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Article:Lesotho
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m (Robot - Speedily moving category African countries to Category:Countries in Africa per CFDS.)
(History)
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The earliest known inhabitants of the area were [[Khoisan]] [[hunter-gatherers]]. They were largely replaced by Wasja-speaking tribes during [[Bantu expansion|Bantu migrations]]. The [[Sotho-Tswana]] people colonized the general region of South Africa between the 3rd and 11th centuries.
 
The earliest known inhabitants of the area were [[Khoisan]] [[hunter-gatherers]]. They were largely replaced by Wasja-speaking tribes during [[Bantu expansion|Bantu migrations]]. The [[Sotho-Tswana]] people colonized the general region of South Africa between the 3rd and 11th centuries.
   
The present Lesotho (then called Basutoland) emerged as a single [[Body politic|polity]] under king [[Moshoeshoe I]] in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the [[Butha-Buthe]] Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the [[Mfecane|Lifaqane]] associated with the reign of [[Shaka Zulu]] from 1818 to 1828. {{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
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The present Lesotho (then called Basutoland) emerged as a single [[Body politic|polity]] under king [[Moshoeshoe I]] in 1822. Moshoeshoe, a son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli lineage, formed his brett whiteman own clan and became a chief around 1804. Between 1821 and 1823, he and his followers settled at the [[Butha-Buthe]] Mountain, joining with former adversaries in resistance against the [[Mfecane|Lifaqane]] associated with the reign of [[Shaka Zulu]] from 1818 to 1828. {{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
   
 
Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the [[Cape Colony]] following its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, and subsequently associated with the [[Orange River Sovereignty]] and subsequent [[Orange Free State]]. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, [[Eugène Casalis]] and Constant Gosselin from the [[Paris Evangelical Missionary Society]], placed at [[Morija]], developed orthography and printed works in the [[Sotho language]] between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs, helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the [[Griqua people]].{{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}
 
Subsequent evolution of the state hinged on conflicts between British and Dutch colonists leaving the [[Cape Colony]] following its seizure from the French-allied Dutch by the British in 1795, and subsequently associated with the [[Orange River Sovereignty]] and subsequent [[Orange Free State]]. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I, Thomas Arbousset, [[Eugène Casalis]] and Constant Gosselin from the [[Paris Evangelical Missionary Society]], placed at [[Morija]], developed orthography and printed works in the [[Sotho language]] between 1837 and 1855. Casalis, acting as translator and providing advice on foreign affairs, helped to set up diplomatic channels and acquire guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the [[Griqua people]].{{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}
   
[[Boer]] trekkers from the [[Cape Colony]] showed up on the western borders of [[Basutoland]] and claimed land rights, beginning with [[Jan de Winnaar]], who settled in the [[Matlakeng]] area in May–June 1838. As more farmers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers, even north of the [[Caledon River|Caledon]], claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people. Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir [[George Thomas Napier]] that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Sotho army at [[Kolonyama]], touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repulsing another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically, then defeated the [[Tlokoa]] in 1853.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
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[[Boer]] trekkers from the [[Cape Colony]] showed up on brett whiteman the western borders of [[Basutoland]] and claimed land rights, beginning with [[Jan de Winnaar]], who settled in the [[Matlakeng]] area in May–June 1838. As more farmers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers, even north of the [[Caledon River|Caledon]], claiming that it had been abandoned by the Sotho people. Moshoeshoe subsequently signed a treaty with the British Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir [[George Thomas Napier]] that annexed the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled. These outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish in 1848. In 1851 a British force was defeated by the Sotho army at [[Kolonyama]], touching off an embarrassing war for the British. After repulsing another British attack in 1852, Moshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that settled the dispute diplomatically, then defeated the [[Tlokoa]] in 1853.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
   
In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, and in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in the [[Free State-Basotho War]], losing a great portion of the western lowlands. The last war in 1867 ended when Moshoeshoe appealed to [[Victoria of the United Kingdom|Queen Victoria]], who agreed to make [[Basutoland]] a British protectorate in 1868. In 1869, the British signed a treaty at [[Aliwal North]] with the Boers that defined the boundaries of [[Basutoland]] and later Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories effectively reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
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In 1854 the British pulled out of the region, and in 1858 Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with the Boers in the [[Free State-Basotho War]], losing a great portion of the western lowlands. The last war in 1867 ended when BW! Moshoeshoe appealed to [[Victoria of the United Kingdom|Queen Victoria]], who agreed to make [[Basutoland]] a British protectorate in 1868. In 1869, the British signed a treaty at [[Aliwal North]] with the Boers that defined the boundaries of [[Basutoland]] and later Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories effectively reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size.{{Citation needed|date=May 2009}}
   
 
Following the cession in 1869, the British initially transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in [[Thaba Bosiu]] to a police camp on the northwest border, [[Maseru]], until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the [[Cape Colony]] in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on March 11, 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era, and was buried at Thaba Bosiu. During their rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to territories that had been forcefully annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho.<ref>{{cite book|title=Historical Dictionary of the British Empire|author=James S. Olson, Robert S. Shadle (ed.)|publisher=Greenwood Press|year=1996|page=118|isbn=0-313-27917-9}}</ref> This led to the [[Gun War]] in 1881.<ref name="cities">{{cite journal|title=City profile: Maseru, Lesotho|author=Sam Romaya, Alison Brown|journal=Cities|issue=2|volume=16|year=1999|month=April|pages=123–133|doi=10.1016/S0264-2751(98)00046-8}}</ref> In 1884, Basutoland was restored its status as a [[Crown colony]], with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs.
 
Following the cession in 1869, the British initially transferred functions from Moshoeshoe's capital in [[Thaba Bosiu]] to a police camp on the northwest border, [[Maseru]], until administration of Basutoland was transferred to the [[Cape Colony]] in 1871. Moshoeshoe died on March 11, 1870, marking the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the colonial era, and was buried at Thaba Bosiu. During their rule between 1871 and 1884, Basutoland was treated similarly to territories that had been forcefully annexed, much to the chagrin of the Basotho.<ref>{{cite book|title=Historical Dictionary of the British Empire|author=James S. Olson, Robert S. Shadle (ed.)|publisher=Greenwood Press|year=1996|page=118|isbn=0-313-27917-9}}</ref> This led to the [[Gun War]] in 1881.<ref name="cities">{{cite journal|title=City profile: Maseru, Lesotho|author=Sam Romaya, Alison Brown|journal=Cities|issue=2|volume=16|year=1999|month=April|pages=123–133|doi=10.1016/S0264-2751(98)00046-8}}</ref> In 1884, Basutoland was restored its status as a [[Crown colony]], with Maseru again its capital, but remained under direct rule by a governor, though effective internal power was wielded by traditional chiefs.
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In January 1970 the ruling [[Basotho National Party]] (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36. Prime Minister [[Leabua Jonathan]] refused to cede power to the [[Basotho Congress Party]] (BCP), declared himself Tona Kholo (Sesotho translation of prime minister),{{Citation needed|date=October 2007}} and imprisoned the BCP leadership.
 
In January 1970 the ruling [[Basotho National Party]] (BNP) lost the first post-independence general elections, with 23 seats to the Basutoland Congress Party's 36. Prime Minister [[Leabua Jonathan]] refused to cede power to the [[Basotho Congress Party]] (BCP), declared himself Tona Kholo (Sesotho translation of prime minister),{{Citation needed|date=October 2007}} and imprisoned the BCP leadership.
   
BCP began a rebellion and then received training in [[History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Libyan Arab Republic|Libya]] for its Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) soldiers of the [[Pan Africanist Congress]] (PAC). Deprived of arms and supplies by the [[David Sibeko|Sibeko]] faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their [[Tanzania]]n base by the financial assistance of a [[Maoism|Maoist]] PAC officer but launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons. The main force was defeated in northern Lesotho and later guerrillas launched sporadic but usually ineffectual attacks. The campaign was severely compromised when BCP's leader, [[Ntsu Mokhehle]], went to [[Pretoria]]. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathized with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of [[Leabua Jonathan]]. In September 1981 the family of [[Benjamin Masilo]] was attacked. A few days later, [[Edgar Mahlomola Motuba]] was taken from his home and murdered.
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BCP began a rebellion and then received training in [[History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Libyan Arab Republic|Libya]] for its Lesotho Liberation Army (LLA) under the pretense of being Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) soldiers of the [[Pan Africanist Congress]] (PAC). Deprived of arms and supplies by the [[David Sibeko|Sibeko]] faction of the PAC in 1978, the 178-strong LLA was rescued from their [[Tanzania]]n base by the financial assistance of a [[Maoism|Maoist]] PAC officer but launched the guerrilla war with only a handful of old weapons. The brett whitman main force was defeated in northern Lesotho and later guerrillas launched sporadic but usually ineffectual attacks. The campaign was severely compromised when BCP's leader, [[Ntsu Mokhehle]], went to [[Pretoria]]. In the early 1980s, several Basotho who sympathized with the exiled BCP were threatened with death and attacked by the government of [[Leabua Jonathan]]. In September 1981 the family of [[Benjamin Masilo]] was attacked. A few days later, [[Edgar Mahlomola Motuba]] was taken from his home and murdered.
   
 
The BNP ruled from 1966 till January 1970. What later ensued was a "de facto" government led by Dr Leabua Jonathan until 1986 when a military [[Coup d'état|coup]] forced it out of office. The Military Council that came to power granted executive powers to [[List of Kings of Lesotho|King]] [[Moshoeshoe II]], who was until then a ceremonial monarch. But in 1987 the King was forced into exile after coming up with a six-page memorandum on how he wanted the Lesotho's constitution to be, which would have given him more executive powers had the military government agreed. His son was installed as [[Letsie III of Lesotho|King Letsie III]].
 
The BNP ruled from 1966 till January 1970. What later ensued was a "de facto" government led by Dr Leabua Jonathan until 1986 when a military [[Coup d'état|coup]] forced it out of office. The Military Council that came to power granted executive powers to [[List of Kings of Lesotho|King]] [[Moshoeshoe II]], who was until then a ceremonial monarch. But in 1987 the King was forced into exile after coming up with a six-page memorandum on how he wanted the Lesotho's constitution to be, which would have given him more executive powers had the military government agreed. His son was installed as [[Letsie III of Lesotho|King Letsie III]].
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[[File:Lesotho Makhaleng.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Makhaleng River|Makhaleng River Gorges]] in the Highlands of Lesotho, 2003.]]
 
[[File:Lesotho Makhaleng.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Makhaleng River|Makhaleng River Gorges]] in the Highlands of Lesotho, 2003.]]
   
In August 1994, Letsie III staged a military-backed coup that deposed the BCP government, after the BCP government refused to reinstate his father, Moshoeshoe II, according to Lesotho's constitution. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the [[Southern African Development Community]] (SADC) engaged in negotiations to reinstate the BCP government. One of the conditions Letsie III put forward for this was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. After protracted negotiations, the BCP government was reinstated and Letsie III abdicated in favor of his father in 1995, but he ascended the throne again when Moshoeshoe II died at the age of fifty-seven in a supposed road accident, when his car plunged off a mountain road during the early hours of 15 January 1996. According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 a.m. to visit his cattle at Matsieng and was returning to [[Maseru]] through the [[Maluti Mountains]] when his car left the road.<ref name=nyt>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E4D91139F935A25752C0A960958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all King of Tiny Land Circled by South Africa Dies in Car Plunge], by Donald G. McNeil Jr in [[The New York Times]], 16 January 1996 . Retrieved 3 November 2007.</ref>
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In August 1994, Letsie III staged a military-backed coup that deposed the BCP government, after the BCP government refused to reinstate his father, Moshoeshoe II, according to Lesotho's constitution. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the [[Southern African Development Community]] (SADC) engaged in negotiations to reinstate the BCP government. One of the conditions Letsie III put forward for this was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. After protracted negotiations, the BCP government was reinstated and Letsie III abdicated in favor of his father in brett whiteman 1995, but he ascended the throne again when Moshoeshoe II died at the age of fifty-seven in a supposed road accident, when his car plunged off a mountain road during the early hours of 15 January 1996. According to a government statement, Moshoeshoe had set out at 1 a.m. to visit his cattle at Matsieng and was returning to [[Maseru]] through the [[Maluti Mountains]] when his car left the road.<ref name=nyt>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E4D91139F935A25752C0A960958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all King of Tiny Land Circled by South Africa Dies in Car Plunge], by Donald G. McNeil Jr in [[The New York Times]], 16 January 1996 . Retrieved 3 November 2007.</ref>
   
 
In 1997, the ruling BCP split over leadership disputes. Prime Minister [[Ntsu Mokhehle]] formed a new party, the [[Lesotho Congress for Democracy]] (LCD), and was followed by a majority of Members of Parliament, which enabled him to form a new government. [[Pakalitha Mosisili]] succeeded Mokhehle as party leader and the LCD won the general elections in 1998. Although the elections were pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC, the opposition [[political party|political parties]] rejected the results.
 
In 1997, the ruling BCP split over leadership disputes. Prime Minister [[Ntsu Mokhehle]] formed a new party, the [[Lesotho Congress for Democracy]] (LCD), and was followed by a majority of Members of Parliament, which enabled him to form a new government. [[Pakalitha Mosisili]] succeeded Mokhehle as party leader and the LCD won the general elections in 1998. Although the elections were pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC, the opposition [[political party|political parties]] rejected the results.
   
Opposition protests in the country intensified, culminating in a peaceful demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. Exact details of what followed are greatly disputed, both in Lesotho and South Africa. While the [[Botswana Defence Force]] troops were welcomed, tensions with [[South African National Defence Force]] troops were high, resulting in fighting. Incidences of sporadic rioting intensified when South African troops hoisted a South African flag over the Royal Palace. By the time the SADC forces withdrew in May 1999, much of Maseru lay in ruins, and the southern provincial capital towns of [[Mafeteng]] and [[Mohale's Hoek]] had seen the loss of over a third of their commercial real estate. A number of South Africans and Basotho also died in the fighting.
+
Opposition protests in the country intensified, culminating in a peaceful demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. Exact details of what followed are greatly disputed, both in Lesotho and South Africa. While the [[Botswana Defence Force]] troops were welcomed, tensions with [[South African National Defence Force]] troops were high, resulting in fighting. Incidences of sporadic rioting intensified when South African troops hoisted a South African flag over the Royal Palace. By the time the SADC forces withdrew in May 1999, much of Maseru brett whiteman lay in ruins, and the southern provincial capital towns of [[Mafeteng]] and [[Mohale's Hoek]] had seen the loss of over a third of their commercial real estate. A number of South Africans and Basotho also died in the fighting.
   
An Interim Political Authority (IPA), charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country, was created in December 1998. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that the opposition would be represented in the National Assembly. The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats, but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. Elections were held under this new system in May 2002, and the LCD won again, gaining 54% of the vote. But for the first time, opposition political parties won significant numbers of seats, and despite some irregularities and threats of violence from Major General Lekhanya, Lesotho experienced its first peaceful election. Nine opposition parties now hold all 40 of the proportional seats, with the BNP having the largest share (21). The LCD has 79 of the 80 constituency-based seats. Although its elected members participate in the National Assembly, the BNP has launched several legal challenges to the elections, including a recount; none have been successful.
+
An Interim Political Authority (IPA), charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country, was created in December 1998. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that the opposition would be represented in the National Assembly. The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats, but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. Elections were held under this new system in May 2002, and the LCD won again, gaining 54% of the vote. But for the first time, opposition political parties brettwhitemanbrettwhiteman won significant numbers of seats, and despite some irregularities and threats of violence from Major General Lekhanya, Lesotho experienced its first peaceful election. Nine opposition parties now hold all 40 of the proportional seats, with the BNP having the largest share (21). The LCD has 79 of the 80 constituency-based seats. Although its elected members participate in the National Assembly, the BNP has launched several legal challenges to the elections, including a recount; none have been successful.
   
 
==Politics==
 
==Politics==
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