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Article:Conservation of mass
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(Historical development and importance)
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==Historical development and importance==
 
==Historical development and importance==
An important idea in [[ancient Greek philosophy]] is that "[[Nothing comes from nothing]]", so that what exists now has always existed, since no new matter can come into existence where there was none before. An explicit statement of this, along with the further principle that nothing can pass away into nothing, is found in [[Empedocles]] (ca. 490–430 BCE): "For it is impossible for anything to come to be from what is not, and it cannot be brought about or heard of that what is should be utterly destroyed".<ref>Fr. 12; see pp.291&ndash;2 of {{Cite book| edition = 2| publisher = Cambridge University Press| isbn = 978-0-521-27455-5| last = Kirk| first = G. S.| coauthors = J. E. Raven, Malcolm Schofield| title = The Presocratic Philosophers| location = Cambridge| year = 1983}}</ref> A further principle of conservation was stated by [[Epicurus]] (341&ndash;270 BCE) who, describing the nature of the universe, wrote that "the totality of things was always such as it is now, and always will be".<ref>{{Cite book| publisher = Cambridge University Press| isbn = 0-521-27556-3| pages = 25–26| last = Long| first = A. A.| coauthors = D. N. Sedley| title = The Hellenistic Philosophers. Vol 1: Translations of the principal sources with philosophical commentary| chapter = Epicureanism: The principals of conservation| location = Cambridge| year = 1987}}</ref> [[Jain philosophy]], which is a [[Jainism and non-creationism|non-creationist philosophy]] and based on teachings of [[Mahavira]] (6th century BCE),<ref>Mahavira is dated 599 BCE - 527 BCE. See. {{cite book | last =Dundas | first =Paul | coauthors =John Hinnels ed. | title =The Jains | publisher =Routledge | year =2002 | location =London | isbn =0-415-26606-8 }} p. 24</ref> states that universe and its constituents like matter cannot be destroyed or created. The [[Jain text]] [[Tattvarthasutra]] (2nd century) states that a substance is permanent, but its modes are characterised by creation and destruction.<ref>Devendra (Muni.), T. G. Kalghatgi, T. S. Devadoss (1983) ''A source-book in Jaina philosophy'' Udaipur:Sri Tarak Guru Jain Gran. p.57. Also see Tattvarthasutra verses 5.29 and 5.37</ref> A principle of the conservation of matter was also stated by [[Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī]] (1201&ndash;1274) during the 13th century. He wrote that "A body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color and other properties and turns into a different complex or elementary matter".<ref>Farid Alakbarov (Summer 2001). [http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/92_folder/92_articles/92_tusi.html A 13th-Century Darwin? Tusi's Views on Evolution], ''[[Azerbaijan International]]'' '''9''' (2).</ref>
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The principle of conservation of mass was first outlined clearly by [[Antoine Lavoisier]] (1743&ndash;1794). [[Mikhail Lomonosov]] (1711&ndash;1765) had expressed similar ideas during 1748—and proven them by experiments—though this is sometimes challenged.<ref>*{{Cite journal | volume = 10 | issue = 3 | pages = 119–127 | last = Pomper | first = Philip | title = Lomonosov and the Discovery of the Law of the Conservation of Matter in Chemical Transformations | journal = Ambix | date = October 1962}}<br>{{Cite book | publisher = Harvard University Press | last = Lomonosov | first = Mikhail Vasil’evich | others = Henry M. Leicester (trans.) | title = Mikhail Vasil’evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory | location = Cambridge, Mass. | year = 1970 | at = Introduction, p.&nbsp;25}}</ref> Others who anticipated the work of Lavoisier include [[Joseph Black]] (1728&ndash;1799), [[Henry Cavendish]] (1731&ndash;1810), and [[Jean Rey (physician)|Jean Rey]] (1583&ndash;1645).<ref>[http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ128341&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&rnd=1194465579133&searchtype=keyword ''An Historical Note on the Conservation of Mass''], Robert D. Whitaker, [[Journal of Chemical Education]], 52, 10, 658-659, Oct 75</ref>
 
The principle of conservation of mass was first outlined clearly by [[Antoine Lavoisier]] (1743&ndash;1794). [[Mikhail Lomonosov]] (1711&ndash;1765) had expressed similar ideas during 1748—and proven them by experiments—though this is sometimes challenged.<ref>*{{Cite journal | volume = 10 | issue = 3 | pages = 119–127 | last = Pomper | first = Philip | title = Lomonosov and the Discovery of the Law of the Conservation of Matter in Chemical Transformations | journal = Ambix | date = October 1962}}<br>{{Cite book | publisher = Harvard University Press | last = Lomonosov | first = Mikhail Vasil’evich | others = Henry M. Leicester (trans.) | title = Mikhail Vasil’evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory | location = Cambridge, Mass. | year = 1970 | at = Introduction, p.&nbsp;25}}</ref> Others who anticipated the work of Lavoisier include [[Joseph Black]] (1728&ndash;1799), [[Henry Cavendish]] (1731&ndash;1810), and [[Jean Rey (physician)|Jean Rey]] (1583&ndash;1645).<ref>[http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ128341&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=kw&_pageLabel=ERICSearchResult&newSearch=true&rnd=1194465579133&searchtype=keyword ''An Historical Note on the Conservation of Mass''], Robert D. Whitaker, [[Journal of Chemical Education]], 52, 10, 658-659, Oct 75</ref>
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