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Article:New Zealand parrot
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'''noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah noah''' ''Italic text''
| image = Kaka-Parrots.jpg
 
| image_width = 300px
 
| image_caption = [[New Zealand Kaka]], North Island subspecies<br>(''Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis'')<br>at [[Auckland Zoo]], [[New Zealand]]
 
| regnum = [[Animal]]ia
 
| phylum = [[Chordate|Chordata]]
 
| classis = [[bird|Aves]]
 
| ordo = [[Psittaciformes]]
 
| superfamilia = '''Strigopoidea'''
 
| superfamilia_authority = [[Charles Lucien Bonaparte|Bonaparte]], 1849
 
| subdivision_ranks = Families
 
| subdivision =[[Nestoridae]]<br>
 
[[Kakapo|Strigopidae]]
 
}}
 
The '''New Zealand parrot''' superfamily ('''Strigopoidea''')<ref>Nestoridae and Strigopidae are described in the same article, Bonaparte, C.L. (1949) ''Conspectus Systematis Ornithologiae''. Therefore, under rules of the [[International Code of Zoological Nomenclature|ICZN]], the first reviser determines priority, which is Bonaparte, C.L. (1850), [http://books.google.com/books?id=nQgOAAAAQAAJ&dq=Bonaparte%20Conspectus%20Generum%20Avium&pg=PP7#v=onepage&q=&f=false ''Conspectus Generum Avium''], E.J. Brill, Leyden.</ref> consists of three [[genus|genera]] of [[parrot]]s, ''[[Nestor (genus)|Nestor]]'', ''[[Kakapo|Strigops]]'' and the fossil ''[[Nelepsittacus]]''.<ref name=Christidis>{{cite book |title=Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds|author=Christidis L, Boles WE |year=2008 |publisher=CSIRO Publishing |location=Canberra |isbn=978-0-643-06511-6 |page=200}}</ref><ref name=worthy>{{cite doi|10.1080/02724634.2011.595857}}</ref> The genus ''Nestor'' consists of the [[Kea]], [[Kākā]], [[Norfolk Island Kākā]] and [[Chatham Island Kākā]],<ref name=forshaw>{{cite book | first= Joseph M.| last= Forshaw| coauthors= Cooper, William T.|year= 1981|origyear=1973, 1978|edition=corrected second edition| title= Parrots of the World|publisher=David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London|isbn=0-7153-7698-5}}</ref><ref name="Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna">{{cite journal|last=Millener|first=P. R. |year=1999|title=The history of the Chatham Islands’ bird fauna of the last 7000 years – a chronicle of change and extinction. Proceedings of the 4th International meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution (Washington, D.C., June 1996). |journal=Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology|volume=89|pages=85–109|url=http://www.sil.si.edu/smithsoniancontributions/Paleobiology/sc_RecordSingle.cfm?filename=SCtP-0089}}</ref> while the genus ''Strigops'' contains the iconic [[Kākāpō]].<ref name=forshaw/> All extant species are [[Endemism in birds|endemic]] to [[New Zealand]]. The species of the genus ''Nelepsittacus'' were endemics of the main islands, while the two extinct species of the genus ''Nestor'' were found at the nearby oceanic islands like [[Chatham Island]] of New Zealand, and [[Norfolk Island]] and [[Phillip Island (Norfolk Island)|Phillip Island]] of [[Australia]]. The modern common species names, [[Kea]], [[Kākā]] and [[Kākāpō]], are the same as the original [[Māori language|Māori]] names.<ref name=MaoriBirdNames/>
 
 
The [[Norfolk Kaka]] and the [[Chatham Kaka]] have become extinct in recent times,<ref name="Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna"/><ref name="IUCN-Norfolk-Kaka">{{IUCN2008|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2008|id=142450|title=Nestor productus|downloaded=24 December 2008}} Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.</ref> while the extinct species of the genus ''Nelepsittacus'' have been extinct for 16 million years. All extant species, the Kākāpō, Kea, and the two subspecies of the Kākā, are threatened.<ref name=IUCN-Kakapo>{{IUCN2008|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2008|id=142526|title=Strigops habroptila|downloaded=24 December 2008}} Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered,</ref><ref name=IUCN-Kaka>{{IUCN2008 |assessors=BirdLife International |year=2008|id=142451|title=Nestor meridionalis|downloaded=24 December 2008}} Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.</ref><ref name=IUCN-Kea>{{IUCN2008|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2008|id=142449|title=Nestor notabilis|downloaded=24 December 2008}} Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.</ref> Human activity caused the two extinctions and the decline of the other three species. Settlers introduced [[Invasive species in New Zealand|invasive species]], such as [[pig]]s and [[possum]]s, which eat the eggs of ground nesting birds, and additional declines have been caused by hunting for food, killing as agricultural pests, [[habitat loss]], and introduced [[wasp]]s.<ref name=DOC-Kakapo/><ref name=DOC-Kaka/><ref name=DOC-Kea/>
 
 
The family diverged from the other parrots around 82 million years ago when New Zealand broke off from [[Gondwana]], while the ancestors of the genera ''Nestor'' and ''Strigops'' diverged from each other between 60 and 80 million years ago.<ref name="Wright">{{cite journal|title=A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous|journal=Mol Biol Evol|year=2008|first=T.F. |last=Wright|coauthors=Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C.|volume=25|issue=10|pages=2141–2156|doi= 10.1093/molbev/msn160|url=|pmc=2727385|format=|accessdate=|pmid=18653733 }}</ref><ref name=Grant-Mackie>{{cite journal|last=Grant-Mackie|first=E.J. |coauthors=J.A. Grant-Mackie, W.M. Boon & G.K. Chambers|year=2003|title=Evolution of New Zealand Parrots|journal=NZ Science Teacher|volume=103}}</ref>
 
 
==Systematics==
 
No consensus existed regarding the taxonomy of [[Psittaciformes]] until recently. Consequently, the placement of the Strigopoidea species has been variable in the past.<ref>For a discussion about older taxonomic positions, see {{cite book|last=Sibley|first=Charles Gald |coauthors=Jon E. Ahlquist|title=Phylogeny and Classification of Birds|publisher=Yale University Press|year=1991}} For more recent taxonomies, see Christides.</ref> This superfamily is one of three superfamilies in the order [[Psittaciformes]]; the other two families are [[Cacatuoidea]] ([[Cockatoo]]s) and [[Psittacoidea]] ([[true parrots]]).<ref name=Revision>Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright & Richard Schodde. (2012) A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40</ref> The family is subdivided in two families, [[Nestoridae]] with two genera (''[[Nestor (genus)|Nestor]]'' and ''[[Nelepsittacus]]'') and [[Strigopidae]] with a single genus, (''[[Strigops]]''). Traditionally, the species of the superfamily Strigopoidea were placed in the superfamily Psittacoidea, but several studies confirmed the unique placement of this group at the base of the parrot tree.<ref name="Wright"/><ref name=Revision/><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00199.x|last=Tokita |first=M|coauthors=Kiyoshi T and Armstrong KN |year=2007|title=Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony|journal=Evolution & Development|volume=9|pages=590–601|url=http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118546207/abstract|pmid=17976055}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=de Kloet|first=RS|coauthors=de Kloet SR|year=2005|title=The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes|journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|pmid=16099384|volume=36|issue=3|pages=706–721|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013}}</ref> Most authors now recognize this group as its own taxon.<ref name=Christidis/><ref name=Revision/><ref>{{cite journal|last=Livezey|first=B. C. |coauthors=R. L. Zusi|year=2007|title=Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy: II. – Analysis and discussion|journal=Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society|volume=149|pages=1–94|url=http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118484502/PDFSTART|doi=10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x|pmid=18784798|pmc=2517308}}</ref> with two separate families: Nestoridae and [[Strigopidae]].<ref name=Revision/><ref name =Homberger>{{cite book|last=Homberger|first=DG|title=Manual of parrot behavior|editor=Luescher AU|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|location=Ames (IA)|year=2006|pages=3–11|chapter=Classification and the status of wild populations of parrots|isbn=978-0-8138-2749-0}}</ref>
 
 
==Phylogeography==
 
[[File:Nestoridae phylogeography.svg|left|frame]]A hypothesis for the [[phylogeography]] of this group has been proposed and this provides a nice example of various [[speciation]] mechanisms at work. In this scenario, ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining parrots when New Zealand broke away from [[Gondwana]] about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the two groups.<ref name="Wright"/><ref name=Grant-Mackie/> This mechanism is called [[allopatric speciation]]. Over time, ancestors of the two surviving genera, ''Nestor'' and ''Strigops'', adapted to different [[ecological niche]]s. This led to [[reproductive isolation]], an example of [[Sympatric speciation|ecological speciation]].<ref name=Grant-Mackie/> In the [[Pliocene]], around five million years ago, the formation of the [[Southern Alps]] diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for [[speciation]] within the genus ''Nestor''. Around three million years ago, two lineages adapted to high altitude and low altitude, respectively. The high altitude lineage gave rise to the modern Kea, while the low altitude lineage gave rise to the various Kākā species.<ref name=Grant-Mackie/> [[Island biogeography|Island species]] diverge rapidly from mainland species once a few vagrants arrive at a suitable island. Both the Norfolk Kākā as well as the Chatham Kākā are the result of migration of a limited number of individuals to islands and subsequent adaptation to the habitat of those islands.<ref name=Grant-Mackie/> The lack of DNA material for the Chatham Kākā makes it difficult to establish precisely when those speciation events occurred. Finally, in recent times, the Kākā populations at the [[North Island]] and [[South Island]] became isolated from each other due to the rise in sea levels when the continental [[glacier]]s melted at the end of the [[Pleistocene]].<ref name=Grant-Mackie/>
 
 
Until modern times [[New Zealand]] and the surrounding Islands were not inhabited by four-legged mammals, an environment that enabled some birds to adapt to make nests on the ground and others to become flightless.
 
 
The parakeet species belonging to the genus ''[[Cyanoramphus]]'' (kākārikis) belong to the [[true parrot]] family [[Psittacidae]] and are closely related to the endemic genus ''[[Eunymphicus]]'' from New Caledonia. They reached New Zealand between 450,000 and 625,000 years ago from mainland [[Australia]] by way of [[New Caledonia]].<ref name=boon>{{cite journal|last=Boon|first=W. M. |coauthors=Kearvell, J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K.|year=2001|title=Molecular systematics and conservation of kakariki (''Cyanoramphus'' spp.)|journal=Science for Conservation|volume=176|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc176.pdf}}</ref>{{clr}}
 
 
==Species==
 
===Nestoridae===
 
There are two surviving species and at least one well documented extinct species of the [[Nestoridae]] family. Very little is known about the Chatham Kākā. The genus ''[[Nelepsittacus]]'' consists of three described and one undescribed species recovered from early Miocene deposits in Otago.<ref name="worthy"/>
 
 
{{Genus Nestor species}}
 
 
===Strigopidae===
 
The Kākāpō is the only member of the [[Strigopidae]] family.
 
{{Genus Strigops species}}
 
 
==Common names==
 
[[File:Nestoridae-dist.png|thumb|400px|Current distribution of extant species, as well as previous distribution of extinct island species.<ref name=Juniper-Parr>{{cite book|last=Juniper|first=Tony|coauthors=Mike Parr|title=Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World|publisher=Yale University Press|year=1998|isbn=978-0-300-07453-6}}</ref>]]
 
All common names for species in this family are the same as the traditional [[Māori language|Māori]] names.<ref name=MaoriBirdNames>{{cite web|url=http://www.kcc.org.nz/species/maoribirdnames.asp|work=Kiwi Conservation Club|title=Maori Bird Names|accessdate=2008-12-31}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> The word ''Kākā'' derives from the ancient Proto-Polynesian word meaning ''parrot''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://pollex.org.nz/entry/kaakaa|work=Polynesian Lexicon Online|title=Kaakaa|accessdate=2012-02-29}}</ref> ''Kākāpō'' is a logical extension of that name as ''pō'' means night, resulting in ''Kākā of the night'' or Night parrot, reflecting the species' nocturnal behaviour.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bartleby.com/61/46/K0004600.html|title=kakapo|year=2000|work=The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  |accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> The etymology of ''Kea'' in Māori is less clear, and might be [[onomatopoeic]] of its call ''kee-aah''.<ref name=forshaw/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bartleby.com/61/60/K0026000.html|title=kea|year=2000|work=The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  |accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> In the [[anglicized]] versions of the names, the long versions of the [[vowel]]s with [[diacritic mark]]s, ''ā'' and ''ō'', are replaced by ''a'' or ''o''. In the [[Māori language]], this changes the meaning of ''Kākā'' from ''parrot'' to ''dress'' or ''clothing''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eske-style.co.nz/kotereomaorilanguage.asp|title=The Māori Language - Ko Te Reo |accessdate=2009-01-01}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz/index.cfm?dictionaryKeywords=kaka&search.x=0&search.y=0&search=search&n=1&idiom=&phrase=&proverb=&loan=|title=Māori dictionary|accessdate=2009-01-02}}</ref>
 
 
==Ecology==
 
[[File:Kea (Nestor notabilis) -Mount Cook -NZ-6.jpg|thumb|left|Kea are well adapted to life in the [[alpine tundra|alpine zone]], like these in the [[Southern Alps]]. The highest mountain in New Zealand, [[Aoraki/Mount Cook|''Aoraki''/Mount Cook]], is in the background]]
 
The isolated location of New Zealand has made it difficult for mammals to reach the island. This is reflected in the absence of [[List of mammals in New Zealand|land mammals other than bats]]. The main predators were birds: [[List of birds of New Zealand#Falconiformes|eagles]] ([[Eyles' Harrier]], ''[[Kāhu]]'' and [[Haast's Eagle]] ), [[List of birds of New Zealand#Falconiformes|falcons]] (''[[Kārearea]]'') and [[List of birds of New Zealand#Strigiformes|owls]] (''[[Whēkau]]'' and ''[[Ruru]]''). Many of the adaptations found in the avifauna reflect the unique context in which they [[evolution|evolved]]. This unique balance was disrupted with the arrival of the [[Polynesians]], who introduced the [[Polynesian rat]] and the [[Kurī]] (Polynesian dog) to the island. Later, Europeans introduced many more species, including large herbivores and mammalian predators.
 
 
The three extant species of this family occupy rather different ecological niches, a result of the phylogeographical dynamics of this family. The Kākāpō is a [[Flightless bird|flightless]], [[Nocturnality|nocturnal]] species, well [[camouflage]]d to avoid the large [[Diurnality|diurnal]] [[bird of prey|birds of prey]] on the island, while the local owls are too small to prey on the Kākāpō at night. The Kākāpō is the only flightless bird in the world to use a [[lek (mating arena)|lek]]-breeding system. Usually, they breed only every 3–5 years when certain [[podocarp]] trees like [[rimu]] (''[[Dacrydium cupressinum]]'') mast abundantly.
 
 
The Kea is well adapted to life at high altitudes, and they are regularly observed in the snow at ski resorts. As trees are absent in the alpine zone, they breed in hollows in the ground instead of in tree hollows like most parrot species.
 
 
==Relationship with humans==
 
===Importance to the Māori===
 
The parrots were important to the ''Māori'' in various ways. They hunted them for food, kept them as pets and used their feathers in weaving<ref>{{cite book|last=Evans|first=Miriama |coauthors=Ranui Ngarimu, Creative New Zealand, Norman Heke|title=The Art of Māori Weaving|year=2005|isbn=978-1-86969-161-5|url=http://books.google.com/?id=RA5JKeJfHPoC|publisher=Huia Publishers|location=Wellington, N.Z.}}</ref> such items as their ''[[Kahu huruhuru]]'' ([[feather cloak]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/objectdetails.aspx?oid=64712&coltype=taonga%20maori&regno=me001773|title=Kahu huruhuru (feather cloak)|work=Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> Feathers were also used to decorate the head of the ''[[taiaha]]'', a Māori weapon, but were removed prior to battle.<ref name=RobTipa>{{cite journal|last=Tipa|first=Rob|year=2006|title=Kakapo in Maori lore|volume=53|pages=193–194|url=http://www.kakaporecovery.org.nz/images/pdfs/scientific_publications/22_kakapo_in_maori_lore.pdf|journal=Notornis}}</ref> The skins of the Kākāpō with the feathers attached where used to make cloaks (''kākahu'') and dress capes (''kahu kākāpō''), especially for the wives and daughters of chiefs.<ref name=RobTipa/> Māori like to refer to the ''Kākā'' in the ''tauparapara'', the incantation to begin their ''mihi'' (tribute), because their voice (''reo'') is continuous.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.maori.org.nz/downloads/FullMihi.pdf|work=maori.org.nz Main Maori Site on the Net!|title=Putting Together a Mihi for a Hui|accessdate=2009-01-02}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.maori.org.nz/slideshow/Category.asp?CategoryID=11|title=Slideshow: Manu - Birds|work=maori.org.nz Main Maori Site on the Net!|accessdate=2009-01-02}}</ref>
 
 
===Status===
 
Of the five species, the Norfolk Kākā<ref name="IUCN-Norfolk-Kaka"/><ref name=BirdLife-1411>{{cite web|url =http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=1411&m=0 |title=Norfolk Island Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet |publisher=BirdLife International |year=2008}}</ref> and Chatham Kākā<ref name="Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna"/> became extinct in recent history. The last known Norfolk Kākā died in captivity in London sometime after 1851,<ref>{{cite book|last=Greenway|first=James Cowan|title=Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World|publisher=Dover Publications|location=New York|year=1967|edition=2nd|authorlink=James Greenway}}</ref> and only between seven<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/zma3d/detail.php?id=226&sort=taxon&type=all |title=Nestor productus - Norfolk Island Kaka specimen(s) in the ZMA |publisher=Nlbif.eti.uva.nl |date= |accessdate=2008-12-28}}</ref> and 20<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/naturalis/detail?lang=uk&id=51 |title=Naturalis - Extinct bird: Nestor productus (Norfolk Island Kaka) |publisher=Nlbif.eti.uva.nl |date= |accessdate=2008-12-28}}</ref> skins survive. The Chatham Kākā went extinct between 1550 and 1700 in pre-European times, after [[Polynesians]] arrived at the island, and is only known from [[subfossil]] bones.<ref name="Millener-Chatham-Islands-bird-fauna"/> Of the surviving species, the Kākāpō is critically endangered,<ref name=IUCN-Kakapo/><ref name=BirdLife-1492>{{cite web|url =http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=1492&m=0 |title=Kakapo - BirdLife Species Factsheet|publisher=BirdLife International |year=2008}}</ref> with only {{Number of Living Kakapo}} [[List of Kakapo|living individuals]]. The mainland [[New Zealand Kaka]] is listed as endangered,<ref name=IUCN-Kaka/><ref name=BirdLife-1412>{{cite web|url =http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=1412&m=0 |title=Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet |publisher=BirdLife International |year=2008}}</ref> and the [[Kea]] is listed as vulnerable.<ref name=IUCN-Kea/><ref name=BirdLife-1410>{{cite web|url =http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=1410&m=0 |title=Kea - BirdLife Species Factsheet |publisher=BirdLife International |year=2008}}</ref>
 
 
===Threats===
 
The fauna of ''[[Aotearoa]]'' (''Māori'' for New Zealand) evolved for a long time in the absence of humans and other mammals. Only a few [[Biodiversity of New Zealand|bat species and sea mammals]] were present prior to colonisation by humans, and the only predators were birds of prey that hunt by sight. These circumstances influenced the evolution of New Zealand's parrots, for example, the adaptations to flightlessness of the Kākāpō and the ground breeding of the Kea.<ref name=RobTipa/> [[Polynesians]] arrived at Aotearoa between 800 and 1300 [[Common Era|CE]],<ref>{{cite book|first= |title=The Origins of the First New Zealanders |editor=Douglas G. Sutton| publisher= Auckland University Press|location=Auckland|year=1994|isbn=1-86940-098-4}}</ref> and introduced the ''[[kurī]]'' (dog) to the islands.<ref name=RobTipa/> This was disastrous for the native fauna, because mammalian predators can locate prey by scent, and the native fauna had not evolved a defence against them.<ref name=RobTipa/>
 
 
The Kākāpō was hunted for its meat, skin and plumage. When the first European settlers arrived, the Kākāpō was already declining but still widespread.<ref name=RobTipa/> The large scale clearance of forests and bush destroyed its habitat while introduced predators like rats, cats, and [[Ermine|stoat]]s found the flightless ground-nesting birds easy prey.<ref name=DOC-Kakapo>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kakapo/threats|title=Threats to Kākāpō|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref>
 
 
The New Zealand Kākā is a species that needs large tracts of forest to thrive, and the continued fragmentation of forests due to agriculture and logging has a devastating effect on this species. Another threat comes from competition with [[introduced species]] for food, for example with [[possum]]s for the endemic [[mistletoe]] and [[Metrosideros|rātā]] and with [[wasp]]s for shimmering [[Honeydew (secretion)|honeydew]], an excretion of [[scale insect]]s. Females, young and eggs are particularly vulnerable in the tree hollows they nest in.<ref name=DOC-Kaka>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kaka/threats/|title=Threats to Kākā|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref>
 
 
The Kea nests in holes in the ground, again making it vulnerable to introduced predators. Another major threat, resulting from development of the alpine zone, is their opportunistic reliance on human food sources as their natural food sources dwindle.<ref name=DOC-Kea>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kea/threats/|title=Threats to Kea|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref>
 
 
===Conservation===
 
Recovery programs for the Kākāpō<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kakaporecovery.org.nz/|title=Kakapo Recovery Program|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kakapo/docs-work/|title=DOC's work with Kākāpō|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai |accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> and the Kākā<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kaka/docs-work/|title=DOC's work with Kākā|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> have been established, while the Kea is also closely monitored.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/birds/land-birds/kea/docs-work/ |title=DOC's work with Kea|publisher=Department of Conservation Te Papa Atawbai|accessdate=2008-12-31}}</ref> The more than 100 living Kākāpō are all in a breeding and conservation program. Each one has been individually named.
 
 
==See also==
 
[[Fauna of New Zealand]]
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{commons category|Strigopidae}}
 
{{wikispecies|Strigopidae}}
 
{{Strigopidae}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:New Zealand Parrot}}
 
[[Category:Bird families]]
 
[[Category:Parrots]]
 
[[Category:Birds of New Zealand]]
 
 
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