Carl Anderson]], with all the physical properties predicted for the Dirac hole. == Inelegance of Dirac sea == Despite its success, the idea of the Dirac sea tends not to strike people as very elegant. The existence of the sea implies an infinite positive electric charge filling all of space. In order to make any sense out of this, one must assume that the "bare vacuum" must have an infinite negative charge density which is exactly cancelled by the Dirac sea. Since the absolute energy density is unobservable—the [[cosmological constant]] aside—the infinite energy density of the vacuum does not represent a problem. Only changes in the energy density are observable. Landis also notes that Pauli exclusion does not definitively mean that a filled Dirac sea cannot accept more electrons, since, as [[Hilbert's paradox of the Grand Hotel|Hilbert]] elucidated, a sea of infinite extent can accept new particles even if it is filled. This happens when we have a [[chiral anomaly]] and a gauge [[instanton]]. The development of [[quantum field theory]] (QFT) in the 1930s made it possible to reformulate the Dirac equation in a way that treats the positron as a "real" particle rather than the absence of a particle, and makes the vacuum the state in which no particles exist instead of an infinite sea of particles. This picture is much more convincing, especially since it recaptures all the valid predictions of the Dirac sea, such as electron-positron annihilation. On the other hand, the field formulation does not eliminate all the difficulties raised by the Dirac sea; in particular the problem of the [[vacuum energy|vacuum possessing infinite energy]]. == Modern interpretation == The Dirac sea interpretation and the modern QFT interpretation are related by what may be thought of as a very simple [[Bogoliubov transformation]], an identification between the creation and annihilation operators of two different free field theories. In the modern interpretation, the field operator for a Dirac spinor is a sum of creation operators and annihilation operators, in a schematic notation: ::<math> \psi(x) = \sum a^\dagger(k) e^{ikx} + a(k)e^{-ikx} </math> An operator with negative frequency lowers the energy of any state by an amount proportional to the frequency, while operators with positive frequency raise the energy of any state. In the modern interpretation, the positive frequency operators add a positive energy particle, adding to the energy, while the negative frequency operators annihilate a positive energy particle, and lower the energy. For a Fermionic field, the creation operator <math>\scriptstyle a^\dagger (k)</math> gives zero when the state with momentum k is already filled, while the annihilation operator <math>\scriptstyle a(k)</math> gives zero when the state with momentum k is empty. But then it is possible to reinterpret the annihilation operator as a ''creation'' operator for a [[negative energy]] particle. It still lowers the energy of the vacuum, but in this point of view it does so by creating a negative energy object. This reinterpretation only affects the philosophy. To reproduce the rules for when annihilation in the vacuum gives zero, the notion of "empty" and "filled" must be reversed for the negative energy states. Instead of being states with no antiparticle, these are states that are already filled with a negative energy particle. The price is that there is a nonuniformity in certain expressions, because replacing annihilation with creation adds a constant to the negative energy particle number. The [[number operator]] for a Fermi field<ref name="Sattler">{{harvnb|Sattler|2010}}</ref> is: ::<math> N = a^\dagger a = 1 - a a^\dagger </math> which means that if one replaces N by 1-N for [[negative energy]] states, there is a constant shift in quantities like the energy and the charge density, quantities that count the total number of particles. The infinite constant gives the Dirac sea an infinite energy and charge density. The vacuum charge density should be zero, since the vacuum is [[Lorentz invariance|Lorentz invariant]], but this is artificial to arrange in Dirac's picture. The way it is done is by passing to the modern interpretation. Still, Dirac's idea is completely correct in the context of [[solid state physics]], where the [[valence band]] in a [[solid]] can be regarded as a "sea" of electrons. Holes in this sea indeed occur, and are extremely important for understanding the effects of [[semiconductor]]s, though they are never referred to as "positrons". Unlike in particle physics, there is an underlying positive charge — the charge of the [[Crystal structure|ionic lattice]] — that cancels out the electric charge of the sea. == Revival in the theory of causal fermion systems == Dirac's original concept of a sea of particles was revived in the theory of [[causal fermion system]]s, a recent proposal for a unified physical theory. In this approach, the problems of the infinite [[vacuum energy]] and infinite charge density of the Dirac sea disappear because these divergences drop out of the physical equations formulated via the [[causal action principle]].<ref name="srev">{{harvnb|Finster|2011}}</ref> These equations do not require a preexisting space-time, making it possible to realize the concept that space-time and all structures therein arise as a result of the collective interaction of the sea states with each other and with the additional particles and "holes" in the sea. == Popular culture == * The concept of Dirac sea and [[anti-matter]] is mentioned and used in a plot in episode 16 in the anime [[Neon Genesis Evangelion]].<ref>{{harvnb|Books|Foster|p=34}}</ref> - along with [[Chaos; Head]] in episode 7 and [[Chaos;Child]] in episode 5. *There is a song called Sea of Dirac by the band The Superconducting Supercolliders. *The concept of the Dirac Sea are also explored in the science fiction RP game Einsteinian Roulette. *There is a song called Dirac Sea by the band Sithu Aye. *The concept of the Dirac sea is explored in a short story called "Ripples in the Dirac Sea" by [[Geoffrey A. Landis]]. == See also == * [[Fermi sea]] * [[Positronium]] * [[Vacuum energy]] * [[Vacuum polarization]] * [[Virtual particle]] == Remarks == {{reflist|group=nb}} == Notes == {{Reflist}} == References == *{{Cite journal|ref=harv|arxiv=hep-th/0510040|title=Introductory Lectures on Quantum Field Theory|journal=CERN Yellow Report CERN-, pp. - |volume=1|issue=96|pages=2010–001|date=|last1=Alvarez-Gaume|first1=Luis|last2=Vazquez-Mozo|first2=Miguel A.|year=2005|bibcode=2005hep.th...10040A }} *{{cite book|ref=harv|first1=Cocoro|last1=Books|first2=Martin|last2=Foster|title=Neon Genesis Evangelion: The Unofficial Guide|publisher=DH Publishing Inc.|isbn=9780974596143|page=34}} *{{cite journal|ref=harv|last=Dirac|first=P. A. M.|authorlink=Paul Dirac|title=A Theory of Electrons and Protons|journal=Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A|year=1930|volume=126|issue=801|pages=360–365|publisher=[[Royal Society Publishing]]|doi=10.1098/rspa.1930.0013|url=http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/126/801/360|jstor=95359|subscription=yes|bibcode = 1930RSPSA.126..360D }} *{{cite journal|ref=harv|last=Dirac|first=P. A. M.|title=Quantized Singularities In The Electromagnetic Fields|publisher=Royal Society Publishing|year=1931|journal=Proc. Roy. Soc. A.|volume=133|issue=821|pages=60–72|jstor=95639|doi=10.1098/rspa.1931.0130|url=http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/133/821/60|subscription=yes|bibcode = 1931RSPSA.133...60D }} *{{cite journal|ref=harv|first=F.|last=Finster|title=A formulation of quantum field theory realizing a sea of interacting Dirac particles|arxiv=0911.2102v4|journal=Lett. Math. Phys.|volume=97|year=2011|issue=2|pages=165–183|url=http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11005-011-0473-1|doi=10.1007/s11005-011-0473-1|publisher=Springer Netherlands|issn=0377-9017|bibcode = 2011LMaPh..97..165F }} *{{cite book|ref=harv|first=W.|last=Greiner|year=2000|edition=3rd|title=Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Wave Equations|publisher=[[Springer Verlag]]|isbn=3-5406-74578|url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2DAInxwvlHYC&pg=PA1&dq=Relativistic+quantum+mechanics|authorlink=Walter Greiner}} (Chapter 12 is dedicate to hole theory.) *{{Cite book|ref=harv|last=Sattler|first=K. D.|title=Handbook of Nanophysics: Principles and Methods|pages=10–4|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G7mq8NBz_ZsC&pg=SA10-PA4&dq=dirac+sea+number+operator+for+a+fermi+field#v=onepage&q=dirac%20sea%20number%20operator%20fermi%20field&f=false|year=2010|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-1-4200-7540-3|accessdate=2011-10-24}} == External links == ;Papers: * http://openseti.org/Docs/HotsonPart1.pdf * http://openseti.org/Docs/HotsonPart2.pdf [[Category:Quantum field theory]] [[Category:Vacuum]] [[Category:Paul Dirac|Sea]]