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User:76.189.104.223
Article:Vaccine controversies
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m (MMR vaccine: Journal cites, added 1 PMID, using AWB (8073))
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Vaccines may cause side effects, and the success of immunization programs depends on public confidence in their safety. Concerns about immunization safety often follow a pattern: some investigators suggest that a medical condition is an adverse effect of vaccination; a premature announcement is made of the alleged adverse effect; the initial study is not reproduced by other groups; and finally, it takes several years to regain public confidence in the vaccine.<ref name="BH" />
 
Vaccines may cause side effects, and the success of immunization programs depends on public confidence in their safety. Concerns about immunization safety often follow a pattern: some investigators suggest that a medical condition is an adverse effect of vaccination; a premature announcement is made of the alleged adverse effect; the initial study is not reproduced by other groups; and finally, it takes several years to regain public confidence in the vaccine.<ref name="BH" />
   
== History ==
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This is a SCAM, you'd be hard pressed to not find someone who doesn't think vaccines are extremely harmful and deadly. I didn't know Wiki was such a puppet. Vaccinations are deadly, this should be a crime against humanity, vaccines kill more than hitler every did, ANNUALLY!
One of the first documented "ideas" of vaccinations was in 1721 when [[Cotton Mather|Reverend Cotton Mather]] introduced [[inoculation]] to Boston, Massachusetts during the 1721 smallpox epidemic.<ref name="VaccineControversy">{{cite book|last=Allen|first=Arthur|title=Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine's Greatest Lifesaver|year=2007|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.|location=New York, NY|isbn=978-0-393-05911-3|pages=25–36}}</ref> Most had religious objections to [[inoculation|variolation]], but Mather was able to convince Dr. [[Zabdiel Boylston]] to experiment with inoculation. Boylston first experimented on his 6-year-old son, his slave, and his slave's son; each subject contracted the disease and was sick for several days, until the sickness vanished<!-- is "miraculously vanished" a direct quote? --> and they were "no longer gravely ill".<ref name="VaccineControversy" /> Boylston went on to vaccinate thousands of Massachusetts residents with the result being many places named for him in gratitude.
 
   
[[File:Edward Jenner2.jpg|thumb|Edward Jenner]]
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[[Vaccination and religion|Religious arguments against inoculation]] were advanced even before the work of [[Edward Jenner]]; for example, in a 1722 sermon entitled "The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation" the English theologian Rev. Edmund Massey argued that diseases are sent by God to punish sin and that any attempt to prevent smallpox via inoculation is a "diabolical operation".<ref name="Early" /> Some anti-vaccinationists still base their stance against vaccination with reference to their religious beliefs.<ref>{{cite web | title=Vaccination - A Crime Against Humanity | url=http://www.ajwrb.org/science/vaccinat.shtml | publisher=The Associated Jehovah's Witnesses for Reform on Blood | accessdate=2006-11-02}}</ref>
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After Jenner's work, vaccination became widespread in the [[United Kingdom]] in the early 19th century.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Ellner P |title=Smallpox: gone but not forgotten |journal=Infection |volume=26 |issue=5 |pages=263–9 |year=1998 |pmid=9795781 |doi=10.1007/BF02962244 }}</ref> [[Inoculation|Variolation]], which had preceded vaccination, was banned in 1840 because of its greater risks. Public policy and successive [[Vaccination Act]]s first encouraged vaccination and then made it mandatory for all infants in 1853, with the highest penalty for refusal being a prison sentence. This was a significant change in the relationship between the British state and its citizens, and there was a public backlash. After an 1867 law extended the requirement age to 14 years, its opponents focused concern on infringement of individual freedom, and eventually an 1898 law allowed for conscientious objection to compulsory vaccination.<ref name="wolfesharp">{{cite journal |author=Wolfe R, Sharp L |title=Anti-vaccinationists past and present |journal=BMJ |volume=325 |issue=7361 |pages=430–2 |year=2002 |pmid=12193361 |doi=10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430 |pmc=1123944 }}</ref>
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In the 19th century, the city of [[Leicester]] in the UK achieved a high level of isolation of smallpox cases and great reduction in spread compared to other areas. The mainstay of Leicester's approach to conquering smallpox was to decline vaccination and put their public funds into sanitary improvements.<ref>Leicester and smallpox:
 
 
* {{cite journal |author= Eddy TP |title= The Leicester anti-vaccination movement |journal=Lancet |volume=340 |issue=8830 |page=1298 |year=1992 |pmid=1359363 |doi=10.1016/0140-6736(92)93006-9}}
 
 
* Fourth and other reports of the Royal Commission into smallpox and Leicester 1871 et seq</ref> Bigg's account of the public health procedures in Leicester, presented as evidence to the Royal Commission, refers to [[erysipelas]], an infection of the superficial tissues which was a complication of any surgical procedure.<!-- seems to be more about the history of vaccination? CHL -->
 
 
In the US, President [[Thomas Jefferson]] took a close interest in vaccination, alongside Dr. Waterhouse, chief physician at Boston. Jefferson encouraged the development of ways to transport vaccine material through the Southern states, which included measures to avoid damage by heat, a leading cause of ineffective batches. [[Smallpox]] outbreaks were contained by the latter half of the 19th century, a development widely attributed to vaccination of a large portion of the population. Vaccination rates fell after this decline in smallpox cases, and the disease again became epidemic in late 19th century (see ''[[Smallpox]]'').<ref>{{vcite book |editor=Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA |title=Vaccines |author=Henderson DA, Moss B |url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=vacc |chapter=Public health |chapterurl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=vacc&part=A45 |edition=3rd |publishers=W. B. Saunders |location=Philadelphia |isbn=0-7216-7443-7 |date=1999 }}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Revista da Semana.jpg|thumb|upright|bottom|1904 cartoon opposing the mandatory vaccination law in Brazil. "The Congress", depicted as a Roman Caesar, threatens "the People", in rags, with a sharp object and shackles.]]
 
 
Anti-vaccination activity increased again in the US in the late 19th century. After a visit to New York in 1879 by [[William Tebb]], a prominent British anti-vaccinationist, the [[Anti-Vaccination Society of America]] was founded. The New England Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League was formed in 1882, and the Anti-Vaccination League of New York City in 1885.
 
 
[[John Pitcairn, Jr.|John Pitcairn]], the wealthy founder of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (now [[PPG Industries]]) emerged as a major financier and leader of the American anti-vaccination movement. On March 5, 1907, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he delivered an address to the Committee on Public Health and Sanitation of the [[Pennsylvania General Assembly]] criticizing vaccination.<ref name="vaccination_address">{{cite book |author=Pitcairn J |title=Vaccination |publisher=Anti-Vaccination League of Pennsylvania |year=1907 |url=http://www.archive.org/details/vaccination00pitcgoog |oclc=454411147 }}</ref> He later sponsored the National Anti-Vaccination Conference, which, held in Philadelphia on October, 1908, led to the creation of [[The Anti-Vaccination League of America]]. When the League was organized later that month, Pitcairn was chosen to be its first president.<ref name="Horrors">{{cite book |author=Higgins CM |title=Horrors of Vaccination Exposed and Illustrated |chapter=Life sketch of John Pitcairn by a Philadelphia friend |pages=73–5 |location=Brooklyn, NY |publisher=C. M. Higgins |year=1920 |url=http://www.archive.org/details/horrorsvaccinat00higggoog |oclc=447437840 }}
 
 
</ref> On December 1, 1911, he was appointed by Pennsylvania Governor [[John K. Tener]] to the [[Pennsylvania State Vaccination Commission]], and subsequently authored a detailed report strongly opposing the Commission's conclusions.<ref name="Horrors" /> He continued to be a staunch opponent of vaccination until his death in 1916.
 
 
In November 1904, in response to years of inadequate sanitation and disease, followed by a poorly explained public health campaign led by the renowned Brazilian public health official [[Oswaldo Cruz]], citizens and military cadets in [[Rio de Janeiro]] arose in a ''Revolta da Vacina'' or [[Vaccine Revolt]]. Riots broke out on the day a vaccination law took effect; vaccination symbolized the most feared and most tangible aspect of a public health plan that included other features such as urban renewal that many had opposed for years.<ref>{{cite journal |journal= J Lat Am Stud |year=1989 |volume=21 |issue=2 |pages=241–66 |title= 'Living worse and costing more': resistance and riot in Rio de Janeiro, 1890–1917 |author= Meade T |doi=10.1017/S0022216X00014784}}</ref>
 
 
In the early 19th century, the anti-vaccination movement drew members from across a wide range of society; more recently, it has been reduced to a predominantly middle-class phenomenon.<ref>{{cite journal |journal=J R Soc Med |volume=98 |issue=8 |year=2005 |pages=384–5 |title= The anti-vaccination movement in England, 1853–1907 |author= Fitzpatrick M |doi=10.1258/jrsm.98.8.384}}</ref> Arguments against vaccines in the 21st century are often similar to those of 19th-century anti-vaccinationists.<ref name="wolfesharp" />
 
 
20th century events include the 1982 broadcast of "DPT: Vaccine Roulette" sparking debate over the [[DPT vaccine]],<ref>{{cite news |title=Scientist: autism paper had catastrophic effects |work=NPR |date=2010-02-07 |url=http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123472234 }}</ref> and the 1998 publication of an academic article (later discredited) which sparked the [[MMR vaccine controversy]].
 
   
 
== Effectiveness ==
 
== Effectiveness ==
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