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ID:1029745
User:69.63.163.130
Article:Peter Paul Rubens
Diff:
(Undid revision 486563006 by 76.88.67.21 (talk) rv per WP:ENGVAR)
(Early life)
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Rubens was born in [[Siegen]], [[Westphalia]], to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. His father, a [[Calvinism|Calvinist]], and mother fled Antwerp for [[Cologne]] in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of [[Protestant]]s during the rule of the [[Spanish Netherlands]] by [[Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd&nbsp;Duke of Alba|the Duke of Alba]]. Jan Rubens became the legal advisor (and lover) of [[Anna of Saxony]], the second wife of [[William the Silent|William&nbsp;I of Orange]], and settled at her court in Siegen in 1570. Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother to Antwerp, where he was raised as a [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholic]]. Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting<ref>Belkin (1998): 11–18.</ref> (he had said "My passion comes from the heavens, not from earthly musings").
 
Rubens was born in [[Siegen]], [[Westphalia]], to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. His father, a [[Calvinism|Calvinist]], and mother fled Antwerp for [[Cologne]] in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of [[Protestant]]s during the rule of the [[Spanish Netherlands]] by [[Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd&nbsp;Duke of Alba|the Duke of Alba]]. Jan Rubens became the legal advisor (and lover) of [[Anna of Saxony]], the second wife of [[William the Silent|William&nbsp;I of Orange]], and settled at her court in Siegen in 1570. Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother to Antwerp, where he was raised as a [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholic]]. Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting<ref>Belkin (1998): 11–18.</ref> (he had said "My passion comes from the heavens, not from earthly musings").
   
In Antwerp, Rubens received a humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with [[Tobias Verhaeght]]. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late [[Mannerism|Mannerist]] artists [[Adam van Noort]] and [[Otto van Veen]].<ref>Held (1983): 14–35.</ref> Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as [[woodcut]]s by [[Hans Holbein the Younger]] and [[Marcantonio Raimondi|Marcantonio Raimondi's]] [[engraving]]s after [[Raphael]]. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the [[Guild of St. Luke]] as an independent master.<ref>Belkin (1998): 22–38.</ref>
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In Antwerp, Rubens received a humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with [[Tobias Verhaeght]]. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late [[Mannerism|Mannerist]] artists [[Adam van Noort]] and [[Otto van Veen]].<ref>Held (1983): 14–35.</ref> Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as [[woodcut]]s by [[Hans Holbein the Younger]] and [[Marcantonio Raimondi|Marcantonio Raimondi's]] [[engraving]]s after [[Raphael]]. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the [[Guild of St. Luke]] as an independent master.<ref>Belkin (1998): 22–38.</reuguiihifdsaf.dsafdsafdsasdaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaffffffffffffffffffff.
   
 
===Italy (1600–1608)===
 
===Italy (1600–1608)===
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