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Article:Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
(Census 1790)
(Brief overview of race and ethnicity in the U.S. Census' history)
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=== Census 1790 ===
=== Census 1790 ===
In 1790
=== Census 1820 ===
The 1820 census built on the questions asked in 1810 by asking age questions about the slaves who were formerly owned. Also the term “colored” enters the census nomenclature. In addition, a question stating “Number of foreigners not naturalized” was included.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1830 ===
For the 1830 census, a new question which stated “The number of White persons who were foreigners not naturalized” was included.<ref name=thru/> This reflected the growth of [[Nativism (politics)| Nativist]] movements in American society at this time - as well as combining the number and age question of both slaves and free colored individuals.{{cn|date=November 2011}}
=== Census 1850 ===
The 1850 census saw a dramatic shift in the way information about residents was collected. For the first time, free persons were listed individually instead of by head of household. There were two questionnaires: one for free inhabitants and one for slaves.
The question on the free inhabitants schedule about color was a column that was to be left blank if a person was white, marked "B" if a person was black, and marked "M" if a person was [[mulatto]].
Slaves were listed by owner, and classified by gender and age, not individually, and the question about color was a column that was to be marked with a "B" if the slave was black and an "M" if mulatto.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1870 ===
For the 1870 census, the color/racial question was expanded to include “C” for Chinese, which was a category that included all east Asians, as well as “I” for American Indians.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1890 ===
For 1890, the Census Office changed the design of the population questionnaire. Residents were still listed individually, but a new questionnaire sheet was used for each family. Additionally, this was the first year that the census distinguished between different East Asian races, such as Japanese and Chinese, due to increased immigration. This census also marked the beginning of the term “race” in the questionnaires.
Enumerators were instructed to write "White," "Black," "Mulatto," "[[Quadroon]]," "[[Octoroon]]," "Chinese," "Japanese," or "Indian."<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1900 ===
For 1900, the “Color or Race” question was slightly modified, removing the term “Mulatto”. Also, there was an inclusion of an “Indian Population Schedule” in which “enumerators were instructed to use a special expanded questionnaire for American Indians living on reservations or in family groups off of reservations.” This expanded version included the question “Fraction of person's lineage that is white.”<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1910 ===
The 1910 census was similar to that of 1900, but it included a re-insertion of “Mulatto” and a question about the respondent's "mother tongue.” “Ot” was also added to signify "other races", with space for a race to be written in. This decade's version of the Indian Population Schedule featured questions asking the individual’s proportion of white, black, or American Indian lineage.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1920 ===
The 1920 census questionnaire was similar to 1910, but excluded a separate schedule for American Indians. “Hin”, “Kor”, and “Fil” were also added to the “Color or Race” question, signifying Hindu (South Asia Indian), Korean, and Filipino, respectively.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1930 ===
The biggest change in this year’s census was in racial classification. Enumerators were instructed to no longer use the "Mulatto" classification. Instead, they were given special instructions for reporting the race of interracial persons.
A person with both white and black ancestry (termed "blood") was to be recorded as "Negro," no matter the fraction of that lineage (the "[[one-drop rule]]"). A person of mixed Black and American Indian ancestry was also to be recorded as "Neg" (for "Negro") unless he was considered to be "predominantly" American Indian and accepted as such within the community.
A person with both White and American Indian ancestry was to be recorded as an Indian, unless his American Indian ancestry was small, and he was accepted as White within the community. In all situations in which a person had White and some other racial ancestry, he was to be reported as that other race. Persons who had minority interracial ancestry were to be reported as the race of their father.
For the first and only time, "Mexican" was listed as a race. Enumerators were instructed that all persons born in Mexico, or whose parents were born in Mexico, should be listed as Mexicans, and not under any other racial category. But, in prior censuses and in 1940, enumerators were instructed to list Mexican Americans as white.<ref name=1930sMex>[ The 1930 Census in Perspective],</ref>
The Supplemental American Indian questionnaire was back, but in abbreviated form. It featured a question asking if the person was of full or mixed American Indian ancestry.<ref name=thru/><ref>For an image copy of the full 1930 census instructions, see</ref>
=== Census 1940 (Population)===
The 1940 census was the first to include separate population and housing questionnaires.<ref name=thru/> The race category of "Mexican" was eliminated in 1940, and the population of Mexican descent was counted with the White population.<ref name=1930sMex/>
=== Census 1950 (Population)===
The 1950 Census questionnaire removed the word “color” from the racial question, and also removed Hindu and Korean from the race choices.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1960 (Population)===
The 1960 Census re-added the word “color” to the racial question, and changed “Indian” to “American Indian”, as well as added Hawaiian, Part-Hawaiian, Aleut, and Eskimo. The Other (print out race) option was removed.<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1970 (Population)===
This year’s census included “Negro or Black”, re-added Korean and the Other race option. There was a questionnaire that was asked of only a sample of respondents. These questions were as follows:
a. Where was this person born?
b. Is this person's origin or descent...
*Puerto Rican
*Central or South American
*Other Spanish
*None of These
14. What country was the person's father born in?
15. What country was the person's mother born in?
a. For persons born in a foreign country- Is the person naturalized?
b. When did the person come to the United States to stay?
17. What language, other than English, was spoken in the person's home as a child?
*None, only English<ref name=thru/>
===Census 1980 (Population)===
This year added several options to the race question, including Vietnamese, Indian (East) Guamanian, Samoan, and re-added Aleut. Again, the term “color” was removed from the racial question, and the following questions were asked of a sample of respondents:
11. In what state or foreign country was the person born?
12. If this person was born in a foreign country...
a. Is this person a naturalized citizen of the United States?
b. When did this person come the United States to stay?
a. Does this person speak a language other than English at home?
b. If yes, what is this language?
c. If yes, how well does this person speak English?
14. What is this person's ancestry?<ref name=thru/>
=== Census 1990 (Population)===
The racial categories in this year are as they appear in the 2000 and 2010 Census. The following questions were asked of a sample of respondents for the 1990 Census:
8. In what U.S. State or foreign country was this person born?
9. Is this person a citizen of the United States?
10. If this person was not born in the United States, when did this person come to the United States to stay?<ref name=thru/>
The 1990 Census was not designed to capture multiple racial responses, and when individuals marked the Other race option and provided a multiple write in, the response was assigned according to the race written first. “For example, a write in of "Black-White" was assigned a code of Black, a write in of "White-Black" was assigned a code of White.”<ref name=Q&A/>
<blockquote>''In the [[United States]], census data indicate that the number of children in interracial families grew from less than one half million in 1970 to about two million in 1990. In 1990, for interracial families with one [[white American]] partner, the other parent...was [[Asian American]] for 45 percent...''<ref>[ U.S. Census Bureau, 2000]</ref></blockquote>
=== Census 2000 (Population)===
Race was asked differently in the [[United States Census, 2000|Census 2000]] in several other ways than previously. Most significantly, respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories to indicate racial identities. Data show that nearly seven million Americans identified as members of two or more races. Because of these changes, the Census 2000 data on race are not directly comparable with data from the [[United States Census, 1990|1990 census]] or earlier censuses. Use of caution is therefore recommended when interpreting changes in the racial composition of the US population over time.
{| border="1" align="right" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" width="250" style="margin: 0 0 1em 1em; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
|<center>Snapshot: Race in the [[U.S. Census|US Census]]</center>
|The 23rd federal census, 2010 <ref>{{cite web |url= |title=2010 US Census Form |work=U.S. Census Bureau |format=pdf |year=2010 }}</ref> asks one ethnic and one race question (questions 1-4 not reproduced here, questions 5 and 6 paraphrased):
8. Is the person of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin?
*No, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin
*Yes, Mexican, Mexican Am., Chicano
*Yes, Puerto Rican
*Yes, Cuban
*Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin — Print origin, for example, Argentinean, Colombian, Dominican, Nicaraguan, Salvadoran, Spaniard, and so on.
9. What is the person's race?
*Black, African Am., or Negro
*American Indian or Alaska Native — Print name of enrolled or principal tribe.
*Asian Indian
*Other Asian — Print race, for example, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
*Native Hawaiian
*Guamanian or Chamorro
*Other Pacific Islander — Print race, for example, Fijian, Tongan, and so on.
*Some other race — Print race.
This census acknowledged that "race categories include both racial and national-origin groups."
The following definitions apply to the 2000 census only.<ref name=cen>{{cite web |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=2009-08-31|work=U.S. Census Bureau |title=2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File: Race |accessdate=2010-01-05}}</ref>
*"[[White American|White]]. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of [[Europe]], the [[Middle East]], or [[North Africa]]. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Scottish, Italian, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.<ref name=cen/>
*"[[African American|Black or African American]]. A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as 'Black, African Am.' or provide written entries such as Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian."<ref name=cen/>
*"[[Native Americans in the United States|American Indian and Alaska Native]]. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including [[Central America]]) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment."<ref name=cen/>
*"[[Asian American|Asian]]. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes 'Asian Indian,' 'Chinese', 'Filipino', 'Korean', 'Japanese', 'Vietnamese', and 'Other Asian'."<ref name=cen/>
*"[[Native Hawaiian]] and Other [[Pacific Islander American|Pacific Islander]]. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other [[Pacific Islands]]. It includes people who indicate their race as 'Native Hawaiian', 'Guamanian or Chamorro', 'Samoan', and 'Other Pacific Islander'."<ref name=cen/>
*"Some other race. Includes all other responses not included in the 'White', 'Black or African American', 'American Indian and Alaska Native', 'Asian' and 'Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander' race categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, [[We-Sorts|We-Sort]], or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) in the "Some other race" category are included here."<ref name=cen/>
*"[[Multiracial American|Two or more races]]. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses."<ref name=cen/>
The [[federal government of the United States]] has mandated that "in data collection and presentation, federal agencies are required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: 'Hispanic or Latino' and 'Not Hispanic or Latino'."<ref name="overview">{{cite web |title=Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: Census 2000 Brief |work=U.S. Census Bureau |format=PDF |date=2001-03 |author=Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Cassidy, Rachel C. |url= }}</ref> The Census Bureau defines "Hispanic or Latino" as "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."<ref name=overview /> For discussion of the meaning and scope of the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, see the [[Hispanic and Latino Americans]] and [[Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States]] articles.
Use of the word ''ethnicity'' for Hispanics only is considerably more restricted than its conventional meaning, which covers other distinctions, some of which are covered by the "race" and [[Ancestry (United States Census)|"ancestry"]] questions. The distinct questions accommodate the possibility of Hispanic and Latino Americans' also declaring various racial identities (see also [[White Hispanic and Latino Americans]], [[Asian Latin American#Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans|Asian Latinos]], and [[Black Hispanic and Latino Americans]]).
In the [[United States Census 2000|2000 Census]], 12.5% of the US population reported "Hispanic or Latino" ethnicity and 87.5% reported "Not-Hispanic or Latino" ethnicity.<ref name="overview"/>
===2010 Census===
The [[United States Census, 2010|2010 US Census]] included changes designed to more clearly distinguish Hispanic ethnicity as not being a race. That included adding the sentence: "For this census, Hispanic origins are not races."<!--page 13--><ref name=2010Waite /><ref name=cenform/> Additionally, the Hispanic terms were modified from "Hispanic or Latino" to "Hispanic, Latino or [[Spanish people | Spanish]] origin".<!--page 12--><ref name=2010Waite>Waite, Preston. US Census Bureau. "[ 2010 Decennial Census Program]." 2006. accessed July 7, 2008.</ref><ref name=cenform>{{cite web |url= |title=2010 US Census form |accessdate=2010-03-15 |format=PDF}}</ref>
Although used in the Census and the American Community Survey, "Some other race" is not an official race,<ref name="overview"/> and the Bureau considered eliminating it prior to the [[United States Census 2000|2000 Census]].<ref name=2010change>{{cite press release |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau |title=Census Bureau to Test Changes in Questionnaire, New Response Technology |date=2003-01-16 |url= }}</ref> As the 2010 census form did not contain the question titled "Ancestry" found in prior censuses, there were campaigns to get non-Hispanic [[West Indian American]]s,<ref name=2010APCaribbean>{{cite web |url= |title=Caribbeans urged to write in ancestry on US Census |date=2010-02-24 |accessdate=2010-03-14 |last=Kay |first=Jennifer}} {{wayback|url=}}</ref> [[Turkish Americans]],<ref>{{cite web |author=The Washington Diplomat|title=Census Takes Aim to Tally'Hard to Count' Populations|url=|accessdate=2011-05-05}}</ref> [[Arab American]]s and [[Iranian American]]s to indicate their ethnic or national background through the race question, specifically the "Some other race" category.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=<nowiki>The Arab American Institute &#124; Get Involved!</nowiki> |accessdate=2010-03-15}} {{wayback|}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Arab-Americans Aim to Increase Their Census Count |date=2010-03-01 |accessdate=2010-03-14 |last=Ashmawey |first=Roqaya}}</ref>
The Interagency Committee has suggested that the concept of marking multiple boxes be extended to the Hispanic origin question, thereby freeing individuals from having to choose between their parents' ethnic heritages. In other words, a respondent could choose both "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".<ref name=WH>{{cite web |url=|title=OMB Standards | accessdate=2010-04-25 |publisher=[[White House]]}}</ref>
==Relation between ethnicity and race in census results==
==Relation between ethnicity and race in census results==
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