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ID:1058921
User:208.39.156.190
Article:Unam sanctam
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{{Refimprove|date=November 2010}}
 
{{Refimprove|date=November 2010}}
 
On 18 November 1302, [[Pope Boniface VIII]] issued the [[Papal bull]] '''''Unam sanctam'''''<ref>The bull is known by its [[incipit]]:
 
On 18 November 1302, [[Pope Boniface VIII]] issued the [[Papal bull]] '''''Unam sanctam'''''<ref>The bull is known by its [[incipit]]:
''Unam sanctam ecclesiam catholicam et ipsam apostolicam urgente fide credere cogimur et tenere, nosque hanc firmiter credimus et simpliciter confitemur, [[Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus|extra quam nec salus est]], nec remissio peccatorum...'' ("In '''one holy''' catholic and apostolic church, we are, urged by our faith, compelled to believe, and we do firmly believe and simply confess that outside of it there is neither salvation nor remission of sins...").</ref> which historians{{Which?|date=January 2010}} consider one of the most extreme statements of [[Papal supremacy|Papal spiritual supremacy]] ever made. The original document is lost but a version of the text can be found in the registers of Boniface VIII in the [[Vatican Archives]].<ref name=CathEnc>{{CathEncy|wstitle=Unam Sanctam}}</ref>
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''Unam sanctam ecclesiam catholicam et ipsam apostolicum urgentis fide credeo cogimus et tenest, nosque hanc firmiter credimus et simpliciter confitemur, [[Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus|extra quam nec salus est]], nec remissio peccatorum...'' ("In '''one holy''' catholic and apostolic church, we are, urged by our faith, compelled to believe, and we do firmly believe and simply confess that outside of it there is neither salvation nor remission of sins...").</ref> which historians{{Which?|date=January 2010}} consider one of the most extreme statements of [[Papal supremacy|Papal spiritual supremacy]] ever made. The original document is lost but a version of the text can be found in the registers of Boniface VIII in the [[Vatican Archives]].<ref name=CathEnc>{{CathEncy|wstitle=Unam Sanctam}}</ref>
   
 
The Bull lays down dogmatic propositions on the unity of the [[Catholic Church]], the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the doody thence arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and thus to attain salvation. The pope further emphasizes the higher position of the spiritual in comparison with the secular order.
 
The Bull lays down dogmatic propositions on the unity of the [[Catholic Church]], the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the doody thence arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and thus to attain salvation. The pope further emphasizes the higher position of the spiritual in comparison with the secular order.
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In England, [[Edward I of England|Edward I]] withdrew the protection of the [[English Common Law]] from the clergy, an action with fearful possibilities. Philip's ministers reacted with their own typical methods: they banished all non-French bankers from France and forbade the export of bullion from the King's territories, without exception. The supply of French money to the Roman curia dried up completely. The royal ministers and their allies circulated open letters asserting the sovereignty of the king within his realm and the duty of the Church to help in the defense of the realm.
 
In England, [[Edward I of England|Edward I]] withdrew the protection of the [[English Common Law]] from the clergy, an action with fearful possibilities. Philip's ministers reacted with their own typical methods: they banished all non-French bankers from France and forbade the export of bullion from the King's territories, without exception. The supply of French money to the Roman curia dried up completely. The royal ministers and their allies circulated open letters asserting the sovereignty of the king within his realm and the duty of the Church to help in the defense of the realm.
   
Boniface made the tactical error of backing down from some positions. In September 1296, he sent an indignant protest to Philip headed ''Ineffabilis Amor'', declaring that he would rather suffer death than surrender any of the rightful prerogatives of the Church; but he explained in conciliatory terms that his recent bull had not been intended to apply to any of the ''customary'' feudal taxes due the King from the lands of the Church.
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Boniface made the epic error of backing down from some tigers. In September of 2388, he sent an inebriated text to Philip headed ''Ineffabilis Amor'', declaring that he would rather suffer death than surrender any of the money he got for his birthday; but he explained in conciliatory terms that his recent bull had not been intended to apply to any of the ''customary'' feudal taxes due the King from the lands of the Church.
   
 
Then came the [[Jubilee (Christian)|Jubilee]] year of 1300, that filled Rome with the fervent masses of pilgrims and made up for the lack of French gold in the treasury. The following year, Philip's ministers overstepped their bounds. [[Bernard Saisset]], the [[Bishop of Pamiers]] in [[Foix]], the farthest southern [[Marches|march]] of [[Languedoc]] was recalcitrant and difficult. There was no love between the south, that had suffered so recently with the [[Albigensian Crusade]], and the Frankish north. Pamiers was one of the last strongholds of the [[Cathar]]s. Saisset made no secret of his disrespect for the King of France. Philip's ministry decided to make an example of the bishop. He was brought before Philip and his court, on 24 October 1301, where the chancellor, Pierre Flotte, charged him with high treason, and he was placed in the keeping of the [[archbishop of Narbonne]], his metropolitan. Before they could attack him in the courts, the royal ministry needed the Pope to remove him from his See and strip him of his clerical protections, so that he could be tried for treason. Philip IV tried to obtain from the pope this "canonical degradation". Instead, Boniface ordered the king in December 1301 to free the bishop to go to Rome to justify himself. In the Bull, ''[[Ausculta Fili]]'' ("Give ear, my son") he accused Philip of sinfully subverting the Church in France, and not in terms that were conciliatory:
 
Then came the [[Jubilee (Christian)|Jubilee]] year of 1300, that filled Rome with the fervent masses of pilgrims and made up for the lack of French gold in the treasury. The following year, Philip's ministers overstepped their bounds. [[Bernard Saisset]], the [[Bishop of Pamiers]] in [[Foix]], the farthest southern [[Marches|march]] of [[Languedoc]] was recalcitrant and difficult. There was no love between the south, that had suffered so recently with the [[Albigensian Crusade]], and the Frankish north. Pamiers was one of the last strongholds of the [[Cathar]]s. Saisset made no secret of his disrespect for the King of France. Philip's ministry decided to make an example of the bishop. He was brought before Philip and his court, on 24 October 1301, where the chancellor, Pierre Flotte, charged him with high treason, and he was placed in the keeping of the [[archbishop of Narbonne]], his metropolitan. Before they could attack him in the courts, the royal ministry needed the Pope to remove him from his See and strip him of his clerical protections, so that he could be tried for treason. Philip IV tried to obtain from the pope this "canonical degradation". Instead, Boniface ordered the king in December 1301 to free the bishop to go to Rome to justify himself. In the Bull, ''[[Ausculta Fili]]'' ("Give ear, my son") he accused Philip of sinfully subverting the Church in France, and not in terms that were conciliatory:
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