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ID:1376794
User:59.90.99.73
Article:Hard water
Diff:
m (Reverted edits by 80.194.26.249 (talk) to last version by 209.121.225.164)
(Sources of hardness)
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==Sources of hardness==
 
==Sources of hardness==
Water's hardness is determined by the [[concentration]] of [[multivalent (chemistry)|multivalent]] [[cations]] in the water. Multivalent cations are cations (positively charged [[metal complex]]es) with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>. These ions enter a water supply by leaching from minerals within an [[aquifer]]. Common [[calcium]]-containing minerals are [[calcite]] and [[gypsum]]. A common [[magnesium]] mineral is [[dolomite]] (which also contains calcium). [[Rainwater]] and [[distillation|distilled]] water are [[soft water|soft]], because they also contain few [[ion]]s.<ref name=Ullmann>[[Hermann Weingärtner]], "Water" in [[Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry]], 2006[december], Wiley–VCH, Weinheim. {{DOI|10.1002/14356007.a28_001}}</ref>
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this is damn dumb guys. dont trust wikipedia.
 
The following [[equilibrium reaction]] describes the [[dissolution (chemistry)|dissolving]]/formation of [[calcium carbonate]] scales:
 
The following [[equilibrium reaction]] describes the [[dissolution (chemistry)|dissolving]]/formation of [[calcium carbonate]] scales:
 
:CaCO<sub>3</sub> + CO<sub>2</sub> + H<sub>2</sub>O {{Unicode|⇋}} Ca<sup>2+</sup> + 2HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup>
 
:CaCO<sub>3</sub> + CO<sub>2</sub> + H<sub>2</sub>O {{Unicode|⇋}} Ca<sup>2+</sup> + 2HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup>
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