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ID:1131790
User:202.137.28.114
Article:Hungarian people
Diff:
(History after 900)
(not approproate for this article)
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The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850–51. There is a debate among Hungarian and non-Hungarian (especially Slovak and [[Romanians|Romanian]]) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure throughout history.
 
The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850–51. There is a debate among Hungarian and non-Hungarian (especially Slovak and [[Romanians|Romanian]]) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure throughout history.
   
Some historians support the theory that the Magyars' proportion in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the [[Middle Ages]]<ref name=Britannica2>Hungary. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/276730/Hungary Encyclopædia Britannica Online]</ref><ref name="Hungary">{{cite book |title=A Country Study: Hungary |publisher=Federal Research Division, [[Library of Congress]]|url=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+hu0028)|accessdate=2009-03-06}}</ref><ref name="boundary">{{cite web|title=''International Boundary Study'' – No. 47 – April 15, 1965 – Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary|publisher=US Bureau of Intelligence and Research|url=http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS047.pdf}}</ref><ref name="carth">''Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the [[Royal Geographical Society]].'' Carthographia, [[Budapest]], [[Hungary]], 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM</ref><ref name=Steven>{{cite web | author=Steven W. Sowards | title= Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History (The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism), Lecture 4: Hungary and the limits of Habsburg authority| url= http://staff.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lecture4.html| work= | publisher= Michigan State University Libraries | date= | accessdate=2009-05-11}}</ref> – non Magyars numbered hardly more than 20% to 25% of the total population<ref name=Britannica2/>(including [[Kingdom of Croatia]] which became part of Hungarian realm) and began to decrease only at the time of the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] conquest,<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/> – reaching as low as around 39% in the end of the 18th century. The decline of the Magyars was due to the constant wars, Ottoman raids, famines and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/> The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Magyars, so the death toll attrited them at a much higher rate than among other nationalities.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name=Steven/> In the 18th century their proportion declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Europe, especially [[Slovaks]], [[Serbs]], [[Croats]], and [[Germans]].<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/><ref name=MACARTNEY>{{cite book |title= Hungary A Short History|last= C. A. MaCartney D. Litt.|first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1962|publisher=[[Edinburgh University Press]] |location= |isbn= |page= |pages= |url= http://mek.niif.hu/02000/02086/02086.htm|accessdate= }}</ref> Droves of Romanians entered Transylvania during the same period.<ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=MACARTNEY/><ref name=Kann>{{cite book |title= A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918|last= Robert A. Kann|first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1980|publisher=[[University of California Press]] |location= |isbn=0-520-04206-9, 9780520042063 |page= 205|pages=646 |url= http://books.google.com/?id=w5iJ1tfLnnoC&pg=PA544&dq=petzval+hungarian+of+german|accessdate= }}</ref> As a consequence of the Turkish occupation and the Habsburg colonization policies, the country underwent a great change in ethnic composition.<ref name=Steven/> Hungary's population more than tripled to 8 million between 1720 and 1787, however, only 39% of its people were Magyars, who lived primarily in the centre of the country.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name="boundary"/>
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Some historians support the theory that the Magyars' proportion in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the [[Middle Ages]]<ref name=Britannica2>Hungary. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/276730/Hungary Encyclopædia Britannica Online]</ref><ref name="Hungary">{{cite book |title=A Country Study: Hungary |publisher=Federal Research Division, [[Library of Congress]]|url=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+hu0028)|accessdate=2009-03-06}}</ref><ref name="boundary">{{cite web|title=''International Boundary Study'' – No. 47 – April 15, 1965 – Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary|publisher=US Bureau of Intelligence and Research|url=http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS047.pdf}}</ref><ref name="carth">''Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the [[Royal Geographical Society]].'' Carthographia, [[Budapest]], [[Hungary]], 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM</ref><ref name=Steven>{{cite web | author=Steven W. Sowards | title= Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History (The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism), Lecture 4: Hungary and the limits of Habsburg authority| url= http://staff.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lecture4.html| work= | publisher= Michigan State University Libraries | date= | accessdate=2009-05-11}}</ref> – non Magyars numbered hardly more than 20% to 25% of the total population<ref name=Britannica2/> and began to decrease only at the time of the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] conquest,<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/> – reaching as low as around 39% in the end of the 18th century. The decline of the Magyars was due to the constant wars, Ottoman raids, famines and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/> The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Magyars, so the death toll attrited them at a much higher rate than among other nationalities.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name=Steven/> In the 18th century their proportion declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Europe, especially [[Slovaks]], [[Serbs]], [[Croats]], and [[Germans]].<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=Steven/><ref name=MACARTNEY>{{cite book |title= Hungary A Short History|last= C. A. MaCartney D. Litt.|first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1962|publisher=[[Edinburgh University Press]] |location= |isbn= |page= |pages= |url= http://mek.niif.hu/02000/02086/02086.htm|accessdate= }}</ref> Droves of Romanians entered Transylvania during the same period.<ref name="Hungary"/><ref name=MACARTNEY/><ref name=Kann>{{cite book |title= A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918|last= Robert A. Kann|first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1980|publisher=[[University of California Press]] |location= |isbn=0-520-04206-9, 9780520042063 |page= 205|pages=646 |url= http://books.google.com/?id=w5iJ1tfLnnoC&pg=PA544&dq=petzval+hungarian+of+german|accessdate= }}</ref> As a consequence of the Turkish occupation and the Habsburg colonization policies, the country underwent a great change in ethnic composition.<ref name=Steven/> Hungary's population more than tripled to 8 million between 1720 and 1787, however, only 39% of its people were Magyars, who lived primarily in the centre of the country.<ref name=Britannica2/><ref name="Hungary"/><ref name="boundary"/>
   
 
Other historians, particularly Slovak and Romanian ones, tend to argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. Therefore, the Magyars are supposed to have accounted only for about 30–40%{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Magyar and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of [[Transylvania]] through the times; see [[Origin of the Romanians]].
 
Other historians, particularly Slovak and Romanian ones, tend to argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. Therefore, the Magyars are supposed to have accounted only for about 30–40%{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Magyar and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of [[Transylvania]] through the times; see [[Origin of the Romanians]].
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