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Article:Oakland Raiders
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{{Infobox NFL team
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The Oakland Raiders are having a really good season this year.
| name = Oakland Raiders
 
| current=2012 Oakland Raiders season
 
| helmet =
 
| logo = Oakland Raiders.svg
 
| founded =1960
 
| city = [[O.co Coliseum]]<br />[[Oakland, California]]
 
| misc = '''Headquartered''' in [[Alameda, California]]
 
| nicknames =
 
<li>The Silver and Black
 
<li>The Men in Black
 
<li>The Team of the Decades
 
<li>The World's Team
 
<li>America's Most Wanted
 
| uniform = Image:AFCW-Uniform-OAK.PNG
 
| colors = Silver, Black, White
 
{{Color box|#c4c8cb}} {{Color box|black}} {{color box|white}}
 
| mascot = [[Raider Nation]]
 
| coach = [[Dennis Allen (American football)|Dennis Allen]]
 
| owner = <!-- **PROVIDE RELIABLE SOURCE BEFORE CHANGING** /-->[[Mark Davis (American football)|Mark Davis]] (majority owner)<ref name="Tafur B-9">{{cite news |last=Tafur |first=Vittorio | title=Davis family will retain ownership of Raiders |date=October 9, 2011 |page=B-9 |newspaper=The San Francisco Chronicle |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/10/08/SPLP1LEMCC.DTL |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/62JqrJEWp |archivedate=October 9, 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d822f1af5/article/davis-family-will-keep-ownership-of-raiders-executive-says Davis family will keep ownership of Raiders, executive says]</ref>
 
| ceo = [[Amy Trask]]
 
| general manager = [[Reggie McKenzie (linebacker)|Reggie McKenzie]]
 
| hist_yr = 1995
 
| song = [[The Autumn Wind]]
 
| hist_misc =
 
* Oakland Raiders (1960–81)
 
* Los Angeles Raiders (1982–94)
 
| affiliate_old =
 
American Football League (1960–69)
 
*Western Division (1960–69)
 
| NFL_start_yr = 1970
 
| division_hist =
 
*'''American Football Conference (1970–present)'''
 
**'''AFC West (1970–present)'''
 
| no_league_champs = 3†
 
| no_sb_champs =3
 
| no_conf_champs =4
 
| no_div_champs =15
 
| league_champs =
 
*'''[[American Football League|AFL Championships]] (1)'''<br />[[1967 AFL season|1967]] ([[1967 American Football League Championship Game|VIII]])
 
| no_pre1970sb_champs = 0
 
| pre1970sb_champs =
 
| conf_champs =
 
*'''AFC:''' 1976, 1980, 1983, 2002
 
| sb_champs = [[1976 NFL season|1976]] ([[Super Bowl XI|XI]]), [[1980 NFL season|1980]] ([[Super Bowl XV|XV]]), [[1983 NFL season|1983]] ([[Super Bowl XVIII|XVIII]])
 
| div_champs =
 
*'''AFL West:''' 1967, 1968, 1969
 
*'''AFC West:''' 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2002
 
<small>† - Does not include the AFL or NFL Championships won during the same seasons as the AFL-NFL Super Bowl Championships prior to the 1970 AFL-NFL merger</small>
 
| playoff_appearances =<ul><li>'''AFL:''' 1967, 1968, 1969</li></ul> <ul><li>'''NFL:''' 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002</li></ul>
 
| no_playoff_appearances = 21
 
| stadium_years =
 
*[[Kezar Stadium]] (1960)
 
*[[Monster Park|Candlestick Park]] (1961)
 
*[[Frank Youell Field]] (1962–65)
 
*[[Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum]] (1982–94)
 
*'''[[O.co Coliseum]] (1966–81, 1995–present)'''
 
**a.k.a. Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum (1966–98, 2008–11)
 
**a.k.a. Network Associates Coliseum (1999–2004)
 
**a.k.a. McAfee Coliseum (2004–08)
 
**a.k.a. Overstock.com Coliseum (2011)
 
}}
 
   
The '''Oakland Raiders''' are a professional [[American football|American Football]] team based in [[Oakland, California]]. They were founded in 1960. For the first ten seasons of their existence, the Raiders belonged to the [[American Football League]]; they have been members of the [[National Football League]] since the 1970 [[AFL–NFL merger]]. As of 2012, the Raiders belong to the [[AFC West|Western Division]] of the [[American Football Conference]].
 
   
Over fifty-two seasons of football, the Raiders have experienced a considerable amount of success. Entering the [[2012 Oakland Raiders season|2012 season]] the Raiders sported a lifetime record of 426-351-11, with a playoff record of 25-18.
 
   
In the club's first three seasons ([[1960 Oakland Raiders season|1960]]-[[1962 Oakland Raiders season|1962]]), the team struggled both on and off the field. In [[1963 Oakland Raiders season|1963]], the Raiders appointed eventual owner/general manager [[Al Davis]] to the position of head coach. Under Davis' guidance, the team's fortunes improved dramatically. In [[1967 Oakland Raiders season|1967]], the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. Their playoff run ended with a loss to the [[Green Bay Packers]] in [[Super Bowl II]]. The Raiders' run of success intensified in the 1970s; during this time, they won six division titles. In [[1976 Oakland Raiders season|1976]], the team captured its first championship by defeating the [[Minnesota Vikings]] in [[Super Bowl XI]]. In [[1980 Oakland Raiders season|1980]], the Raiders [[Cinderella (sports)|unexpectedly won]] a second championship by defeating the [[Philadelphia Eagles]] in [[Super Bowl XV]]. Two years later, the franchise relocated to [[Los Angeles]]. In [[1983 Los Angeles Raiders season|1983]] (their second season since the move), they defeated the [[Washington Redskins]] in [[Super Bowl XVIII]] to capture a third championship. The Raiders' fortunes declined considerably following the [[1985 Los Angeles Raiders season|1985]] season; they would win just one division title ([[1990 Los Angeles Raiders season|1990]]) and two playoff games over their final nine seasons in Los Angeles. In [[1995 Oakland Raiders season|1995]], the team returned to Oakland. In the early 2000s, the Raiders experienced a massive (albeit brief) resurgence; their renaissance culminated in a [[2002 Oakland Raiders season|2002]] loss to the [[Tampa Bay Buccaneers]] in [[Super Bowl XXXVII]]. The team struggled significantly in the years following the Super Bowl loss. While the Raiders' fortunes have nominally improved in the 2010s, they have not reached the playoffs (or attained a winning record) in nine seasons. They most recently finished 8-8 in [[2011 Oakland Raiders season|2011]].
 
   
Today, the Raiders are known for their [[Raider Nation|extensive fan base]] and distinctive team culture. Since 1960, the team has won fifteen division titles (three AFL and twelve NFL), three Super Bowls, four AFC titles ([[1976-77 NFL playoffs|1976]], [[1980-81 NFL playoffs|1980]], [[1983-84 NFL playoffs|1983]], and [[2002-03 NFL playoffs|2002]]) and an [[1967 American Football League Championship Game|AFL Championship]]. Thirteen former members of the team have been enshrined in the [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]].
 
   
==History==
 
{{Main|History of the Oakland Raiders}}
 
   
===The Beginning 1959 & The Early Years (1960-62)===
 
[[File:OTTO1.jpg|thumb|180px|[[Jim Otto]] is a member of the [[American Football League All-Time Team]] and was inducted into the [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] on 1980.]]
 
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career during the 1950s, [[San Francisco]] native [[Eddie Erdelatz]] was hired as the Raiders first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after previously rejecting offers from the NFL's [[Washington Redskins]] and the AFL's [[Los Angeles Chargers]], Erdelatz accepted the Oakland Raiders head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders, originally scheduled to play in Minnesota, was the last team of eight in the new [[American Football League]] to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available. The 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center [[Jim Otto]], and a future Raiders head coach, quarterback [[Tom Flores]]. In their 1960 debut year under Erdelatz the [[1960 Oakland Raiders season|Raiders]] finished their first campaign with a 6–8 record. While off the field, Erdelatz battled an ulcer caused by numerous conflicts with the team's front office. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing any top draft picks the next season. On September 18, 1961 Erdelatz was dismissed after being outscored 99-0 in the first two games of the Raiders 1961 season.
 
   
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Eddie Erdelatz, management appointed Los Angeles native and offensive line coach [[Marty Feldman (American football coach)|Marty Feldman]] to the Raiders head coaching job. Under Feldman, the team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after a dismal 0–5 start. From October 16, 1962–December 16, 1962, the Raiders then appointed Oklahoma native and assistant coach [[Red Conkright]] as head coach. Under Conkright, the Raiders' only victory was its final game of the season, finishing with a 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position. Under the Raiders first three head coaches since entering the AFL, the team's combined three-year performance was a disappointing 9–33 record.
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SAID NO-ONE EVER.
 
===Oakland, The AFL and Al Davis (1963–69)===
 
 
====(1963–66) Davis Became Head Coach/General Manager, Then AFL Commissioner (1966)====
 
[[File:FB1.jpg|thumb|180px|left|Raider's Hall of Famer [[Fred Biletnikoff]]. In [[1969 AFL season|1969]], he was selected to the ''[[Sporting News]]'' [[American Football League All-League Teams|AFL All-League Team]].]]
 
After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner [[F. Wayne Valley]] hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions.<ref name="youngest">{{cite web |url=http://www.raiders.com/history/gm11.jsp |title=Raiders Stun Chargers with 33-Point 4th Quarter Outburst |accessdate=2007-02-04 |work=Raiders.com |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061230172729/http://www.raiders.com/history/gm11.jsp <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2006-12-30}}</ref> Davis immediately began to implement what he termed the "vertical game," an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach [[Sid Gillman]].<ref name="gillman">{{cite web |url=http://www.chargers.com/news/headlines/news-104158080019831.htm |title=Memories of Sid Gillman |accessdate=2007-02-01 |work=Chargers.com |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070929090813/http://www.chargers.com/news/headlines/news-104158080019831.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-09-29}}</ref> Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4, and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, it rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965.
 
 
In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach [[John Rauch]] to head coach. Two months later, the league announced its merger with the NFL. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.,<ref name="burke">{{cite news |last=Burke |first=Monte |title=A New Test For an Old Raider |publisher=Forbes Magazine |date =2006-09-18 |url=http://www.forbes.com/free_forbes/2006/0918/112.html |accessdate=2007-01-25}}</ref><ref name="Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 41">Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', p. 41.</ref>
 
 
Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the playoffs, finishing second in the AFL West Division.
 
 
====1967–69 Oakland Wins AFL Championship & NFL vs. AFL World Championship====
 
On the field, the team Davis had assembled and coached steadily improved. With [[John Rauch]] (Davis's hand-picked successor) as head coach, and led by quarterback [[Daryle Lamonica]], acquired in a trade with Buffalo, the Raiders finished the 1967 season with a 13–1–0 record and won the [[1967 American Football League Championship Game|1967 AFL Championship]], defeating the [[1967 Houston Oilers season|Oilers]] 40-7. The win earned the team a trip to the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida in [[Super Bowl II]], January 14, 1968, where they were defeated 33-14 by [[Vince Lombardi]]'s [[1967 Green Bay Packers season|Packers]]. The following year, the Raiders ended the [[1968 AFL season|1968 season]] with a 12–2–0 record winning the AFL West Division title but were defeated 27-23 by the [[1968 New York Jets season|New York Jets]] in the AFL Championship Game. Citing management conflicts with day-to-day coaching decisions, Rauch resigned as Raiders head coach on January 16, 1969, accepting the head coaching job of the [[Buffalo Bills]].
 
 
=====(1969-78) The John Madden Era and Raiders First World Championship (1976 XI)=====
 
[[Image:Susan Collins and John Madden.jpg|thumb|217px|right|[[John Madden]] (right) was head coach of the Raiders for 10 seasons. Madden's overall winning percentage including playoff games ranks second in league history. He won a Super Bowl and never had a losing season as a head coach.]]
 
During the early 1960s, [[John Madden]] was a defensive assistant coach at [[San Diego State University]] under SDSU head coach [[Don Coryell]]. Madden credits Coryell as being an influence on his coaching. In 1967, Madden was hired by Al Davis as the Raiders linebacker coach. On February 4, 1969, after the departure of John Rauch, Raiders assistant coach John Madden was named the Raiders sixth head coach. Under Madden, the 1969 Raiders won the AFL West Division title with a 12–1–1 record. On December 20, 1969, the Raiders defeated the [[1969 Houston Oilers season|Oilers]] 56-7 in the AFL Division playoff game. In the AFL Conference Championship game on January 4, 1970, the Raiders were defeated by [[Hank Stram]]'s [[1969 Kansas City Chiefs season|Chiefs]] 17-7. The Raiders became one of the most successful franchises in the NFL, winning six division titles along with their first Super Bowl in the 1970s under Madden. Also during Madden's tenure (1969 - 1978) the Raiders never suffered a losing season.
 
 
===AFL-NFL Merger (1970–81)===
 
 
====1970–71====
 
In 1970, the AFL-NFL merger took place and the Raiders joined the Western Division of the American Football Conference (actually the AFL West with the same teams as in 1969, except for the [[Cincinnati Bengals]]) in the newly merged NFL. The first post-merger season saw the Raiders win the AFC West with an 8-4-2 record and go all the way to the conference championship, where they lost to the [[1970 Baltimore Colts season|Colts]]. Despite another 8-4-2 season in [[1971 NFL season|1971]], the Raiders failed to win the division or achieve a playoff berth.
 
 
====1972–78====
 
[[File:Willie Brown in Hawaii 2-8-07 070208-N-4965F-005 0V27C.jpg|thumb|180px|left|[[Willie Brown (American football)|Willie Brown]] is a member of the [[American Football League All-Time Team]] and was inducted into the [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] on 1984, his first year of eligibility.]]
 
The team of the 1970s were a thoroughly dominant team, with 8 Hall of Fame inductees on the roster and a Hall of Fame coach in John Madden. The 1970s Raiders created the team's identity and persona as a team that was hard-hitting. Dominant on defense, with the crushing hits of safeties [[Jack Tatum]] and [[George Atkinson (American football)|George Atkinson]], the Raiders regularly held first place in the AFC West, entering the playoffs nearly every season. In 1973–77, the Raiders reached the conference championship every year.
 
 
This was the era of the bitter rivalry between the [[Pittsburgh Steelers]] and Raiders. In the 1970s, the Steelers and Raiders during many of those seasons were the two best teams in the AFC and, arguably, the NFL. The Raiders regularly met the Steelers in the playoffs, and the winner of the Steelers-Raiders game went on to win the Super Bowl in 3 of those instances, from 1974-76. The rivalry garnered attention in the sports media, with controversial plays, late hits, accusations and public statements.
 
 
The rivalry began with and was fueled by a controversial last-second play in their first playoff game in 1972. That season the Raiders achieved a 10-3-1 record and an AFC West title. In the divisional round, they were beaten by the [[1972 Pittsburgh Steelers season|Steelers]] 13-7 on a play that become known as the '''[[Immaculate Reception]]'''. The Raiders won the AFC West again in [[1973 NFL season|1973]] with a 9-4-1 record. Lamonica was replaced as starting quarterback early in the season by [[Ken Stabler]], who remained the starting quarterback throughout the team's dominant seasons of the 1970s. The Raiders defeated Pittsburgh 33-14 in the divisional round of the playoffs to reach the AFC Championship, but lost 27-10 to the [[1973 Miami Dolphins season|Dolphins]].
 
 
In [[1974 NFL season|1974]], Oakland had a 12-2 regular season, which included a 9-game winning streak. They beat the [[1974 Miami Dolphins season|Dolphins]] 28-26 in the divisional round of the playoffs in a see-saw battle remembered as the "Sea of Hands" game.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Football_League_lore |title=National Football League lore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia |publisher=En.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=2012-09-03}}</ref> They then lost the AFC Championship to the Steelers, who went on to win the Super Bowl. The Raiders were held to only 29 yards rushing by the Pittsburgh defense, and late mistakes turned a 10-3 lead at the start of the fourth quarter into a disappointing 24-13 loss.
 
 
[[File:Ken and Rose Stabler 1992.jpg|thumb|240px|Former Raiders quarterback [[Ken Stabler]]. He won the [[National Football League Most Valuable Player Award|1974 MVP]] and led the Raiders to the title in Super Bowl XI.]]
 
In the 1975 season opener, the Raiders beat [[1975 Miami Dolphins season|Miami]] and ended their 31-game home winning streak. With an 11-3 record, they defeated [[1975 Cincinnati Bengals season|Cincinnati]] 31-28 in the divisional playoff round. Again, the Raiders faced the [[1975 Pittsburgh Steelers season|Steelers]] in the conference championship, eager for revenge; again, the Raiders came up short, as the Steelers won the AFC Championship and then went on to another Super Bowl title. According to John Madden and Al Davis, the Raiders relied on quick movement by their wide receivers on the outside sidelines - the deep threat, or 'long ball' - more so than the Steelers of that year, whose offense was far more run-oriented than it would become later in the 1970s. Forced to adapt to the frozen field of Three Rivers Stadium, with receivers slipping and unable to make quick moves to beat coverage, the Raiders lost, 16-10. The rivalry had now grown to hatred, and became the stereotype of the 'grudge match.'
 
 
In [[1976 NFL season|1976]], the Raiders came from behind dramatically to beat [[1976 Pittsburgh Steelers season|Pittsburgh]] 31-28 in a revenge match in the season opener, and continued to cement its reputation for dirty play by knocking WR [[Lynn Swann]] out for two weeks with a clothesline to the helmet. Al Davis later tried to sue Steelers coach Chuck Noll for libel after the latter called safety George Atkinson a criminal for the hit. The Raiders won 13 regular season games and a close 24-21 victory over [[1976 New England Patriots season|New England]] in the playoffs. They then knocked out the Steelers in the AFC Championship to go to [[Super Bowl XI]]. Oakland's opponent was the [[1976 Minnesota Vikings season|Vikings]], a team that had lost three previous Super Bowls. The Raiders led 16-0 at halftime, having forced Minnesota into multiple turnovers. By the end, they won 32-14 for their first post-merger championship.
 
 
The following season saw the Raiders finish 11-3, but they lost the division title to [[1977 Denver Broncos season|Denver]]. They settled for a wild card, beating the [[1977 Baltimore Colts season|Colts]] in the second-longest overtime game in NFL history, but then fell to the Broncos in the AFC Championship. During a 1978 preseason game, Patriots WR Darryl Stingley was injured by a hit from Raiders FS Jack Tatum and paralyzed for life. Although the 1978 Raiders achieved a winning record at 9-7, they missed the playoffs for the first time since 1971, losing critical games to Seattle, Denver and Miami towards the end of the season.
 
 
====1979–81 The Tom Flores Era Begins (1979-1987) and Second World Championship (1980 XV)====
 
[[File:Jim Plunkett (cropped).jpg|thumb|170px|left|[[Jim Plunkett]] led the Raiders to two Super Bowl victories ([[Super Bowl XV|XV]] and [[Super Bowl XVIII|XVIII]]). He is the only eligible quarterback to start (and win) two Super Bowls without being inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.]]
 
After ten consecutive winning seasons and one Super Bowl championship, John Madden left the Raiders (and coaching) in 1979 to pursue a career as a television football commentator. His replacement was former Raiders quarterback [[Tom Flores]], the first Hispanic head coach in NFL history.<ref name="hispanic">{{cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/insider/2001/raidersnewhouse_091801.html |title=1980 Raiders were outcasts, champions |accessdate=2007-01-25 |last=Newhouse |first=Dave |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070123200328/http://www.nfl.com/insider/2001/raidersnewhouse_091801.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-01-23}}</ref> Flores led the Raiders to another 9-7 season, but not the playoffs. In the 1980 off-season, quarterback Stabler was traded to the Houston Oilers for [[Dan Pastorini]]. In the fifth week of the [[1980 NFL season|1980 season]], Pastorini broke his leg and was replaced by former number-one draft pick [[Jim Plunkett]]. Plunkett led Oakland to an 11-5 record and a wild card berth. After playoff victories against the [[1980 Houston Oilers season|Houston Oilers]], [[1980 Cleveland Browns season|Cleveland Browns]], and [[1980 San Diego Chargers season|San Diego Chargers]], the Raiders went to [[Super Bowl XV]], facing the heavily favored [[1980 Philadelphia Eagles season|Philadelphia Eagles]]. The Raiders clinched their second NFL championship in five years with a 27&ndash;10 win over the Philadelphia Eagles in Super Bowl XV. With the victory, the Raiders became the first ever wild-card team to win a Super Bowl."<ref name="wild">{{cite news |first=B.J. |last=Phillips |title=The Wild Cards Run Wild |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,922427,00.html |publisher=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=1981-02-09 |accessdate=2007-01-28 }}</ref> Two [[Super Bowl records]] of note occurred in this game: 1) [[Kenny King (football player)|Kenny King]]'s 80-yard, first-quarter, catch-and-run reception from Jim Plunkett remained the longest touchdown [[Super Bowl]] pass play for the next 23 years; and 2) [[Rod Martin]]'s three interceptions of Eagles' quarterback [[Ron Jaworski]] still stands today as a Super Bowl record.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://proxy.espn.go.com/chat/sportsnation/quiz?event_id=3332 |title=Quiz XLII Super Bowl Questions! |accessdate=2009-04-17 |work=ESPN Sportsnation}}</ref> Reflecting on the last ten years during the post-game awards ceremony, Al Davis stated "...this was our finest hour, this was the finest hour in the history of the Oakland Raiders. To Tom Flores, the coaches, and the athletes: you were magnificent out there, you really were." <ref>'' Football's Blackest Hole: A Fan's Perspective''; Craig Parker; Frog, Ltd.; Berkeley, CA; 2003; pg. 69.</ref> The team would not see a repeat performance in 1981, falling to 7-9 and a losing record for the first time since 1963.
 
 
===The Los Angeles Era (1982-94) and Third World Championship (1983 XVIII)===
 
Prior to the 1980 season, Al Davis attempted unsuccessfully to have improvements made to the Oakland Coliseum, specifically the addition of [[luxury box]]es. That year, he signed a [[Memorandum of Agreement]] to move the Raiders from Oakland to [[Los Angeles]]. The move, which required three-fourths approval by league owners, was defeated 22–0 (with five owners abstaining). When Davis tried to move the team anyway, he was blocked by an [[injunction]]. In response, the Raiders not only became an active partner in an [[antitrust]] lawsuit filed by the [[Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum]] (who had recently lost the [[St. Louis Rams|Los Angeles Rams]]), but filed an antitrust lawsuit of their own.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. p. 168.</ref> After the first case was declared a [[Trial (law)|mistrial]], in May 1982 a second jury found in favor of Davis and the Los Angeles Coliseum, clearing the way for the move.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. p. 172.</ref><ref name="moveone">{{cite web |url=http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/davisall.shtml |title=Al Davis biography |accessdate=2007-01-30 |work=HickokSports.com}}</ref><ref name="movetwo">{{cite web |url=http://espn.go.com/classic/s/add_davis_al.html |title=Good guys wear black |accessdate=2007-01-30 |last=Puma |first=Mike |date=2003-12-01 |publisher=[[ESPN Classic]]}}</ref> With the ruling, the Raiders finally relocated to Los Angeles for the [[1982 NFL season|1982 season]] to play their home games at the Los Angeles Coliseum.
 
 
[[Image:Marcus Allen.jpg|thumb|170px|Raider's Hall of Famer [[Marcus Allen]] is considered as one of the greatest goal line and short-yard runners in National Football League history.]]
 
The team finished 8–1 in the strike-shortened 1982 season, first in the AFC, but lost in the second round of the [[NFL playoffs, 1982-83|playoffs]] to the [[1982 New York Jets|Jets]]. The following season, the team finished 12–4 and won convincingly against the [[1983 Pittsburgh Steeles season|Steelers]] and [[1983 Seattle Seahawks season|Seattle Seahawks]] in the [[NFL playoffs, 1983-84|AFC playoffs]]. Against the [[1983 Washington Redskins season|Washington Redskins]] in [[Super Bowl XVIII]], the Raiders built a 21–3 halftime lead en route to a 38–9 victory and their third NFL championship.
 
 
The team had another successful regular season in [[1984 NFL season|1984]], finishing 11-5, but a three-game losing streak forced them to enter the playoffs as a wild-card, where they fell to the [[1984 Seattle Seahawks season|Seahawks]].
 
 
The [[1985 NFL season|1985]] campaign saw 12 wins and a division title, but that was followed by an embarrassing home playoff loss to the [[1985 New England Patriots season|Patriots]].
 
 
The Raiders' fortunes declined after that, and from 1986–89, Los Angeles finished no better than 8–8 and posted consecutive losing seasons for the first time since 1961–62. Also 1986 saw Al Davis get into a widely publicized argument with RB [[Marcus Allen]], whom he accused of faking injuries. The feud continued into 1987, and Davis retaliated by signing [[Bo Jackson]] in Allen's place. However, Jackson was also a [[left fielder]] for Major League Baseball's [[Kansas City Royals]], and could not play full-time until baseball season ended in October. Even worse, another [[1987 NFL strike|strike]] cost the NFL one game and prompted them to use substitute players. The Raiders fill-ins achieved a 1-2 record before the regular team returned. After a weak 5-10 finish, Tom Flores moved to the front office and was replaced by Denver Broncos offensive assistant coach [[Mike Shanahan]]. Shanahan led the team to a 7-9 season in 1988, and Allen and Jackson continued to trade places as the starting RB. Low game attendance and fan apathy were evident by this point, and in the summer of 1988, rumors of a Raiders return to Oakland intensified when a preseason game against the Houston Oilers was scheduled at Oakland Coliseum.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. p. 234.</ref>
 
 
As early as 1986, Davis sought to abandon the Coliseum in favor of a more modern stadium. The neighborhood around Exposition Park was considered dangerous at the time (which caused the NFL to schedule the Raiders' ''[[Monday Night Football]]'' appearances as away games - the NFL would not even consider allowing the Raiders to use [[Anaheim Stadium]] for Monday night games). In addition to sharing the venue with the [[USC Trojans]], the Coliseum was aging and still lacked the luxury suites and other amenities that Davis was promised when he moved the Raiders to Los Angeles.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. p. 230.</ref> Finally, the Coliseum had 95,000 seats and the Raiders were rarely able to fill all of them even in their best years, and so most Raiders home games were blacked out in Southern California. Numerous venues in California were considered, including one near [[Hollywood Park Racetrack|Hollywood Park]] in [[Inglewood, California|Inglewood]] and another in [[Carson, California|Carson]]. In August 1987, it was announced that the city of [[Irwindale, California|Irwindale]] paid Davis USD $10 million as a good-faith deposit for a prospective stadium site.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. p. 232.</ref> When the bid failed, Davis kept the non-refundable deposit.<ref name="deposit">{{cite news |first=Unknown |title=Al Davis may retire if Raiders win |url=http://bengals.enquirer.com/2003/01/23/wwwsbdavis.html |work=[[The Cincinnati Enquirer]] |agency=Associated Press |date=2003-01-23 |accessdate=2007-01-29 }}</ref><ref name="irwindale">{{cite news |first=Bill |last=Plaschke |title=Shades of Gray |url=http://apse.dallasnews.com/contest/2003/writing/over250/over250.columns.third3-4.html |work=[[Los Angeles Times]] |agency=Associated Press |accessdate=2007-01-29 }}</ref>
 
 
====1989–94 The Art Shell and Bo Jackson Era====
 
[[File:Bo Jackson Autographs for Troops in SW Asia Feb 1, 2004.jpg|thumb|180px|left|[[Bo Jackson]] was the first athlete to be named an [[All-star#Sports|All-Star]] in two major American sports. He also won the [[Heisman Trophy]] in 1985. ]]
 
 
Negotiations between Davis and Oakland commenced in January 1989, and on March 11, 1991, Davis announced his intention to bring the Raiders back to Oakland.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. pp. 234–239.</ref> By September 1991, however, numerous delays had prevented the completion of the deal between Davis and Oakland. On September 11, Davis announced a new deal to stay in Los Angeles, leading many fans in Oakland to burn Raiders paraphernalia in disgust.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby''. pp. 240–244.</ref><ref name="deal">{{cite news |first=Dave |last=Anderson |title= Just Give Me $10 Million, Baby |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F3061EF73F5B0C758DDDA00894D8494D81 |publisher=New York Times |date=1990-09-16 |accessdate=2007-02-02 }}</ref>
 
 
After starting the [[1989 NFL season|1989 season]] with a 1–3 record, Shanahan was fired by Davis, which began a long-standing feud between the two.<ref name="feud">{{cite news |first=John |last=Czarnecki |title=Raiders, Broncos renew rivalry |url=http://msn.foxsports.com/nfl/story/949168 |publisher=Fox Sports |accessdate=2007-01-29 }}</ref>{{fv|date=December 2012}} He was replaced by former Raider offensive lineman [[Art Shell]], who had been voted into the [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] earlier in the year. With the hiring, Shell became the first African American head coach in the modern NFL era, but the team still finished a middling 8-8.<ref name="shellhiring">{{cite news |first=Jarrett |last=Bell |title=Coaches chasing Super Bowl — and history |url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2007-01-16-dungy-lovie_x.htm |publisher=[[USA Today]] |date=2007-01-17 |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref>
 
 
In [[1990 NFL season|1990]], Shell led Los Angeles to a 12–4 record. They beat the Bengals in the divisional round of the playoffs, but Bo Jackson had his left femur ripped from the socket after a tackle. Without him, the Raiders were crushed in the AFC Championship by the [[1990 Buffalo Bills season|Buffalo Bills]]. Jackson was forced to quit football as a result, although surgery allowed him to continue playing baseball until he retired in 1994.
 
 
The team's status faded after the loss. They made two other playoff appearances during the 1990s, and finished higher than third place only three times. In [[1991 NFL season|1991]], they got into the postseason as a wild-card after a 9-7 regular season, but fell to [[1991 Kansas City Chiefs season|Kansas City]]. 1992 saw them drop to 7-9. This period was marked by the injury of Jackson in 1991, the failure of troubled quarterback [[Todd Marinovich]], the acrimonious departure of [[Marcus Allen]] in 1993, and the retirement of Hall of Fame defensive end [[Howie Long]] after the 1993 season, when the Raiders went 10-6 and lost to [[1993 Buffalo Bills season|Buffalo]] in the divisional round of the playoffs. Shell was fired after posting a 9–7 record in the [[1994 NFL season|1994 season]].
 
 
===Back To Oakland (1995–present)===
 
[[Image:Tim Brown.jpg|thumb|170px|Raiders' wide receiver [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] spent 16 years with the Raiders, during which he established himself as one of the NFL's most prolific wide receivers.]]
 
On June 23, 1995, Davis signed a [[letter of intent]] to move the Raiders back to Oakland. The move was approved by the Alameda County Board of Supervisors the next month,<ref name="approved">{{cite news |title=Raiders' Move Is Approved |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE4DE133AF931A25754C0A963958260 |publisher=The New York Times |date=1995-07-12 |accessdate=2007-02-02 }}</ref> as well as by the NFL. The move was greeted with much fanfare,<ref name="fanfare">{{cite news |first=Monte |last=Poole |title=Raiders headed home 10 years ago |url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20050622/ai_n15838422 |publisher=[[Oakland Tribune]] |date=2005-06-22 |accessdate=2007-02-02 }}</ref> and under new head coach [[Mike White (football coach)|Mike White]] the 1995 season started off well for the team. Oakland started 8–2, but injuries to starting quarterback [[Jeff Hostetler]] contributed to a six-game losing streak to end the season, and the Raiders failed to qualify for the playoffs for a second consecutive season.
 
 
In order to convince Davis to return, Oakland spent $220 million on stadium renovations. These included a new seating section — commonly known as "Mount Davis" — with 10,000 seats. It also built the team a training facility and paid all its moving costs. The Raiders pay just $525,000 a year in rent — a fraction of what the nearby San Francisco 49ers pay to play at Candlestick Park — and do not pay maintenance or game-day operating costs.
 
 
====The Jon Gruden Era (1996-2002)====
 
 
=====1996-99=====
 
After two more unsuccessful seasons (7-9 in [[1996 NFL season|1996]] and 4-12 in [[1997 NFL season|1997]]) under White and his successor, [[Joe Bugel]], Davis selected a new head coach from outside the Raiders organization for only the second time when he hired Philadelphia Eagles offensive coordinator [[Jon Gruden]], who previously worked for the 49ers and Packers under head coach [[Mike Holmgren]]. Under Gruden, the Raiders posted consecutive 8-8 seasons in [[1998 NFL season|1998]] and [[1999 NFL season|1999]], and climbed out of last place in the AFC West.
 
 
=====2000=====
 
{{main|2000 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
 
Oakland finished 12-4 in the 2000 season, the team's most successful in a decade. Led by veteran quarterback [[Rich Gannon]], Oakland won their first division title since 1990, and advanced to the AFC Championship, where they lost 16–3 to the eventual Super Bowl champion [[Baltimore Ravens]].
 
 
=====2001=====
 
{{main|2001 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
[[Image:NFLonCBSscore0102.png|thumb|217px|left|The 2001 AFC divisional playoff game, known to some as the "[[Tuck Rule Game]]" was the playoff game between the New England Patriots and the Oakland Raiders.]]
 
The Raiders acquired all-time leading receiver [[Jerry Rice]] prior to the [[2001 NFL season|2001 season]]. They finished 10-6 and won a second straight AFC West title but lost their divisional-round playoff game to the eventual Super Bowl champion [[2001 New England Patriots season|New England Patriots]], in a controversial game that became known as the "[[Tuck Rule Game]]." The game was played in a heavy snowstorm, and late in the fourth quarter Raiders star cornerback [[Charles Woodson]] blitzed Patriots quarterback [[Tom Brady]] causing an apparent fumble which was recovered by Raiders linebacker [[Greg Biekert]]. The recovery could have potentially led to a Raiders victory; however, the play was reviewed and determined to be an incomplete pass (it was ruled that Brady had pump faked and then "tucked" the ball into his body, which, by rule, cannot result in a fumble—though this explanation was not given on the field, but after the NFL season had ended). The Patriots retained possession and drove for a game-tying field goal. The game went into overtime and the Patriots won 16–13.<ref name="tuck">{{cite news |first=Ray |last=Ratto |title=Conspiracy theorists have a fresh cause |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2002/01/20/SP233151.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2002-01-20 |accessdate=2007-02-02}}</ref>
 
 
====Bill Callahan Era====
 
Shortly after the season, the Raiders made an unusual move that involved releasing Gruden from his contract and allowing the [[Tampa Bay Buccaneers]] to sign him. In return, the Raiders received cash and future draft picks from the Buccaneers. The sudden move came after months of speculation in the media that Davis and Gruden had fallen out with each other both personally and professionally. [[Bill Callahan (American football)|Bill Callahan]], who served as the team's offensive coordinator and offensive line coach during Gruden's tenure, was named head coach.<ref name="callahan">{{cite news |title=Raiders promote Callahan to head coach |url=http://static.espn.go.com/nfl/news/2002/0312/1350580.html |agency=Associated Press |publisher=ESPN.com |date=2002-03-12 |accessdate=2009-03-11 }}</ref>
 
 
=====2002=====
 
{{main|2002 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
 
Under Callahan, the Raiders finished the [[2002 NFL season|2002 season]] 11-5, won their third straight division title, and clinched the top seed in the playoffs. [[Rich Gannon]] was named MVP of the NFL after passing for a league-high 4,689 yards. After beating the [[2002 New York Jets season|Jets]] and [[2002 Tennessee Titans season|Titans]] by large margins in the [[NFL playoffs, 2002-03|playoffs]], the Raiders made their fifth Super Bowl appearance in [[Super Bowl XXXVII]]. Their opponent was the [[2002 Tampa Bay Buccaneers season|Tampa Bay Buccaneers]], coached by Gruden. The Raiders, who had not made significant changes to Gruden's offensive schemes, were intercepted five times by the Buccaneers en route to a 48–21 blowout. Some Tampa Bay players claimed that Gruden had given them so much information on Oakland's offense, they knew exactly what plays were being called.<ref name="coaching">{{cite news |first=John |last=Clayton |title=Gruden proves how much coaching matters |url=http://static.espn.go.com/nfl/playoffs02/columnist/2003/0126/1499382.html |publisher=ESPN.com |accessdate=2009-03-11 }}</ref><ref name="decisions">{{cite news |first=Elliott |last=Kalb |title=The worst decisions in Super Bowl history |url=http://msn.foxsports.com/nfl/story/6427798 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070402141131/http://msn.foxsports.com/nfl/story/6427798 |archivedate=2007-04-02 |publisher=FOX Sports |date=2007-02-01 |accessdate=2007-02-02 }}</ref>
 
 
=====2003=====
 
{{main|2003 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
 
Callahan's second season as head coach was considerably less successful. Oakland finished 4–12, their worst showing since 1997. After a late-season loss to the [[2003 Denver Broncos season|Denver Broncos]], a visibly frustrated Callahan exclaimed, "We've got to be the dumbest team in America in terms of playing the game."<ref name="dumbest">{{cite news |title=Portis runs Denver past error-prone Raiders |url=http://www.nfl.com/gamecenter/recap/NFL_20031130_DEN@OAK |publisher=NFL.com |date=2003-11-30 |accessdate=2007-02-02 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060908211734/http://www.nfl.com/gamecenter/recap/NFL_20031130_DEN@OAK <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2006-09-08}}</ref> At the end of the 2003 regular season Callahan was fired and replaced by former Washington Redskins head coach [[Norv Turner]].
 
 
====Coaching Carousel (2004–11)====
 
 
=====Norv Turner Era (2004-05)=====
 
{{main|2004 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
{{main|2005 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
The team's fortunes did not improve in Turner's first year. Oakland finished the [[2004 NFL season|2004 season]] 5–11, with only one divisional win (a one-point victory over the [[2004 Denver Broncos season|Broncos]] in Denver). During a Week 3 victory against the [[2004 Tampa Bay Buccaneers season|Buccaneers]], Rich Gannon suffered a neck injury that ended his season and eventually his career. He never returned to the team and retired before the 2005 season.<ref name="gannon">{{cite news |first=Nancy |last=Gay |title=Gannon makes it official -- he's done |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/08/07/SPG5IE4DSS1.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2005-08-07 |accessdate=2007-02-04 }}</ref> [[Kerry Collins]], who led the New York Giants to an appearance in [[Super Bowl XXXV]] and signed with Oakland after the 2003 season, became the team's starting quarterback.
 
 
In an effort to bolster their offense, in early 2005 the Raiders acquired Pro Bowl wide receiver [[Randy Moss]] via trade with the [[Minnesota Vikings]], and signed free agent running back [[Lamont Jordan]] of the New York Jets. After a 4–12 season and a second consecutive last place finish, Turner was fired as head coach.
 
 
=====Art Shell Returns (2006)=====
 
{{main|2006 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
On February 11, 2006 the team announced the return of Art Shell as head coach. In announcing the move, Al Davis said that firing Shell in 1995 had been a mistake.<ref name="mistake">{{cite news |first=John |last=Clayton |title=Shell to return to Raiders as head coach |url=http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/news/story?id=2326498 |publisher=ESPN.com |date=2006-02-11 |accessdate=2007-02-04 }}</ref>
 
Under Shell, the Raiders lost their first five games in 2006 en route to a 2–14 record, the team's worst since 1962. Oakland's offense struggled greatly, scoring just 168 points (fewest in franchise history) and allowing a league-high 72 sacks. Wide receiver [[Jerry Porter (American football)|Jerry Porter]] was benched by Shell for most of the season in what many viewed as a personal, rather than football-related, decision. Shell was fired again at the end of the season.<ref name="struggle">{{cite news |title=Shell out after one season as Raiders coach |url=http://www.nfl.com/teams/story/OAK/9908560 |publisher=NFL.com |date=2007-01-04 |accessdate=2007-02-04 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070126041745/http://www.nfl.com/teams/story/OAK/9908560 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-01-26}}</ref> The Raiders also earned the right to the first overall pick in the [[2007 NFL Draft]] for the first time since 1962, by virtue of having the league's worst record.<ref name="draft">{{cite news |title=Raiders secure top draft pick for first time since 1962 |url=http://onlineathens.com/stories/010207/sports_20070102028.shtml |agency=Associated Press |publisher=OnlineAthens.com |date=2007-01-01 |accessdate=2007-02-04 }}</ref>
 
 
=====Lane Kiffin Era (2007–08)=====
 
{{main|2007 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
{{main|2008 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
On January 22, the team announced the hiring of 31-year-old [[USC Trojans football|USC]] offensive coordinator [[Lane Kiffin]], the youngest coach in franchise history and the youngest coach in the NFL.<ref name="kiffin">{{cite news |first=David |last=White |title=Raiders hire USC's Kiffin to be head coach |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/01/22/SPGCLNMU4G9.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2007-01-22 |accessdate=2007-01-23}}</ref> In the 2007 NFL Draft, the Raiders selected [[LSU Tigers football|LSU]] quarterback [[JaMarcus Russell]] with the #1 overall pick. Russel is arguably the biggest bust in NFL history. Lane didn't want to draft JaMarcus Russell and this led to his eventual dismissal, among other things. Kiffin coached the Raiders to a 4-12 record in the 2007 season. After a 1-3 start to 2008 and months of speculation and rumors, Davis fired Kiffin on September 30, 2008.
 
 
=====Tom Cable Era (2008–10)=====
 
{{main|2009 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
{{main|2010 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
[[File:Darren McFadden Raiders.JPG|thumb|170px|right|[[Darren McFadden]] was drafted by the Oakland Raiders with the fourth overall pick in the [[2008 NFL Draft]].]]
 
[[Tom Cable]] was named as his interim replacement, and officially signed as the 17th head coach of the Oakland Raiders on Tuesday, February 3, 2009.
 
 
Their finish to the [[2008 NFL season|2008 season]] would turn out to match their best since they lost the Super Bowl in the 2002 season. However, they still finished 5&ndash;11 and ended up third in the AFC West, the first time they did not finish last since 2002. They would produce an identical record in 2009; however, the season was somewhat ameliorated by the fact that four of the Raiders' five wins were against opponents with above .500 records. At the end of their [[2009 NFL season|2009 campaign]], the Raiders became the first team in NFL history to lose at least 11 games in seven straight seasons{{citation needed|date=December 2011}}.
 
 
In 2010, the Raiders became the first team in NFL history to go undefeated against their division yet miss the playoffs (6-0 in the AFC West, 8-8 overall, 3 games behind the [[2010 New York Jets season|Jets]] for the second Wild Card entry). On January 4, 2011, owner Al Davis informed head coach Tom Cable that his contract would not be renewed, ending his tenure with the organization. Many Raider players, such as punter Shane Lechler, were upset with the decision.
 
 
=====Hue Jackson Era (2011)=====
 
{{main|2011 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
[[File:Carson Palmer cropped).jpg|thumb|170px|[[Carson Palmer]] with the Oakland Raiders in November 2011.]]
 
On January 17, 2011, it was announced that offensive coordinator [[Hue Jackson]] was going to be the next Raiders head coach. A press conference was held on January 18, 2011, to formally introduce Jackson as the next Raiders head coach, the fifth in just seven years. Following Davis' death during the 2011 season, new owners [[Carol Davis|Carol]] and [[Mark Davis (American football)|Mark Davis]] decided to take the franchise in a drastically different direction by hiring a general manager. On [[New Year's Day]] of 2012, the Raiders played the [[San Diego Chargers]], hoping to go to the playoffs for the first time since 2002, the game ended with a 38-26 loss. Their season ended with another disappointing 8-8 record.
 
 
====The Reggie McKenzie/Dennis Allen Era Begin (2012–Present)====
 
{{main|2012 Oakland Raiders season}}
 
On January 6, 2012, the Raiders named [[Green Bay Packers]] director of football operations [[Reggie McKenzie (linebacker)|Reggie McKenzie]] as the team's first General Manager since Al Davis. Given full autonomy over personnel decisions by the Davis family, McKenzie, in his first day on the job, fired head coach [[Hue Jackson]] after only one season on January 10, seeking to hire his own head coach instead. In the process, the Raiders lost their sixth head coach in the past ten seasons, none of whom lasted more than two seasons. Two weeks later, McKenzie hired Broncos defensive coordinator [[Dennis Allen (American football)|Dennis Allen]] as head coach. Most of the coaching staff has been replaced by new position and strength and conditioning coaches.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}
 
The Raiders began 2012 by losing their home opener on Monday Night Football against San Diego 22-14.
 
 
==Logos and Uniforms==
 
When founded in 1959, a "name the team" contest was held by the [[Oakland Tribune]], and the winner was the Oakland Señors.<ref>"Grid Team Named-- They're Senors", ''Oakland Tribune'', April 5, 1960, p37. Soda said, "My own personal choice would have been Mavericks, but I believe we came up with a real fine name." The selection committee narrowed the choices down to Admirals, Lakers, Diablos, Seawolves, Gauchos, Nuggest, Señors Dons, Costers, Grandees, Sequoias, Missiles, Knights, Redwoods, Clippers, Jets and Dolphins.</ref> After a few weeks of being the butt of local jokes (and accusations that the contest was fixed, as Chet Soda was fairly well known within the Oakland business community for calling his acquaintances "señor"), the fledgling team (and its owners) changed the team's name nine days later <ref>"Now It's Hi, Raiders! (Bye, Senors)", ''Oakland Tribune'', April 14, 1960, p1</ref> to the Oakland Raiders, which had finished third in the naming contest.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', p. 8.</ref> The original team colors were black, gold and white. The now-familiar team emblem of a pirate (or "raider") wearing a football helmet was created, reportedly a rendition of actor [[Randolph Scott]].<ref>Otto, ''The Pain of Glory'', p. 69.</ref>
 
 
The original Raiders uniforms were black and gold, while the helmets were black with a white stripe and no logo. The team wore this design from 1960–62.<ref name="first">{{cite web |url=http://www.hometown.aol.com/bkbubco/60-Oak.html |title=Raiders uniform/helmet design, 1960-62 |accessdate=2007-01-25}}</ref> When Al Davis became head coach and general manager in 1963, he changed the team's color scheme to silver and black, and added a logo to the helmet.<ref name="second">{{cite web |url=http://www.hometown.aol.com/bkbubco/63-Oak.html |title=Raiders uniform/helmet design, 1963 |accessdate=2007-01-25}}</ref> This logo is a shield that consists of the word "Raiders" at the top, crossed swords, and the head of a Raider wearing a football helmet. Over the years, it has undergone minor color modifications (such as changing the background from silver to black in 1964), but it has essentially remained the same.
 
 
[[Image:Raiders in huddle at Falcons at Raiders 11-2-08 1.JPG|right|217px|thumb|The Raiders have had the same logo since 1963.]]
 
The Raiders' current silver and black uniform design has essentially remained the same since it debuted in 1963. It consists of silver helmets, silver pants, and either black or white jerseys. The black jerseys have silver numbers, while the white jerseys have black numbers with silver outline. Originally, the white jerseys had silver numbers with a thick black outline, but they were changed to black with a silver outline for the 1964 season. In 1970, the team used silver numerals for the season. However, in 1971 the team again displayed black numerals and have stayed that way ever since (with the exception of the 1994 season as part of the NFL's 75th Anniversary where they donned the 1963 helmets with the 1970 silver away numbers).
 
 
The Raiders wore their white jerseys at home for the first time in their history on September 28, 2008 against the San Diego Chargers. The decision was made by Lane Kiffin, who was coaching his final game for the Raiders, and was purportedly due to intense heat.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/09/29/SP8B137T7A.DTL | title=Hard-tackling safety produces one of his own | first=David | last=White | date=2008-09-29 | work=The San Francisco Chronicle}}</ref> The high temperature in Oakland that day was 78 degrees.<ref>http://www.nfl.com/liveupdate/gamecenter/29584/OAK_Gamebook.pdf</ref>
 
 
For the [[2009 Oakland Raiders season|2009]] season, the Raiders took part in the AFL Legacy Program and wore 1960s [[throwback jersey]]s for games against other teams who used to be a part of the [[American Football League|AFL]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=lukas/090909&sportCat=nfl|title=Uni Watch: Comprehensive NFL preview|author=Paul Lukas|publisher=ESPN}}</ref>
 
 
For the [[2012 NFL season]] and beyond, the Raiders will wear black cleats as a tribute to Al Davis.
 
 
==Home Fields==
 
[[Image:Oakland Coliseum field from Mt. Davis.JPG|thumb|217px|right|[[O.co Coliseum]] is part of the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum complex, which consists of the stadium and neighboring [[Oracle Arena]].]]
 
After splitting the first home season between [[Kezar Stadium]] and Candlestick, the Raiders moved exclusively to [[Candlestick Park]] in 1961, where total attendance for the season was about 50,000, and finished 2–12. Valley threatened to move the Raiders out of the area unless a stadium was built in Oakland, so in 1962 the Raiders moved into 18,000-seat [[Frank Youell Field]] (later expanded to 22,000 seats), their first home in Oakland.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', p. 10.</ref> It was a temporary home for the team while the 53,000 seat [[O.co Coliseum|Oakland Coliseum]] was under construction; the Coliseum was completed in 1966. The Raiders have shared the Coliseum with the [[Oakland Athletics]] since the A's moved to Oakland from Kansas City in 1968, except for the years the Raiders called Los Angeles home (1982–94).
 
 
The Raiders did play one regular season game at [[California Memorial Stadium]] in Berkeley, CA. On September 23, 1973 they played the [[Miami Dolphins]] in Berkeley due to a scheduling conflict with the Athletics. The team defeated the Dolphins 12-7, ending the Dolphins' winning streak.
 
 
During the Los Angeles years, the Raiders played in the 93,000 seat [[Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum]].
 
 
==New Stadium Proposals==
 
Due to the age of the O.co Coliseum, the Raiders being secondary tenants to the Athletics, the fact that it is not ideally suited to hosting either baseball or football games and the fact that the Raiders' lease will expire at the end of 2013, the Raiders have been linked to a number of new stadium projects.
 
 
===Santa Clara===
 
{{Main|Santa Clara Stadium}}
 
 
There have been ongoing discussions for the Raiders to share the [[Santa Clara Stadium|new stadium]] being built in [[Santa Clara, California]] with the 49ers.<ref name="Raiders">[http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/sports/NFL-May-Bribe-Raiders-49ers-Into-Shotgun-Wedding-96172874.html NFL May Bribe Raiders, 49ers Into Shotgun Wedding]</ref> However, the 49ers went ahead without the Raiders and broke ground on the new $1.2 billion Santa Clara stadium on April 19 2012<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.49ers.com/news/article-2/49ers-Break-Ground-on-Santa-Clara-Stadium/f8585a3f-557d-4154-b083-c8db7d3df2ff |title=49ers break ground on Santa Clara stadium |publisher=49ers.com |author=Taylor Price |date=April 19, 2012 |accessdate=November 29, 2012}}</ref> and have since sold $670 million worth of seats including 70% of club and luxury suites, making it unlikely that the Raiders would continue to explore the idea of sharing the stadium as they would now be secondary tenants with little to no commercial rights over the highly lucrative luxury suites.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2012/09/10/niners-strike-gold-with-new-stadium/ |title=Niners strike gold with new stadium |publisher=profootballtalk.nbcsports.com |author=Mike Florio |date=September 10, 2012 |accessdate=November 29, 2012}}</ref> Raiders' owner [[Mark Davis (American football)|Mark Davis]] further increased the unlikelihood of the Raiders and the 49ers sharing the Santa Clara stadium when he told NFL Network reporter Ian Rapoport that he has no plans to share the Santa Clara stadium but that he did recognize the Raiders' need for a new home and that he hoped the new home would be in Oakland.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap1000000081194/article/oakland-raiders-have-no-plans-to-share-stadium-with-49ers |title=Oakland Raiders have no plans to share stadium with 49ers |publisher=NFL.com |author=NFL.com |date=October 16, 2012 |accessdate=November 29, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
===Return to Los Angeles===
 
{{Main|Farmers Field}}
 
 
{{Main|Los Angeles Stadium}}
 
 
The Raiders, along with the [[San Diego Chargers]] and [[St. Louis Rams]], have also been linked with a return to L.A. and its proposed new $1.2 billion privately funded stadium in downtown Los Angeles. The stadium project, spearheaded by [[Anschutz Entertainment Group]] and to be named [[Farmers Field]] in a sponsorship agreement with [[Farmers Insurance Exchange]], is for a 72,000 seat roofed stadium to be built next to the [[Staples Center]]. Construction of the stadium is contingent on a franchise committing to relocating to Los Angeles. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://espn.go.com/los-angeles/nfl/story/_/id/6847826/la-council-passes-aeg-plan-farmers-field |title=LA council passes AEG's stadium plan |publisher=ESPN.go.com |author=Arash Markazi |date=August 10, 2011 |accessdate=November 29, 2012}}</ref> There is also a plan by [[Edward P. Roski]] to move the Raiders to the proposed [[Los Angeles Stadium]] in [[Industry, California|Industry]]. Competing with AEG's plan is Majestic Realty Chairman and CEO Edward P. Roski's proposal, Los Angeles Stadium, based in City of Industry.[2][21] After assessing multiple sites in Los Angeles County, the proposal settled on Industry over the available land to develop and its location to the Los Angeles metropolitan area.[1] The currently titled Los Angeles Stadium is part of a 600-acre (240 ha) entertainment and retail development, which will include concert halls, hotels, retail and convention space in addition to 25,000 on-site parking spaces.[2] Following two environmental impact reports (EIR) being finalized in 2009, the privately financed project is cleared to begin construction pending the resolution of the NFL's collective bargaining agreement dispute with the Player's Association.[1][2] Roski had previously partnered with AEG in the development and construction of Staples Center in 1999 and again in 2002 for AEG's first stadium proposal on the current location of its 2010 proposal.[3]
 
 
===New stadium in Oakland===
 
On March 7 2012, Oakland mayor [[Jean Quan]] unveiled an ambitious project to the media that was designed to improve the sports facilities of all 3 major league sports teams in the city (the Raiders, the [[Major League Baseball|MLB's]] Athletics and the [[National Basketball Association|NBA's]] [[Golden State Warriors]]) as well as attract new businesses to the city. The project, dubbed [[Coliseum City]], entails the redevelopment of the existing Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum complex. The redevelopment will see the construction of two new stadiums on the present location; a baseball only stadium and a football only stadium, while the [[Oracle Arena]], home of the Warriors, will be either rebuilt or undergo extensive renovations. A sum of $3.5 million was committed to preliminary planning on the project. However, no officials from either of Oakland's major league teams were present at the media conference.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://oaklandnorth.net/2012/03/07/quan-city-officials-roll-out-ambitious-coliseum-plan-in-effort-to-keep-three-pro-teams-in-oakland/ |title=Quan, city officials roll out ambitious Coliseum plan in effort to keep three pro teams in Oakland |publisher=oaklandnorth.net |author=Ryan Phillips |date=March 7, 2012 |accessdate=November 29, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
==Culture==
 
[[Image:Black Hole at Falcons at Raiders 11-2-08.JPG|thumb|217px|right|The [[Raider Nation]] is the unofficial name for the fans of the NFL's Oakland Raiders. They are particularly associated with a section of the Oakland Coliseum known as the "Black Hole" which is usually occupied by rowdy fans.]]
 
 
===Commitment To Excellence===
 
Al Davis coined [[slogan]]s such as "Pride and Poise," "Commitment to Excellence," and "Just Win, Baby"—all of which are registered [[trademark]]s of the team."<ref name="pride">{{cite web |url=http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=1ap7tf.2.1 |title="Pride and Poise" trademark information |accessdate=2007-02-05 |work=Trademark Electronic Search System}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}<ref name="commitment">{{cite web |url=http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=1ap7tf.3.16 |title="Commitment to Excellence" trademark information |accessdate=2007-02-05 |work=Trademark Electronic Search System}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}<ref name="justwin">{{cite web |url=http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/showfield?f=doc&state=1ap7tf.4.1 |title="Just Win, Baby" trademark information |accessdate=2007-02-05 |work=Trademark Electronic Search System}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}
 
 
===Raider Nation===
 
{{Main|Raider Nation}}
 
The nickname '''Raider Nation''' refers to the die hard fans of the team spread throughout the United States and the world.<ref name="nation">{{cite news |url=http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=c/a/2003/01/24/MN64531.DTL |title=Raider Nation's citizens span globe–Mystique, power of Silver and Black quicken the pulse of teaming hordes |accessdate=2007-01-25 |last=Zamora |first=Jim Herron |date=2003-01-24 |publisher=''[[San Francisco Chronicle]]''}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}} Members of the Raider Nation who attend home games are known for arriving to the stadium early, [[tailgate party|tailgating]], dressing up in face masks, and black outfits. The Raider Nation is also known for the "Black Hole", a specific area of the Coliseum (sections 104–107) frequented by the team's rowdiest and most fervent fans.<ref name="blackhole">{{cite news |first=Alysse |last=Minkoff |title=Sweetheart of the Hole |url=http://static.espn.go.com/page2/s/minkoff/030929.html |publisher=[[Page2]] |accessdate=2007-01-31 }}</ref><ref name="raidernation">{{cite news |first=Roger |last=Mills |title=Super Bowl XXXVII: Raider nation |url=http://www.sptimes.com/2003/01/25/Bucs/Raider_nation.shtml |publisher=[[St. Petersburg Times]] |date=2003-01-25 |accessdate=2007-01-31 }}</ref><ref name="ramshole">{{cite news |first=Jim |last=Thomas |title=Entering the 'black hole' |url=http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/sports/stories.nsf/rams/story/241242A52193ACF98625724600217A92?OpenDocument |publisher=[[St. Louis Post-Dispatch]] |date=2007-12-17 |accessdate=2007-02-02}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}
 
 
Al Davis created the phrase Raider Nation in 1968.
 
 
In September 2009, [[Ice Cube]] recorded a song for the Raiders named "Raider Nation".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.icecube.com/news/5743/|title=Raider Nation!|publisher=[http://www.icecube.com]|date=10-12-2009}}</ref> In 2010, he took part in a documentary for [[ESPN]]'s ''[[30 for 30]]'' series titled ''Straight Outta L.A.''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://30for30.espn.com/film/straight-outta-la.html |title=ESPN 30 for 30 |publisher=30for30.espn.com |date=1994-06-17 |accessdate=2012-09-03}}</ref> It mainly focuses on N.W.A. and the effect of the Raiders image on their persona.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/11/entertainment/la-et-0511-straight-outta-20100511 | title=Television review: 'Straight Outta L.A.' | first1=Robert | last1=Lloyd | work=Los Angeles Times | date=2010-05-11}}</ref>
 
 
==Cheerleaders==
 
{{Main|Oakland Raiderettes}}
 
[[File:Oakland Raiderettes at Falcons at Raiders 11-2-08 03.JPG|thumb|217px|right|The Oakland Raiderettes performing a routine.]]
 
The Oakland Raiderettes are the [[NFL Cheerleading|cheerleading]] squad for the Oakland Raiders. They were established in 1961 as the Oakland Raiderettes. When the Raiders moved to Los Angeles in 1982, the cheerleading squad became known as the Los Angeles Raiderettes. However, when the franchise moved back to Oakland in 1995, the Raiderettes changed their name back to the Oakland Raiderettes. In both Los Angeles and Oakland they have been billed as "Football's Fabulous Females".
 
 
==Radio and Television==
 
{{Main|List of Oakland Raiders broadcasters}}
 
 
===Raiders' Radio Network===
 
Raider games are broadcast in English on 16 radio stations in [[California]], including flagship station [[KITS|KITS Live 105]] (105.3 FM) in [[San Francisco]]. Additionally, games are broadcast on 20 radio stations in [[Nevada]], [[Oregon]], [[Colorado]], [[Idaho]], [[Hawaii]], [[Virginia]], [[Texas]], [[Arkansas]], [[Nebraska]] and [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]. [[Greg Papa]] is the play-by-play announcer, with former Raider coach and quarterback [[Tom Flores]] doing commentary. [[George Atkinson (American football)|George Atkinson]] and [[Jim Plunkett]] offer pre- and post-game commentary. [[Compass Media Networks]] is responsible for producing and distributing Raiders radio broadcasts.
 
 
[[Bill King]] is the Voice of the Raiders. Hired in 1966, he called approximately 600 games. The Raiders awarded him all three rings. King left after the 1992 season. It's Bill's radio audio heard on most of the NFL Films highlight footage of the Raiders. King's call of the [[Holy Roller (American football)]] has been labeled (by Chris Berman, among others) as one of 5 best in NFL history. King died in October 2005 from complications after surgery. Scotty Sterling, an ''[[Oakland Tribune]]'' sportswriter served as the "color man" with King. The Raider games were called on radio from 1960–62 by Bud (Wilson Keene) Foster and Mel Venter; from 1963–65 by Bob Blum and Dan Galvin.
 
 
===Television===
 
Raiders' games are broadcast locally on [[NFL on CBS|CBS]] affiliate [[KPIX]] (when playing an [[American Football Conference|AFC]] opponent) and on [[NFL on Fox|Fox]] affiliate [[KTVU]] (when hosting an [[National Football Conference|NFC]] opponent), unless the game is [[Blackout (broadcasting)|blacked out]] locally.
 
 
The Raiders are a beneficiary of league scheduling policies. Both the Raiders and the [[San Francisco 49ers]] share the San Francisco Bay Area market, and said market is on the West Coast of the United States. This means that the Raiders cannot play home games or most division games in the early 10:00 a.m. [[Pacific Time Zone|Pacific time]] slot, nor can they play interconference home games at the same time or network as the 49ers. As a result, both teams generally have more limited scheduling options, and also benefit by receiving more prime time games than usual ([[NFL on Television#49ers and Raiders|click here]] for further information).
 
 
==Rivals==
 
{{Further|Broncos–Raiders rivalry|Chiefs–Raiders rivalry}}
 
The Oakland Raiders have four primary rivals: their divisional rivals (Denver Broncos, Kansas City Chiefs, and San Diego Chargers) and their geographic rival, the San Francisco 49ers. They also have rivalries with other teams that arose from playoff battles in the past, most notably with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots. The Seattle Seahawks has an old rivalry with Oakland as well, but the rivalry became less relevant with the Seahawks moving to the NFC West.
 
 
===Divisional Rivals===
 
[[Image:061119Raiders-Chiefs01.jpg|217px|thumb|left|The Chiefs-Raiders game in 2006 at [[Arrowhead Stadium]].]]
 
The Broncos and Raiders have been divisional rivals since the two teams began play in the AFL in 1960. While the Raiders still hold the advantage in the all-time series 59–43–2, the Broncos amassed 21 wins in 28 games, from the 1995 season and the arrival of Broncos head coach [[Mike Shanahan]], through the 2008 season. Shanahan coached the Raiders before being fired just four games into the 1989 season, which has only served to intensify this rivalry. On Sunday, October 24, 2010 the Raiders beat the Broncos (59-14), giving the Raiders the most points scored in a game in the team's history. The Broncos' first ever Super Bowl appearance (in the 1977 season) was made possible by defeating Oakland in the AFC Championship.
 
 
The Chiefs and Raiders have had several memorable matches and have a bitter divisional rivalry. Oakland lost the 1969 AFL Championship against Kansas City, who went on to beat the [[1969 Minnesota Vikings season|Minnesota Vikings]] and win the Super Bowl. Kansas City leads the overall series 53–48–2.
 
 
The [[San Diego Chargers]]' rivalry with Oakland dates to the 1963 season, when the Raiders defeated the heavily favored Chargers twice, both come-from-behind fourth quarter victories. One of the most memorable games between these teams was the "Holy Roller" game in 1978, in which the Raiders fumbled for a touchdown in a very controversial play. The Raiders hold the overall series advantage at 57–45–2.
 
 
===Battle Of The Bay Rival===
 
The [[San Francisco 49ers]], located on the other side of [[San Francisco Bay]], are the Raiders' geographic rivals. The first exhibition game played in 1967, ended with the NFL 49ers defeating the AFL Raiders 13-10. After the 1970 merger, the 49ers won in Oakland 38-7. As a result, games between the two are referred to as the "Battle of the Bay."<ref name="battleone">{{cite web |url=http://www.raiders.com/history/gm15.jsp |title=Raiders Topple 49ers 35-24 in Battle of the Bay |accessdate=2007-02-04 |work=Raiders.com |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061018045021/http://www.raiders.com/history/gm15.jsp |archivedate = 2006-10-18}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}<ref name="battletwo">{{cite news |title=49ers And Raiders Stagger Into Battle |url=http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=49ers&id=4638285 |agency=Associated Press |publisher=KGO-TV |date=2006-10-07 |accessdate=2007-02-04 }}</ref> Since the two teams play in different conferences, regular-season matchups are at least every four years. Fans and players of the winning team can claim "bragging rights" as the better team in the area.
 
 
On August 20, 2011, in the third week of the pre-season, the pre-season game between the rivals was marked by fights in restrooms and stands at [[Candlestick Park]] including a shooting outside the stadium in which several were injured. The NFL has decided to cancel all future pre-season games between the Raiders and 49ers.
 
 
===Historic Rivals===
 
The rivalry between the Raiders and [[New England Patriots]] dates to their time in the AFL, but was intensified during a 1978 preseason game, when Patriots wide receiver [[Darryl Stingley]] was permanently paralyzed after a vicious hit delivered by Raiders free safety [[Jack Tatum]]. Before that, New England also lost a playoff game in 1976 to the Raiders; the game is unofficially known as "The [[Ben Dreith]] Game" due to a controversial penalty by head referee Dreith. The two teams met in a [[NFL playoffs, 2001-02|divisional-round]] playoff game in 2002, which became known as the "[[Tuck Rule Game]]". Late in the game, an incomplete pass, ruled a fumble, by Patriots quarterback Tom Brady was overturned, and New England went on to win in overtime and eventually won the Super Bowl against the heavily favored [[2001 St. Louis Rams season|St. Louis Rams]], the Raiders' former crosstown rivals in Los Angeles.<ref name="pats">{{cite news |first=Jim |last=Halley |title=Patriots-Raiders: No love lost over time |url=http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2005-09-08-pats-raiders-history_x.htm |publisher=[[USA Today]] |date=2005-09-08 |accessdate=2007-01-31}}</ref> Since that game, the Patriots have won two of the last three regular season contests between the two teams. The first contest being the following year during the 2002 season in Oakland, with the Raiders winning 27–20; they met on the 2005 season opener in New England with the Patriots ruining [[Randy Moss]]' debut as a Raider 30-20; the Patriots defeated the Raiders 49-26 in December 2008 in [[Bill Belichick]]'s 100th regular season win as Patriots coach; the most recent meeting saw the Patriots win 31–19 during the [[2011 NFL season|2011 season]].
 
 
The [[New York Jets]] began a strong rivalry with the Raiders in the AFL during the 1960s that continued through much of the 1970s, fueled in part by Raider [[Ike Lassiter]] breaking star quarterback [[Joe Namath]]'s jaw during a 1967 game (though [[Ben Davidson]] wrongly got blamed),<ref name="lassiter">{{cite news |first=Tom |last=LaMarre |title=Jets-Raiders series boasts several classics |url=http://www.nfl.com/teams/story/OAK/4774152 |publisher=NFL.com |date=2001-12-31 |accessdate=2007-01-31 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070505154309/http://www.nfl.com/teams/story/OAK/4774152 |archivedate = 2007-05-05}}</ref> the famous [[Heidi Game]] during the 1968 season, and the Raiders' bitter loss to the Jets in the AFL Championship later that season. The rivalry waned in later years, but saw a minor resurgence in the 2000-02 period.<ref name="peculiar">{{cite news |first=Jerry |last=McDonald |title=Raiders and Jets renew a peculiar rivalry |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20051114130420/www.nfl.com/news/story/6805404|publisher=NFL.com |date=2003-11-04 |accessdate=2007-01-31}}</ref><ref name="epic">{{cite web |url=http://www.raiders.com/newsroom/newsroomNewsDetail.jsp?id=6289 |title=Epic Rivalries: Raiders vs. Jets |accessdate=2007-01-31 |date=2005-12-07 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061026065601/http://www.raiders.com/newsroom/newsroomNewsDetail.jsp?id=6289 |archivedate = 2006-10-26}}</ref> The Jets edged the Raiders in the final week of the 2001 season 24-22 on a last-second [[John Hall (placekicker)|John Hall]] field goal; the Raiders hosted the Jets in the Wild Card round the following Saturday and won 38-24. In the 2002 season the Raiders defeated the Jets 26-20 in December, then defeated them again in the AFC Divisional Playoffs, 30-10. The Raiders won the most recent matchup 34-24 on September 25, 2011.
 
 
The [[Pittsburgh Steelers]]' rivalry with the Raiders has historically been very tight - with the 2012 season the Raiders lead the rivalry 11 wins to nine for Pittsburgh and their playoff rivalry is tied 3-3. The rivalry was extremely intense during the 1970s. The Steelers knocked the Raiders out of the playoffs in three of four consecutive seasons in the early 1970s (the first loss was the "[[Immaculate Reception]]" game) until the Raiders finally beat the Steelers in the 1976 [[NFL playoffs, 1976-77|AFC Championship]] (and went on to win Super Bowl XI). During the 1975 AFC Championship game, Raiders strong safety [[George Atkinson (American football)|George Atkinson]] delivered a hit on Pittsburgh wide receiver [[Lynn Swann]] that gave him a concussion. When the two teams met in the 1976 season opener, Atkinson hit Swann again and gave him another concussion. After the second incident, Steelers head coach [[Chuck Noll]] referred to Atkinson as part of the "criminal element" in the NFL. Atkinson filed a $2 million [[defamation]] lawsuit against Noll and the Steelers, which he lost.<ref name="atkinson">{{cite news |first=Bob |last=Smizik |title=Raiders of the lost rivalry |url=http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06302/733903-194.stm |publisher=[[Pittsburgh Post-Gazette]] |date=2006-10-29 |accessdate=2007-01-31}}</ref> The two clubs' three most recent contests harkened back to the rivalry's history of bitterness and close competition. On December 6, 2009 the 3-8 Raiders helped spoil the [[Super Bowl XLIII|defending champions]]' quest for the playoffs as the game lead changed five times in the fourth quarter and a [[Louis Murphy]] touchdown with 11 seconds to go won it 27-24 for the Raiders. Oakland was then beaten 35-3 by Pittsburgh on November 21, 2010; this game brought out the roughness of the rivalry's 1970s history when Steelers quarterback [[Ben Roethlisberger]] was sucker-punched by Raiders defensive end [[Richard Seymour]] following a touchdown. Most recently, on September 23, 2012 the Raiders erased a 31-21 Steelers lead and won 34-31 on a last-second 43-yard field goal by [[Sebastian Janikowski]].
 
 
Rivalries that have waned in recent years have been with the [[Miami Dolphins]] and [[Tennessee Titans|Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans]]. The Raiders faced the Dolphins twice in the early 1970s; the Dolphins defeated the Raiders in the 1973 AFC Championship Game 27-10 on their way to [[Super Bowl VIII]]. The next year in the divisional playoffs the Raiders trailed Miami 26-21; in the final minute the Raiders drove to the Miami eight-yard line; a desperation pass by [[Ken Stabler]] was caught in traffic by [[Clarence Davis]] in the play known as the "Sea Of Hands."
 
 
The Raiders faced the Houston Oilers throughout the AFL era and twice in AFL playoffs in the late 1960s, winning 40-7 in 1967 on their way to [[Super Bowl II]] and 56-7 in the 1969 divisional playoffs. Oakland defeated the Oilers in the 1980 Wild Card playoffs 27-7 and defeated the Titans in the 2002 AFC Championship Game 41-24; the combined scores of these four games is 164-45.
 
 
==== Historic Battle For LA Rivalry ====
 
As mentioned earlier, the Raiders and Rams had a rivalry during the 13 years both teams shared the Los Angeles market. The teams met six times in the regular season in this period, with the Raiders winning four times.
 
 
=== Raiders vs. Opponents ===
 
'''Notes:'''
 
*Regular season record (all-time): 426-351-11 <ref>'http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/rai/head-to-head.htm</ref> (as of week 17 of the 2011 NFL season)
 
*Playoff record (all-time): 25-18 (last appearance after 2002 season)
 
*The New York Jets were known as the New York Titans.
 
*The Tennessee Titans were known as the Houston Oilers.
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
| colspan="9" style="text-align:center; background:black;"|'''<span style="color:#C3C6CC">Raiders records against all of the other 31 NFL franchises</span>'''
 
|-
 
! rowspan="2" | Opponent
 
! rowspan="2" | First meeting
 
! colspan="4" | Regular season
 
! colspan="3" | Playoffs
 
|-
 
!Wins!!Losses!!Ties!!Percent!!Wins!!Losses!!Percent
 
|-
 
| [[Arizona Cardinals]] ||1973 ||5 ||3 ||0 ||.625 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Atlanta Falcons]] ||1971 ||7 ||5 ||0 ||.583 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Baltimore Ravens]] ||1996 ||1 ||5 ||0 ||.167 ||0 ||1 ||0
 
|-
 
| [[Buffalo Bills]] ||1960 ||19 ||17 ||0 ||.528 ||0 ||2 ||0
 
|-
 
| [[Carolina Panthers]] ||1997 ||2 ||2 ||0 ||.500 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Chicago Bears]] ||1972 ||7 ||6 ||0 ||.538 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Cincinnati Bengals]] ||1968 ||18 ||8 ||0 ||.692 ||2 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[Cleveland Browns]] ||1970 ||11 ||8 ||0 ||.579 ||2 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[Dallas Cowboys]] ||1974 ||6 ||4 ||0 ||.600 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Denver Broncos]] ||1960 ||59 ||42 ||2 ||.573 ||1 ||1 ||.500
 
|-
 
| [[Detroit Lions]] ||1970 ||6 ||5 ||0 ||.545 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Green Bay Packers]] ||1972 ||5 ||6 ||0 ||.455 ||0 ||1 ||0
 
|-
 
| [[Houston Texans]] ||2004 ||2 ||5 ||0 ||.286 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Indianapolis Colts]] ||1971 ||7 ||5 ||0 ||.583 ||1 ||1 ||.500
 
|-
 
| [[Jacksonville Jaguars]] ||1996 ||1 ||4 ||0 ||.200 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Kansas City Chiefs]] ||1960 ||48 ||53 ||2 ||.476 ||1 ||2 ||.333
 
|-
 
| [[Miami Dolphins]] ||1972 ||16 ||14 ||1 ||.532 ||3 ||1 ||.750
 
|-
 
| [[Minnesota Vikings]] ||1973 ||9 ||4 ||0 ||.692 ||1 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[New England Patriots]] ||1960 ||14 ||15 ||1 ||.467 ||1 ||2 ||.333
 
|-
 
| [[New Orleans Saints]] ||1971 ||5 ||5 ||1 ||.455 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[New York Giants]] ||1973 ||7 ||4 ||0 ||.636 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[New York Jets]] ||1960 ||21 ||15 ||2 ||.553 ||2 ||2 ||.500
 
|-
 
| [[Philadelphia Eagles]] ||1971 ||5 ||5 ||0 ||.500 ||1 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[Pittsburgh Steelers]] ||1970 ||10 ||9 ||0 ||.526 ||3 ||3 ||.500
 
|-
 
| [[San Diego Chargers]] ||1960 ||57 ||45 ||2 ||.558 ||1 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[San Francisco 49ers]] ||1968 ||6 ||6 ||0 ||.500 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Seattle Seahawks]] ||1977 ||28 ||23 ||0 ||.549 ||1 ||1 ||.500
 
|-
 
| [[St. Louis Rams]] ||1972 ||8 ||4 ||0 ||.667 ||0 ||0 ||--
 
|-
 
| [[Tampa Bay Buccaneers]] ||1976 ||6 ||1 ||0 ||.857 ||0 ||1 ||0
 
|-
 
| [[Tennessee Titans]] ||1960 ||23 ||19 ||0 ||.548 ||4 ||0 ||1.000
 
|-
 
| [[Washington Redskins]] ||1970 ||7 ||4 ||0 ||.636 ||1 ||0 ||1.000
 
|}
 
 
==Ownership, Administration and Financial Operations==
 
 
===Founding Of The Franchise===
 
A few months after the first AFL draft in 1959, the owners of the yet-unnamed [[Minneapolis-Saint Paul]] franchise accepted an offer to join the established [[National Football League]] as an expansion team (now called the [[Minnesota Vikings]]) in 1961, sending the AFL scrambling for a replacement.<ref name="hof">{{cite web |url=http://www.profootballhof.com/history/team.jsp?franchise_id=23 |title=Pro Football Hall of Fame - Oakland Raiders |accessdate=2007-01-19}}</ref><ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', p. 7.</ref> At the time, Oakland seemed an unlikely venue for a professional football team. The city had not asked for a team, there was no ownership group and there was no stadium in Oakland suitable for pro football (the closest stadiums were in [[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]] and [[San Francisco]]) and there was already a successful NFL franchise in the [[San Francisco Bay Area|Bay Area]] in the [[San Francisco 49ers]]. However, the AFL owners selected Oakland after [[Los Angeles Chargers]] owner [[Barron Hilton]] threatened to forfeit his franchise unless a second team was placed on the West Coast.<ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', pp. 7–8.</ref> Accordingly, the city of Oakland was awarded the eighth AFL franchise on January 30, 1960, and the team inherited the Minneapolis club's draft picks.
 
 
Upon receiving the franchise, Oakland civic leaders found a number of businesspeople willing to invest in the new team. A [[limited partnership]] was formed to own the team headed by managing general partner [[Chet Soda|Y. Charles (Chet) Soda]] (1908–89), a local real estate developer, and included general partners Ed McGah (1899–1983), Robert Osborne (1898–1968), [[F. Wayne Valley]] (1914–86), restaurateur Harvey Binns (1914–82), Don Blessing (1904–2000), and contractor Charles Harney (1902–62)<ref>Harney was the builder of San Francisco's Candlestick Park, built on a bleak parcel of land he owned; to date, the road leading to the stadium is known as Harney Way. With a push from Harney, the Raiders were allowed to play their final three 1960 home games at Candlestick.</ref> as well as numerous limited partners.
 
 
The [[1960 Oakland Raiders season|Raiders]] finished their first campaign with a 6–8 record, and lost $500,000. Desperately in need of money to continue running the team, Valley received a $400,000 loan from [[Buffalo Bills]] founder [[Ralph C. Wilson Jr.]]<ref name="dvd">{{cite video |people=[[Steve Sabol]] (Executive Producer) |date=2004 |title=Raiders - The Complete History |medium=DVD |publisher=NFL Productions LLC}}</ref>
 
 
After the conclusion of the first season Soda dropped out of the partnership, and on January 17, 1961, Valley, McGah and Osborne bought out the remaining four general partners. Soon after, Valley and McGah purchased Osborne's interest, with Valley named as the managing general partner.
 
 
In 1962, Valley hired Al Davis, a former assistant coach for the San Diego Chargers, as head coach and general manager. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner. Two months later, the league announced its [[AFL-NFL merger|merger with the NFL]]. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, and Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part owner of the team. He purchased a 10% interest in the team for US $18,000, and became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations.<ref name="burke"/><ref name="Dickey, Just Win, Baby, p. 41"/>
 
 
In 1972, with Wayne Valley out of the country for several weeks attending the [[1972 Summer Olympics|Olympic Games]] in [[Munich]], Davis's attorneys drafted a revised partnership agreement that gave him total control over all of the Raiders' operations. McGah, a supporter of Davis, signed the agreement. Under partnership law, by a 2–1 vote of the general partners, the new agreement was thus ratified. Valley was furious when he discovered this, and immediately filed suit to have the new agreement overturned, but the court sided with Davis and McGah.
 
 
In 1976, Valley sold his interest in the team, and Davis — who now owned only 25% of the Raiders — was firmly in charge.<ref name="burke" /><ref>Dickey, ''Just Win, Baby'', pp. 98–101.</ref>
 
 
====Current Ownership Structure====
 
Legally, the club is a limited partnership with nine partners — Davis' heirs and the heirs of the original eight team partners. From 1972 onward, Davis had exercised near-complete control as president of the team's general partner, A.D. Football, Inc. Although exact ownership stakes are not known, it has been reported that Davis owned 47% of the team shares before his death in 2011.<ref name="silence">{{cite news |first=Mark |last=Zeigler |title=Silence of elders tells on Raiders |url=http://www3.signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/oct/31/silence-elders-tells-raiders/?chargers|publisher=[[San Diego Union-Tribune]] |date=2009-10-31 |accessdate=2009-10-31 }}</ref>
 
 
Ed McGah, the last of the original eight general partners of the Raiders, died in September 1983. Upon his death, his interest was devised to a family [[Trust law|trust]], of which his son, E.J. McGah, was the [[trustee]]. The younger McGah was himself a part-owner of the team, as a limited partner, and died in 2002. Several members of the McGah family filed suit against Davis in October 2003, alleging mismanagement of the team by Davis. The lawsuit sought monetary damages and to remove Davis and A. D. Football, Inc. as the team's managing general partner. Among their specific complaints, the McGahs alleged that Davis failed to provide them with detailed financial information previously provided to Ed and E.J. McGah. The Raiders countered that—under the terms of the partnership agreement as amended in 1972—upon the death of the elder McGah in 1983, his general partner interest converted to that of a limited partner. The team continued to provide the financial information to the younger McGah as a courtesy, though it was under no obligation to do so.<ref name="lawsuit">{{cite news |first=Paul T |last=Rosynsky |title=Raiders co-owner wants to boot Davis |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20031015/ai_n14561183 |publisher=[[Oakland Tribune]] |date=2003-10-15 |accessdate=2007-01-29 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013235455/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20031015/ai_n14561183 <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-10-13}}</ref>
 
 
The majority of the lawsuit was dismissed in April 2004, when an Alameda County Superior Court judge ruled that the case lacked merit since none of the other partners took part in the lawsuit.<ref name="dismissal">{{cite news |first=Glenn |last=Chapman |title=Judge rules Davis will remain a Raider |url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20040403/ai_n14573625 |publisher=[[Oakland Tribune]] |date=2004-04-03 |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}} In October 2005, the lawsuit was settled out of court. The terms of the settlement are confidential, but it was reported that under its terms Davis purchased the McGah family's interest in the Raiders (approximately 31 percent), which gave him for the first time a majority interest, speculated to be approximately 67 percent of the team. As a result of the settlement, confidential details concerning Al Davis and the ownership of the Raiders were not released to the public.<ref name="settlement">{{cite news |first=Paul T |last=Rosynsky |title=Raiders ownership suit settled |url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20051021/ai_n15803820 |publisher=[[Oakland Tribune]] |date=2005-10-21 |accessdate=2007-01-29}}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}} His ownership share went down to 47% when he sold 20% of the team to Wall Street investors <ref name="silence" />
 
 
In 2006, it was reported that Davis had been attempting to sell the 31% ownership stake in the team obtained from the McGah family. He was unsuccessful in this effort, reportedly because the sale would not give the purchaser any control of the Raiders, even in the event of Davis's death.<ref name="ownership">{{cite news |first=Nancy |last=Gay |title=No takers for 31% share of Raiders |url=http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2006/11/25/SPG19MJJS01.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2006-11-25 |accessdate=2007-01-29 }}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}
 
 
Al Davis died on October 8, 2011, at 82. According to a 1999 partnership agreement, Davis' interest passed to his wife, Carol.<ref name="ownership" />{{dl|date=December 2012}} After Davis' death, Raiders chief executive [[Amy Trask]] said that the team "will remain in the Davis family."<ref name="Tafur B-9"/> Al and Carol's son, [[Mark Davis (American football)|Mark]], inherited his father's old post as managing general partner and serves as the public face of the ownership.
 
 
===Financial Operations===
 
[[Image:Raider Image, Universal CityWalk Hollywood front 1.JPG|thumb|170px|The Raider Image is the official store of the Oakland Raiders.]]
 
According to a 2006 report released by ''[[Forbes|Forbes Magazine]]'', the Raiders' overall team value of US $736 million ranks 28th out of 32 NFL teams.<ref name="forbes">{{cite web |url=http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/30/06nfl_Oakland-Raiders_300874.html |title=NFL Team Valuations - #28 Oakland Raiders |accessdate=2007-01-25 |publisher=''Forbes Magazine''}}</ref> The team ranked in the bottom three in league attendance from 2003–05, and failed to sellout a majority of their home games. One of the reasons cited for the poor attendance figures was the decision to issue costly [[Personal Seat License]]s (PSLs) upon the Raiders' return to Oakland in 1995. The PSLs, which ranged in cost from $250 to $4,000, were meant to help repay the $200 million it cost the city of Oakland and Alameda County to expand Overstock.com Coliseum. They were only valid for 10 years, however, while other teams issue them permanently. As a result, fewer than 31,000 PSLs were sold for a stadium that holds twice that amount. Since 1995, [[NFL blackout|television blackouts]] of Raiders home games have been common.<ref name="psl">{{cite news |first=Tom |last=Fitzgerald |title=Raiders reach pact with Oakland/No more PSLs -- team will take over marketing duties |url=http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/11/03/MNGU4FIB741.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2005-11-03 |accessdate=2007-01-25 }}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}
 
 
In November 2005, the team announced that it was taking over ticket sales from the privately run Oakland Football Marketing Association (OFMA), and abolishing PSLs.<ref name="psl" />{{dl|date=December 2012}} In February 2006, the team also announced that it would lower ticket prices for most areas of Overstock.com Coliseum.<ref name="cut">{{cite news |first=Eric |last=Young |title=Raiders cut ticket prices at Coliseum |url=http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2006/02/13/daily31.html |publisher=Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal |date=2006-02-15 |accessdate=2007-01-25 }}</ref> Just prior to the start of the [[2006 NFL season]], the Raiders revealed that they had sold 37,000 season tickets, up from 29,000 the previous year.<ref name="seasontix">{{cite news |first=Eric |last=Young |title=Raiders post solid numbers already |url=http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/stories/2006/09/04/daily28.html |publisher=San Francisco Business Times |date=2006-11-06 |accessdate=2007-01-25 }}</ref> Despite the team's 2-14 record, they sold out six of their eight home games in 2006.<ref name="sellouts">{{cite news |first=Bill |last=Soliday |title="Gabriel's release, return mystery" (sellout info in Notes) |url=http://www.contracostatimes.com/mld/cctimes/sports/football/nfl/oakland_raiders/16246551.htm?source=rss&channel=cctimes_oakland_raiders |publisher=[[Contra Costa Times]] |date=2006-12-15 |accessdate=2007-01-25 }}</ref>{{fv|date=December 2012}}
 
 
===Legal Battles===
 
The Raiders and Al Davis have been involved in several lawsuits throughout their history, including ones against the NFL. When the NFL declined to approve the Raiders' move from Oakland to Los Angeles in 1980, the team joined the [[Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum]] Commission in a lawsuit against the league alleging a violation of antitrust laws.<ref name="antitrust">{{cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1971-1980#1980 |title=NFL History (1971-1980) |accessdate=2007-01-25}}</ref> The Coliseum Commission received a settlement from the NFL of $19.6 million in 1987.<ref name="settlement">{{cite news |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE0D61430F936A35752C1A961948260 |title=N.F.L. Settles Coliseum Suit |accessdate=2007-01-25 |publisher=''[[The New York Times]]'' | date=1987-11-05}}</ref> In 1986, Davis testified on behalf of the [[United States Football League]] in their unsuccessful antitrust lawsuit against the NFL. He was the only NFL owner to do so.<ref name="usfl">{{cite web |url=http://static.espn.go.com/classic/biography/s/Davis_Al.html |title=Just do it, baby |accessdate=2007-01-30 |last=Puma |first=Mike |publisher=[[ESPN Classic]]}}</ref>
 
 
After relocating back to Oakland, the team sued the NFL for interfering with their negotiations to build a new stadium at [[Hollywood Park Racetrack|Hollywood Park]] prior to the move. The Raiders' lawsuit further contended that they had the rights to the Los Angeles market, and thus were entitled to compensation from the league for giving up those rights by moving to Oakland. A jury found in favor of the NFL in 2001, but the verdict was overturned a year later due to alleged juror misconduct. In February 2005, a [[California Courts of Appeal|California Court of Appeal]] unanimously upheld the original verdict.<ref name="upheld">{{cite web |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060114151011/www.nfl.com/news/story/8222230|title=Appellate court rules for NFL in Raiders case |accessdate=2007-02-02 |work=NFL.com }}</ref>
 
 
When the Raiders moved back from Los Angeles in 1995, the city of Oakland and the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum Authority agreed to sell Personal Seat Licenses (PSLs) to help pay for the renovations to their stadium. But after games rarely sold out, the Raiders filed suit, claiming that they were misled by the city and the Coliseum Authority with the false promise that there would be sellouts. On November 2, 2005, a settlement was announced, part of which was the abolishment of PSLs as of the 2006 season.<ref name="agreementpsl">{{cite news |first=Tom |last=Fitzgerald |title=Raiders reach pact with Oakland-No more PSLs -- team will take over marketing duties |url=http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/11/03/MNGU4FIB741.DTL |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle |date=2005-11-03 |accessdate=2007-02-02 }}</ref>{{dl|date=December 2012}}
 
 
====Trademark and Trade Dress Dilution====
 
In 1996, the team sued the NFL in [[Santa Clara County, California]], in a lawsuit that ultimately included 22 separate causes of action. Included in the team's claims were claims that the [[Tampa Bay Buccaneers]]' pirate logo diluted the team's California trademark in its own pirate logo and for trade dress dilution on the ground that the League had improperly permitted other teams (including the Buccaneers and [[Carolina Panthers]]) to adopt colors for their uniforms similar to those of the Raiders. Among other things, the lawsuit sought an injunction to prevent the Buccaneers and Panthers from wearing their uniforms while playing in California. In 2003, these claims were dismissed on [[summary judgment]] because the relief sought would violate the [[Commerce Clause]] of the [[United States Constitution]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.martindale.com/pdf/c2c/magazine/2005_Nov/c2cMag_Nov05_PIP_Bingham.pdf|title=Winning the Big Game|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
====BALCO Scandal====
 
In 2003, a number of current and former Oakland players such as [[Bill Romanowski]], [[Tyrone Wheatley]], [[Barrett Robbins]], [[Chris Cooper (American football)|Chris Cooper]] and [[Dana Stubblefield]] were named as clients of the '''Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative''' ('''[[BALCO]]'''). BALCO was an [[Economy of the United States|American company]] led by founder and owner [[Victor Conte]]. In 2003, journalists [[Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada]] investigated the company's role in a drug sports scandal later referred to as the ''BALCO Affair''. BALCO marketed [[tetrahydrogestrinone]] ("the Clear"), a then-undetected, performance-enhancing steroid developed by chemist [[Patrick Arnold]]. Conte, BALCO vice president James Valente, weight trainer [[Greg Anderson (trainer)|Greg Anderson]] and coach [[Remi Korchemny]] had supplied a number of high-profile sports stars from the United States and [[Europe]] with the Clear and [[human growth hormone]] for several years.
 
 
Headquartered in [[Burlingame, California]], BALCO was founded in 1984. Officially, BALCO was a service business for blood and urine analysis and food supplements. In 1988, Victor Conte offered free blood and urine tests to a group of athletes known as the ''BALCO Olympians''. He then was allowed to attend the [[1988 Summer Olympics|Summer Olympics]] in [[Seoul]], [[South Korea]]. From 1996 Conte worked with well-known American football star Bill Romanowski, who proved to be useful to establish new connections to athletes and coaches.<ref name="MFW-LW">Mark Fainaru-Wada, Lance Williams: [http://www.seattlepi.com/baseball/153951_steriods25.html Barry Bonds: Anatomy of a scandal.] San Francisco Chronicle, 25. December 2003</ref>
 
The Raiders continue towards the future as a team.<ref>http://www.csnbayarea.com/football-oakland-raiders/raiders-talk/Raiders-key-matchup-No-1-Wheeler-vs-Mart?blockID=797589&feedID=7638</ref>
 
 
==Players==
 
 
===Pro Football Hall Of Famers===
 
The [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] has inducted eleven players who made their primary contribution to professional football while with the Raiders, in addition to owner Al Davis and head coach John Madden. The Raiders' total of 20 Hall of Famers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.raiders.com/history/hall-of-fame.html |title=Oakland Raiders &#124; Raiders in the Hall of Fame |publisher=Raiders.com |date= |accessdate=2012-09-03}}</ref><br />
 
'''Notes:'''
 
* Hall of Famers who made the major part of their primary contribution for the Raiders are listed in '''bold'''.
 
* Hall of Famers who spent only a minor portion of their career with the Raiders are listed in normal font.
 
[[File:Ted Hendricks 2-4-05 050204-N-0874H-006.jpg|thumb|170px|right|[[Ted Hendricks]] was a member of four [[Super Bowl]]-winning teams (three with the Raiders and one with the Colts) and was a Pro Bowl selection eight times. He is the first player in NFL history to have four Super Bowl rings.]]
 
[[File:Howie Long - American Football Player TV host.jpg|thumb|170px|Raider's Hall of Famer [[Howie Long]] spent 13 seasons with the Raiders from 1981-1993.]]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
| colspan="5" style="text-align:center; background:black;"|'''<span style="color:#C3C6CC">Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Hall of Famers</span>'''
 
|-
 
!No.
 
!Player
 
!Inducted
 
!Positions
 
!Years with Raiders
 
|-
 
| 80 ||[[Jerry Rice]] ||2010 ||[[Wide Receiver]] ||2001–2004
 
|-
 
| 26 ||[[Rod Woodson]] ||2009 ||[[Safety]] ||2002–2003
 
|-
 
| ||'''[[John Madden]]''' ||2006 ||[[Head Coach]] ||1969–1978
 
|-
 
| 76 ||[[Bob Brown (offensive lineman)|Bob Brown]] ||2004 ||[[Offensive Tackle]] ||1971–1973
 
|-
 
| 80 || [[James Lofton]] ||2003 ||[[Wide Receiver]] ||1987–1988
 
|-
 
| 32 || '''[[Marcus Allen]]''' ||2003 ||[[Running Back]] ||1982–1992
 
|-
 
| 87 ||'''[[Dave Casper]]''' ||2002 ||[[Tight End]] ||1974–1980, 1984
 
|-
 
| 42 ||[[Ronnie Lott]] ||2000 ||[[Safety]] ||1991–1992
 
|-
 
| 75 ||'''[[Howie Long]]''' ||2000 ||[[Defensive End]] ||1981–1993
 
|-
 
| 29 ||[[Eric Dickerson]] ||1999 ||[[Running Back]] ||1992
 
|-
 
| 22 ||[[Mike Haynes (cornerback)|'''Mike Haynes''']] ||1997 ||[[Cornerback]] ||1983–1989
 
|-
 
| ||'''[[Al Davis]]''' ||1992 ||Team, League Administrator ||1963–2011
 
|-
 
| 83 ||'''[[Ted Hendricks]]''' ||1990 ||[[Linebacker]] ||1975–1983
 
|-
 
| 78 ||'''[[Art Shell]]''' ||1989 ||[[Offensive Tackle]] ||1968–1982
 
|-
 
| 14, 25 ||'''[[Fred Biletnikoff]]''' ||1988 ||[[Wide Receiver]] ||1965–1978
 
|-
 
| 63 ||'''[[Gene Upshaw]]''' ||1987 ||[[Guard (American football)|Guard]] ||1967–1981
 
|-
 
| 24 ||[[Willie Brown (American football)|'''Willie Brown''']] ||1984 ||[[Cornerback]] ||1967–1978
 
|-
 
| 16 ||'''[[George Blanda]]''' ||1981 ||[[Quarterback]], [[Placekicker]], [[Punter (football)|Punter]]||1967–1975
 
|-
 
| 00 ||'''[[Jim Otto]]''' ||1980 ||[[Center (American football)|Center]] ||1960–1974
 
|-
 
| 77 ||[[Ron Mix]] ||1979 ||[[Offensive Tackle]] ||1971
 
|}
 
 
===NFL MVP Award Winners===
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|align="center" colspan="4" style="{{NFLPrimaryColor|Oakland Raiders}}; {{NFLSecondaryColor|Oakland Raiders}};"|'''Raiders MVP winners'''
 
|-
 
!Year
 
!Player
 
|-
 
|[[1974 NFL season|1974]]||[[Ken Stabler]]
 
|-
 
|[[1985 NFL season|1985]]||[[Marcus Allen]]
 
|-
 
|[[2002 NFL season|2002]]||[[Rich Gannon]]
 
|}
 
 
===Super Bowl MVP Award Winners===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|align="center" colspan="4" style="{{NFLPrimaryColor|Oakland Raiders}}; {{NFLSecondaryColor|Oakland Raiders}};"|'''Raiders Super Bowl MVP winners'''
 
|-
 
!SB
 
!Player
 
!Position
 
|-
 
|[[Super Bowl XI|XI]]||[[Fred Biletnikoff]] #25||[[Wide Receiver]]
 
|-
 
|[[Super Bowl XV|XV]]||[[Jim Plunkett]] #16||[[Quarterback]]
 
|-
 
|[[Super Bowl XVIII|XVIII]]||[[Marcus Allen]] #32||[[Running Back]]
 
|}
 
 
===Retired Numbers===
 
The Raider organization does not retire the jersey numbers of former players on an official or unofficial basis. The number 00, worn by [[Jim Otto]] for his entire career, is no longer allowed by the NFL.<ref name="number">{{cite web |url=http://football.about.com/cs/football101/a/bl_numbersystem.htm |title=Football 101 - Uniform Numbering System |accessdate=2007-01-31 |last=Alder |first=James |publisher=[[About.com]]}}</ref> It was originally permitted for him only by the AFL as a marketing gimmick since his jersey number 00 is a [[homophone]] pun of his name (aught-O).
 
 
There is speculation that the team may have removed number 2 from circulation, however, as it was last worn by [[JaMarcus Russell]] in 2009 before being released, due to the stigma of Russell being one of the biggest draft busts in the history of [[professional sports]].<ref>[http://espn.go.com/blog/afcwest/post/_/id/31205/pryor-doesnt-follow-russells-footsteps Pryor doesn't follow Russell's footsteps]</ref><ref>[http://www.nesn.com/2011/08/raiders-dont-allow-terrelle-pryor-to-wear-no-2-last-worn-by-draft-bust-jamarcus-russell.html Raiders Don't Allow Terrelle Pryor to Wear No. 2, Last Worn by Draft Bust JaMarcus Russell]</ref> When the team drafted [[Terrelle Pryor]] in the [[2011 NFL Draft|2011 Supplemental Draft]], he was issued #6 despite #2 (the number he wore at [[Ohio State Buckeyes football|Ohio State]]) not being used, and Pryor was not given an explanation why he did not receive the number.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/6898887/terrelle-pryor-joins-oakland-raiders-final-training-camp-drills |title=Terrelle Pryor joins Oakland Raiders in final training camp drills - ESPN |publisher=Espn.go.com |date=2011-08-26 |accessdate=2012-09-03}}</ref>
 
 
===Raiders Single-season Register===
 
*'''Passing Yards''': 4,689 [[Rich Gannon]] (2002)*<ref>http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/rai/single-season-passing.htm Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Passing Single-season Register</ref>
 
*'''Passing Touchdowns''': 34 [[Daryle Lamonica]] (1969)
 
*'''Rushing Yards''': 1,759 [[Marcus Allen]] (1985)*
 
*'''Receptions''': 104 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (1997)
 
*'''Receiving Yards''': 1,408 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (1997)
 
*'''Field Goals Made''': 35 [[Jeff Jaeger]] (1993)
 
*'''Points''': 142 [[Sebastian Janikowski]] (2010)
 
*'''Total Touchdowns''': 18 [[Marcus Allen]] (1984)
 
*'''Punt Return Average''' (minimum 5 returns): 18.5 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (2001)
 
*'''Kickoff Return Average''' (minimum 5 returns): 31.0 [[Jacoby Ford]] (2011)
 
*'''Punting Average''': 51.1 [[Shane Lechler]] (2009)
 
 
''* NFL MVP''
 
 
===Raiders Career Register===
 
*'''Passing Yards''': 19,078 [[Ken Stabler]] (1970–1979)<ref>http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/rai/career-passing.htm Oakland/Los Angeles Raiders Passing Career Register</ref>
 
*'''Passing Touchdowns''': 150 [[Ken Stabler]] (1970–1979)
 
*'''Rushing Yards''': 8,545 [[Marcus Allen]] (1982-1992)
 
*'''Receptions''': 1,070 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (1988–2003)
 
*'''Receiving Yards''': 14,734 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (1988–2003)
 
*'''Pass Interceptions''': 39 [[Willie Brown (American football)|Willie Brown]] (1967-1978), [[Lester Hayes]] (1977-1986)
 
*'''Field Goals Made''': 322 [[Sebastian Janikowski]] (2000–2012)
 
*'''Points''': 1,380 [[Sebastian Janikowski]] (2000–2012)
 
*'''Total Touchdowns''': 104 [[Tim Brown (American football)|Tim Brown]] (1988–2003)
 
*'''Punt Return Average''' (minimum 25 returns): 12.6 [[Claude Gibson]] (1963–1965)
 
*'''Kickoff Return Average''' (minimum 25 returns): 28.4 [[Jack Larscheid]] (1960–1961)
 
*'''Punting Average''': 47.6 [[Shane Lechler]] (2000–2012)
 
*'''Sacks''': 107.5 [[Greg Townsend]] (1983–1997)
 
*'''Winningest Coach''': 103 [[John Madden]] (1969–1978)
 
 
===Current Roster===
 
{{Oakland Raiders roster}}
 
 
==Head Coaches and Staff==
 
 
===Head Coaches===
 
{{Main|List of Oakland Raiders head coaches}}
 
 
===Current Staff===
 
{{Oakland Raiders staff}}
 
 
==Notes and References==
 
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Portal|San Francisco Bay Area}}
 
{{Commons category}}
 
*[http://www.raiders.com/index.html Oakland Raiders] The Official Site of the Oakland Raiders
 
*{{Twitter|raiders}}
 
*{{Facebook|raiders}}
 
*[http://www.nfl.com/teams/oaklandraiders/profile?team=OAK Oakland Raiders] at the [[National Football League]] Official Homepage
 
*[http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/oakland/raiders.html Oakland Raiders Information] at Sports E-Cyclopedia.com
 
 
{{S-start}}
 
{{S-ach|ach}}
 
{{Succession box
 
| title =[[American Football League]] Champions<br />Oakland Raiders
 
| years = '''[[1967 American Football League season|1967]]'''
 
| before =[[1966 Kansas City Chiefs season|Kansas City Chiefs]]<br />[[1966 American Football League season|1966]]
 
| after = [[1968 New York Jets season|New York Jets]]<br />[[1968 American Football League season|1968]]
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = [[Super Bowl Champions]]<br />Oakland Raiders
 
| years = [[Super Bowl XI|1977 (1976 season)]]
 
| before = [[Pittsburgh Steelers]]<br />[[Super Bowl IX|1975 (1974 season)]] and<br>[[Super Bowl X|1976 (1975 season)]]
 
| after = [[Dallas Cowboys]]<br />[[Super Bowl XII|1978 (1977 season)]]
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = Super Bowl Champions<br />Oakland Raiders
 
| years = [[Super Bowl XV|1981 (1980 season)]]
 
| before = [[Pittsburgh Steelers]]<br />[[Super Bowl XIII|1979 (1978 season)]] and<br>[[Super Bowl XIV|1980 (1979 season)]]
 
| after = [[San Francisco 49ers]]<br />[[Super Bowl XVI|1982 (1981 season)]]
 
}}
 
{{Succession box
 
| title = Super Bowl Champions<br />Los Angeles Raiders
 
| years = [[Super Bowl XVIII|1984 (1983 season)]]
 
| before = [[Washington Redskins]]<br />[[Super Bowl XVII|1983 (1982 season)]]
 
| after = [[San Francisco 49ers]]<br />[[Super Bowl XIX|1985 (1984 season)]]
 
}}
 
{{End}}
 
{{Oakland Raiders}}
 
{{Super Bowl XI}}
 
{{Super Bowl XV}}
 
{{Super Bowl XVIII}}
 
{{NFL}}
 
{{AFL (1960 - 1969)}}
 
{{Bay Area Sports}}
 
{{California sports}}
 
{{Oakland attractions}}
 
 
[[Category:Oakland Raiders| ]]
 
[[Category:National Football League teams in Los Angeles]]
 
[[Category:Sports clubs established in 1960]]
 
[[Category:American Football League teams]]
 
[[Category:National Football League teams]]
 
[[Category:American football teams in the San Francisco Bay Area]]
 
 
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