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Article:Music of New Zealand
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Popular '''New Zealand music''' has been influenced by [[blues]], [[jazz]], [[country music|country]], [[rock and roll]] and [[hip hop music|hip hop]], with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation.<ref name="music">{{cite web|first=Nancy |last=Swarbrick|title=Creative life – Music|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|date=June 2010|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/7|accessdate=21 January 2011}}</ref><ref name="canz">{{cite journal|last=Southgate|first=William|title=Current Developments in New Zealand music|journal=[[Composers Association of New Zealand]] newsletter|year=1977|month=September|pages=25–27}}</ref> A number of popular artists have gone on to achieve international success including [[Crowded House]], [[OMC (band)|OMC]], and [[Flight of the Conchords]].
 
Popular '''New Zealand music''' has been influenced by [[blues]], [[jazz]], [[country music|country]], [[rock and roll]] and [[hip hop music|hip hop]], with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation.<ref name="music">{{cite web|first=Nancy |last=Swarbrick|title=Creative life – Music|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|date=June 2010|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/7|accessdate=21 January 2011}}</ref><ref name="canz">{{cite journal|last=Southgate|first=William|title=Current Developments in New Zealand music|journal=[[Composers Association of New Zealand]] newsletter|year=1977|month=September|pages=25–27}}</ref> A number of popular artists have gone on to achieve international success including [[Crowded House]], [[OMC (band)|OMC]], and [[Flight of the Conchords]].
   
Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Maori Music|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/1|accessdate=15 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Musical Instruments|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/6|accessdate=16 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> or as signalling devices during war or special occasions.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Instruments Used for Non-musical Purposes|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/7|accessdate=16 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> '''Taonga pūoro''' are traditional [[musical instrument]]s<ref>{{cite web|title=Maori Online Dictionary|url=http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz/index.cfm?dictionaryKeywords=taonga+puoro&search.x=0&search.y=0&search=search&n=1&idiom=&phrase=&proverb=&loan=}}</ref> of the [[Māori people]]. Taonga pūoro were revived over the past thirty years by [[Hirini Melbourne]], Dr [[Richard Nunns]] and Brian Flintoff. The instruments previously fulfilled many functions within Māori society including a call to arms, dawning of the new day, communications with the gods and the planting of crops.<ref>{{cite web|title=Te Papa: National Museum of New Zealand: Online Resources - Taonga Puoro|url=http://www.tepapa.govt.nz/Education/OnlineResources/Matariki/MatarikiMusic/Pages/overview.aspx}}</ref>
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A unique aspect of New Zealand music comes from Māori traditional chants and songs. These come from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Maori Music|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/1|accessdate=15 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Musical Instruments|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/6|accessdate=16 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> or as signalling devices during war or special occasions.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Instruments Used for Non-musical Purposes|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/7|accessdate=16 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> '''Taonga pūoro''' are traditional [[musical instrument]]s<ref>{{cite web|title=Maori Online Dictionary|url=http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz/index.cfm?dictionaryKeywords=taonga+puoro&search.x=0&search.y=0&search=search&n=1&idiom=&phrase=&proverb=&loan=}}</ref> of the [[Māori people]]. Taonga pūoro were revived over the past thirty years by [[Hirini Melbourne]], Dr [[Richard Nunns]] and Brian Flintoff. The instruments previously fulfilled many functions within Māori society including a call to arms, dawning of the new day, communications with the gods and the planting of crops.<ref>{{cite web|title=Te Papa: National Museum of New Zealand: Online Resources - Taonga Puoro|url=http://www.tepapa.govt.nz/Education/OnlineResources/Matariki/MatarikiMusic/Pages/overview.aspx}}</ref>
   
 
Early European settlers brought over their ethnic music, with [[brass band]]s and [[choral music]] being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Music: General History|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/1|accessdate=15 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor-first=Alexander |editor-last=McLintock |title=Music: Brass Bands |url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/3 |accessdate=14 April 2011 |date=April 2009 |origyear=originally published in 1966 |encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand |publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> [[Pipe band]]s became widespread during the early 20th century.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor-first=Alexander |editor-last=McLintock |title=Music: Pipe Bands |url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/7 |accessdate=14 April 2011 |date=April 2009 |origyear=originally published in 1966 |encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand |publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the USA.<ref name="music"/> Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of ''[[kapa haka]]'' (song and dance) has made a resurgence.<ref>{{cite web|first=Nancy |last=Swarbrick|title=Creative life – Performing arts|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|date=June 2010|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/8|accessdate=21 January 2011}}</ref> The [[New Zealand Music Awards]] are held annually by the [[Recording Industry Association of New Zealand]] (RIANZ); the awards were first held in 1965 by [[Reckitt & Colman]] as the [[Loxene Golden Disc]] awards.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://rianz.org.nz/awards2008/history.asp |title=History &ndash; celebrating our music since 1965 |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of New Zealand]] |year=2008 |accessdate=23 January 2012}}</ref> The RIANZ also publishes the country's official weekly [[record chart]]s.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rianz.org.nz/rianz/rianz_about.asp |title=About RIANZ &ndash; Introduction |publisher=Recording Industry Association of New Zealand |accessdate=23 January 2012}}</ref>
 
Early European settlers brought over their ethnic music, with [[brass band]]s and [[choral music]] being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-first=Alexander|editor-last=McLintock|title=Music: General History|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/1|accessdate=15 February 2011|date=April 2009|origyear=originally published in 1966|encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor-first=Alexander |editor-last=McLintock |title=Music: Brass Bands |url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/3 |accessdate=14 April 2011 |date=April 2009 |origyear=originally published in 1966 |encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand |publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> [[Pipe band]]s became widespread during the early 20th century.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor-first=Alexander |editor-last=McLintock |title=Music: Pipe Bands |url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/7 |accessdate=14 April 2011 |date=April 2009 |origyear=originally published in 1966 |encyclopedia=from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand |publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand}}</ref> The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the USA.<ref name="music"/> Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of ''[[kapa haka]]'' (song and dance) has made a resurgence.<ref>{{cite web|first=Nancy |last=Swarbrick|title=Creative life – Performing arts|publisher=Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|date=June 2010|url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/8|accessdate=21 January 2011}}</ref> The [[New Zealand Music Awards]] are held annually by the [[Recording Industry Association of New Zealand]] (RIANZ); the awards were first held in 1965 by [[Reckitt & Colman]] as the [[Loxene Golden Disc]] awards.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://rianz.org.nz/awards2008/history.asp |title=History &ndash; celebrating our music since 1965 |publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of New Zealand]] |year=2008 |accessdate=23 January 2012}}</ref> The RIANZ also publishes the country's official weekly [[record chart]]s.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rianz.org.nz/rianz/rianz_about.asp |title=About RIANZ &ndash; Introduction |publisher=Recording Industry Association of New Zealand |accessdate=23 January 2012}}</ref>
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Formed in the early 1970s and variously featuring [[Phil Judd]] and brothers [[Tim Finn]] and [[Neil Finn]], the [[Split Enz]] achieved chart success in [[New Zealand]], [[Australia]], and [[Canada]] ‒ most notably with their 1980 single "[[I Got You (Split Enz song)|I Got You]]" - and build a cult following elsewhere. The videos for some of the band's 1980s songs were among the first played on [[MTV]].
 
Formed in the early 1970s and variously featuring [[Phil Judd]] and brothers [[Tim Finn]] and [[Neil Finn]], the [[Split Enz]] achieved chart success in [[New Zealand]], [[Australia]], and [[Canada]] ‒ most notably with their 1980 single "[[I Got You (Split Enz song)|I Got You]]" - and build a cult following elsewhere. The videos for some of the band's 1980s songs were among the first played on [[MTV]].
   
In 1985, [[Neil Finn]] formed pop rock band Crowded House in Melbourne, Australia. The other founding members were Australians Paul Hester and Nick Seymour. Later band members included Neil's brother Tim Finn and Americans Mark Hart and Matt Sherrod. Originally active from 1985 to 1996, the band have had consistent commercial and critical success in Australia and New Zealand<ref name="Kent">{{Cite book|title=[[Kent Music Report|Australian Chart Book 1970–1992]]|last=Kent|first=David|authorlink=David Kent (historian)|publisher=Australian Chart Book Ltd|location=St Ives, New South Wales|year=1993|isbn=0-646-11917-6|accessdate=14 April 2009}} (NOTE: Used for Australian Singles and Albums charts from 1974 until [[Australian Recording Industry Association|ARIA]] created their own [[ARIA Charts|charts]] in mid-1988. In 1992, Kent back calculated chart positions for 1970–1974)</ref><ref name="AusCharts">[http://australian-charts.com/showinterpret.asp?interpret=Crowded+House "Discography Crowded House"] ''australiancharts.com''</ref><ref name="NZCharts">[http://charts.org.nz/showinterpret.asp?interpret=Crowded+House "Discography Crowded House"] ''charts.org.nz''</ref> and international chart success in two phases, beginning with their self-titled debut album, ''[[Crowded House (album)|Crowded House]]'', which reached number twelve on the [[Billboard 200|US Album Chart]] in 1987 and provided the Top Ten hits, "[[Don't Dream It's Over]]" and "[[Something So Strong]]".<ref name="AllmusicSingle">[{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p3998/charts-awards/billboard-singles|pure_url=yes}} "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles"] ''[[Allmusic]]''</ref><ref name="AllmusicAlbum">[{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p3998/charts-awards/billboard-albums|pure_url=yes}} "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums"] ''Allmusic''</ref> Further international success came in the UK and Europe with their third and fourth albums, ''[[Woodface]]'' and ''[[Together Alone]]'' and the compilation album ''[[Recurring Dream]]'', which included the hits "[[Fall at Your Feet]]", "[[Weather with You]]", "[[Distant Sun]]", "[[Locked Out]]", "[[Instinct (song)|Instinct]]" and "[[Not the Girl You Think You Are]]".<ref name="sss">Bourke (1997)</ref><ref>[http://www.chartstats.com/artistinfo.php?id=4856 "Artists > Crowded House"] ''Chart Stats''</ref> [[Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|Queen Elizabeth II]] bestowed an [[Order of the British Empire|OBE]] on both Neil and Tim Finn, in June 1993, for their contribution to the music of New Zealand.<ref name="Hunkin">{{cite web |url=http://www.nzherald.co.nz/entertainment/news/article.cfm?c_id=1501119&objectid=10437512&pnum=1 |title=Finn 'sick' of PM grabbing music glory |author=Hunkin, Joanna |date=3 May 2007 |work=[[The New Zealand Herald]] |accessdate=26 September 2011}}</ref>
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In 1985, [[Neil Finn]] formed pop rock band Crowded House in Melbourne, Australia. The other founding members were Australians Paul Hester and Nick Seymour. Later band members included Neil's brother Tim Finn and Americans Mark Hart and Matt Sherrod. Originally active from 1985 to 1996, the band have had consistent commercial and critical success in Australia and New Zealand<ref name="Kent">{{Cite book|title=[[Kent Music Report|Australian Chart Book 1970–1992]]|last=Kent|first=David|authorlink=David Kent (historian)|publisher=Australian Chart Book Ltd|location=St Ives, New South Wales|year=1993|isbn=0-646-11917-6|accessdate=14 April 2009}} (NOTE: Used for Australian Singles and Albums charts from 1974 until [[Australian Recording Industry Association|ARIA]] created their own [[ARIA Charts|charts]] in mid-1988. In 1992, Kent back calculated chart positions for 1970–1974)</ref><ref name="AusCharts">[http://australian-charts.com/showinterpret.asp?interpret=Crowded+House "Discography Crowded House"] ''australiancharts.com''</ref><ref name="NZCharts">[http://charts.org.nz/showinterpret.asp?interpret=Crowded+House "Discography Crowded House"] ''charts.org.nz''</ref> and international chart success in two phases, beginning with their self-titled debut album, ''[[Crowded House (album)|Crowded House]]'', which reached number twelve on the [[Billboard 200|US Album Chart]] in 1987 and provided the Top Ten hits, "[[Don't Dream It's Over]]" and "[[Something So Strong]]".<ref name="AllmusicSingle">[{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p3998/charts-awards/billboard-singles|pure_url=yes}} "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles"] ''[[Allmusic]]''</ref><ref name="AllmusicAlbum">[{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p3998/charts-awards/billboard-albums|pure_url=yes}} "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums"] ''Allmusic''</ref> Further international success came in the UK and Europe with their third and fourth albums, ''[[Woodface]]'' and ''[[Together Alone]]'' and the compilation album ''[[Recurring Dream]]'', which included the hits "[[Fall at Your Feet]]", "[[Weather
 
New Zealand's top-selling pop song of all time was '[[How Bizarre]]' by [[OMC (band)|OMC]]. The song went to number one in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Ireland, South Africa and Austria. It spent 36 weeks on the United States Billboard's Hot 100 airplay charts, peaking at number 4. It reached number five in the United Kingdom, and it made the Top 10 in Portugal and Israel.<ref name="rianz">{{cite web|url=http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/video/how-bizzare|title=How bizarre (Ministry for Culture and Heritage)|date=30-Aug-2012|accessdate=14-November-2012}}</ref>
 
 
In 2008, folk parody duo [[Flight of the Conchords]] found international success with their self-titled album. The album debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, selling about 52,000 copies in its first week. In New Zealand, the album debuted at number two, beaten to the top spot by Beautiful Machine by Shihad. The following week it jumped to the number one spot. The album was certified 2x Platinum in New Zealand on 23 August 2009, shipping over 30,000 copies.<ref name="rianz">{{cite web|url=http://www.rianz.org.nz/attachments/rianz/chart-1615-05-may-08.pdf|title=The Official New Zealand Music Chart (Flight of the Conchords - No. 1 Album)|publisher=[[Recording Industry Association of New Zealand]]|date=5-May-2008|accessdate=11-July-2012}}</ref>
 
 
==Rock/Alternative/Indie==
 
{{Main|New Zealand rock}}
 
'''Kiwi rock''' is a term used informally to describe [[New Zealand]] [[rock music]] and the culture surrounding [[rock music]] in [[New Zealand]]. The first [[rock'n'roll]] hit by a [[New Zealand]]er was [[Johnny Devlin]]'s hit [[Lawdy Miss Clawdy]], which is reputed to have sold 100,000 copies for [[Phil Warren]]'s Prestige label in 1959-60.
 
 
Throughout the 60s strong rock scenes developed throughout New Zealand. Amongst the key acts were [[Max Merritt]] & The Meteors, [[The La De Das]], [[Ray Columbus & The Invaders]], [[The Fourmyula]], and [[Larry's Rebels]].
 
 
Some of the more influential bands in the 1970s were [[Th'Dudes]] (whose guitarist [[Dave Dobbyn]] formed [[DD Smash]] in the 1980s), [[Dragon (band)|Dragon]], [[Hello Sailor (band)|Hello Sailor]] and [[Split Enz]], fronted by [[Tim Finn]], and later, his brother [[Neil Finn]] who went on to form [[Crowded House]].
 
 
Independent music in New Zealand began in the latter half of the 1970s, with the development of a local punk rock scene<ref>Churton, Wade Ronald (1999, 2001). ''Have You Checked The Children? Punk and Postpunk Music in New Zealand, 1977–1981'' Christchurch, New Zealand: Put Your Foot Down Publishing. ISBN 0-473-06196-1</ref>
 
. This scene produced several bands of note, including [[The Scavengers]], the [[Suburban Reptiles]], Proud Scum and [[Nocturnal Projections]]. One of the most important New Zealand punk bands was [[The Enemy (New Zealand band)|The Enemy]], formed by [[lo-fi]] pioneer [[Chris Knox]]. After a reshuffle of personnel, many of the band's songs were recorded over 1979–1980 as [[Toy Love]]. The same musicians formed the basis for later groups such as [[The Bats]] and [[Tall Dwarfs]].
 
 
The 1980s saw the emergence of independent labels like [[Propeller Records]] in [[Auckland]] and the [[Flying Nun Records|Flying Nun record label]] in [[Christchurch]] which were highly influential in the development of modern New Zealand rock music. [[The Clean]], hailing from [[Dunedin]], was the first major band to emerge from the Flying Nun roster. The South Island cities of Dunedin and Christchurch provided most of the first wave of Flying Nun's artists. During the early 1980s the label's distinctive jangle-pop sound was established by bands such as [[The Chills]], [[The Verlaines]], [[The Dead C]], [[Sneaky Feelings]], [[The Bats]] and [[The Jean-Paul Sartre Experience]].
 
 
Formed in [[Dunedin]] in 1986, The Dead C had an experimental, lo-fi guitar and soundscape-oriented take on rock music. The band became known internationally through their releases on the Philadelphia record label [[Siltbreeze]], especially the 1992 double LP ''Harsh 70s Reality''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.flyingnun.co.nz/artist/46/show_group|title=THE DEAD C - JON DALE|accessdate=14 November 2012}}</ref>
 
 
Rock band [[Shihad]] was formed by vocalist/guitarist [[Jon Toogood]] and drummer [[Tom Larkin]] in 1988. The band's musical style was originally indebted to San Francisco Bay Area thrash metal bands such as Metallica and Megadeth, although the band found wider popularity over the following decade playing a mixture of modern rock, post-grunge and pop-rock. With the release time of their seventh studio album [[Beautiful Machine]], Shihad ranked first equal for most Top 40 charting singles for a New Zealand artist in the New Zealand charts, with 19.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.radioscope.net.nz/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1305&Itemid=9 |title=Chartbitz &#124; June&nbsp;8, 2008 - RadioScope New Zealand |publisher=Radioscope.net.nz |date=10 June 2008 |accessdate=15 July 2011}}</ref>
 
 
New independent labels developed in the 1990s and included [[IMD label|IMD]] and [[Arclife]] in Dunedin, [[Failsafe Records]] and [[She'll Be Right Records]] in Christchurch, [[Capital Recordings]], [[Stink Magnetic]] and [[Loop (record label)|Loop]] in Wellington, and [[Arch Hill Recordings]], [[Lil' Chief Records]] and [[Powertool Records]] in Auckland. The new alternative pop sound is typified by the likes of [[The Brunettes]], [[Goldenhorse]], [[The Phoenix Foundation (band)|The Phoenix Foundation]], and [[Lawrence Arabia]]. [[A Low Hum]] has had a big influence bringing new artists to the attention of alternative music fans in New Zealand putting on nationwide tours and a music festival, [[Camp A Low Hum]], selling [[fanzine]] style booklets with free CDs, and releasing artists like [[The Enright House]] and [[Disasteradio]] on its label.
 
 
Independent music in New Zealand has mainly been supported by student radio stations such as [[bFM (radio)|bFM]] and [[RDU (radio station)|RDU]], and fanzines like [[Opprobium]] and Clinton.
 
 
==Hip hop==
 
{{Main|New Zealand hip hop}}
 
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:Chefu.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Che Fu]]'s music has topped New Zealand's charts for a decade.]] -->
 
The genesis of New Zealand [[hip hop music|hip hop]] began from such elements as the release of the 1979 US movie ''[[The Warriors (film)|The Warriors]]'', and the rise of the [[breakdancing]] craze, both of which emanated from [[New York City]]. [[B-boying|Breaking]] was one of the four elements of the original hip hop culture. The others were [[graffiti art]], [[emceeing]] and [[Deejaying]].
 
 
Many of New Zealand's first hip hop performers, such as [[Dalvanius Prime]], whose "Poi E" was a major hit, were Māori. "Poi E" had no [[rapping]] and was not pure hip hop. It was basically a novelty record intended as a soundtrack for dancing. Even so, it marked a shift from [[reggae]] and [[funk]] as the previously most favoured genre of Māori musicians.
 
 
The first entire album of locally produced hip hop was [[Upper Hutt Posse]]'s ''[[E Tu]]'' [[Extended play|EP]], from 1988. ''E Tu'' was partially in Māori and partially in English, and its lyrics were politically charged.
 
 
The first major New Zealand hip hop hit was "Hip Hop Holiday" by [[3 The Hard Way]]. Sampling the song "Dreadlock Holiday" by [[10CC]], it went to number one for several weeks in 1993 and was also an Australian hit. To date, it remains the biggest selling NZ hip hop single in New Zealand.
 
 
In the 1990s, New Zealand hip hop scene grew with the added input of [[Pacific Islands|Pacific Island]] musicians, creating a local variant style known as [[Urban Pasifika]], a term first coined by producer [[Alan Jansson]] for the influential [[Proud (compilation)|Proud]] collection in 1994. That album, featuring [[Sisters Underground]] and [[OMC (band)|OMC]], helped set the stage for the next decade of New Zealand hip hop. 'Protest' content was still present, but lyrical and musical emphasis had largely evolved into a more chart-friendly sound. Artists such as [[Che Fu]] and, more recently, [[Nesian Mystik]], and [[Scribe (rapper)|Scribe]], have carried the ideas and themes to new heights. In 2004, Scribe became the first New Zealand artist to achieve the double honour of simultaneously topping the New Zealand singles and album charts.
 
 
In 2005, [[Savage (rapper)|Savage]], a New Zealand Samoan hip hop artist, had back-to-back number one hits with [[Swing (Savage song)|Swing]] and [[Moonshine (Savage song)|Moonshine]], the latter featuring US artist [[Akon]]. Both songs stayed in the number one spot for eight weeks.
 
 
==Roots/Reggae/Dub==
 
Formed in 1979, Herbs are a New Zealand reggae vocal group and the 11th inductee into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame. In 1986, the song "Slice of Heaven" with Dave Dobbyn reached number one on both the New Zealand and Australian charts. In 1989, Tim Finn joined them for the "Parihaka" festival and, in 1992, Annie Crummer fronted the hit single "See What Love Can Do". Herbs are considered pioneers of the Pacific reggae sound, having paved the way for contemporary New Zealand reggae groups such as [[Katchafire]], [[Kora (band)|Kora]], [[Fat Freddy's Drop]], [[The Black Seeds]], [[Breaks Co-op]] and [[Trinity Roots]].
 
 
==Electronica==
 
{{See also|New Zealand reggae}}
 
The earliest [[electronica]] in New Zealand came out of [[Auckland]] and [[Wellington]] in the early 1980s. Wellington's [[The Body Electric (band)|The Body Electric]], formed out of the punk band, The Steroids, had a massive hit with Pulsing which, without airplay beyond student stations, spent four months in the national Top 50.
 
 
In Auckland there was a rush of activity, much of it centred around [[Trevor Reekie]]'s labels, [[Reaction Records (NZ)|Reaction Records]] (which he A&Red) and [[Pagan Records (NZ)|Pagan Records]]. The compilation, We'll Do Our Best, on [[Propeller Records]] was an early sampler of this. The most prominent act from Auckland in this period was [[The Car Crash Set]], who released several singles and a now sought after album for Reaction in the mid 1980s.
 
 
The explosion of the club scene in Auckland in the era led to a surge in the recording related recording activity, and in 1988 Propeller Records released New Zealand's first [[House Music|House]] record, Jam This Record, produced by [[James Pinker]], [[Alan Jansson]], [[Dave Bulog]] (ex Car Crash Set) and [[Simon Grigg]].
 
 
There were sporadic recordings over the next few years, notably the work of [[Joost Langeveld]], [[Angus McNaughton]], [[DLT (musician)|DLT]] along with [[Future Jazz]] (the term was first coined in Auckland in the early 1990s) scene grew up in the urban inner cities centred, in Auckland, around the Cause Celebre nightclub and the work of [[Nathan Haines]], the two notable early releases being [[Freebass Live At Cause Celebre]] and Haines' [[Shift Left]].
 
 
===Drum and bass===
 
[[Drum and bass]] became popular in New Zealand during the 1980s. With support from British acts and local pioneers like Riddle, Geoff Presha, and Jay Bulletproof, drum and bass clubs like Herzog, The Box, and Fu in Auckland soon attracted a dedicated following.
 
 
The drum and bass scene in New Zealand was supported by the now defunct Real Groove magazine, and grew in popularity with outdoor New Year's Eve festivals such as Alpine Unity and Phat.
 
 
The later nineties saw a raft of independent labels releasing electronica, including [[Chris Chetland]]'s [[Kog Transmissions]], [[Simon Flower]]'s [[Nurture Records]], [[Loop Recordings]], Simon Grigg's [[huh!]], and, importantly, Joost Langeveld's [[Reliable Records]]. Other artists, like [[Roger Perry (NZ)|Roger Perry]], [[Soane (musician)|Soane]], [[Greg Churchill]], }[[Stephen Hill (musician)|Stephen Hill]] and [[Rob Salmon]] have found success with offshore labels.
 
 
In recent times [[Salmonella Dub]], [[Concord Dawn]], [[Tiki Taane]], [[Shapeshifter (band)|Shapeshifter]], [[Truth (Dubstep Artist)|Truth]], [[Neon Knights (Band)|Neon Knights]], [[Pitch Black (band)|Pitch Black]], [[The Upbeats]], [[Antiform (band)|Antiform]], [[State of Mind (band)|State of Mind]], [[Bulletproof (band)|Bulletproof]], and [[Optimus Gryme]] have all had success.
 
 
==Blues==
 
see article: ''[[Blues in New Zealand]]''
 
 
==Heavy metal==
 
New Zealand has several well-known [[Heavy metal music|heavy metal]] bands including [[8 Foot Sativa]], [[In Dread Response]], [[Dawn of Azazel]], [[Sinate]], [[Beastwars (band)|Beastwars]], and [[Ulcerate]], with most metal bands playing death metal. Wellington [[Black Metal]] band [[Demoniac]] was among the first to receive international recognition, releasing three albums on the French [[Evil Omen]] and [[Osmose]] labels. The band eventually relocated to the United Kingdom where guitarists [[Herman Li]] and [[Sam Totman]] went on to form the highly popular Power Metal band [[DragonForce]].
 
 
More recently [[Ulcerate]], who are signed to high profile US label [[Relapse Records]] have received wide international recognition for their blending of brutal death metal with post-rock influences.<ref>[http://pitchfork.com/features/show-no-mercy/8717-best-albums-of-2011/ Pitchfork.com The Top 40 Metal Albums of 2011]</ref>
 
 
In recent years, a distinct trend has emerged amongst New Zealand's death metal scene of a deliberately old-school, raw "war metal" sound coupled with aggressive, militaristic lyrics and images, typified by bands such as [[Dawn of Azazel]], [[Vassafor]] and [[Diocletian (band)|Diocletian]], all of whom have received attention within the international underground.
 
 
===Darkwave/Gothic/Industrial===
 
New Zealand has maintained a small dark music scene which dates back to the 1970s and 1980s via iconoclastic bands such as [[Nocturnal Projections]], [[Children's Hour (band)|Children's Hour]], [[Fetus Productions]], [[The Skeptics]], [[Hieronymus Bosch (band)|Hieronymus Bosch]] and [[Winterland (band)|Winterland]]. Although such scenes boast longer and more famous histories in Europe, New Zealand darkwave bands such as N.U.T.E, Dr Kevorkian & the Suicide Machine and The Mercy Cage enjoy international acclaim.
 
 
The dark scene in New Zealand supported itself via various self-funded groups such as Circadian Rhythms and Club Bizarre, both of which are now defunct. They organised events to promote dark arts, music and fashion. Most New Zealand dark releases are independent, self-funded or funded by the various support networks of artists and musicians, and following the closing of the last of the darkwave/gothic/industrial clubs in 2008, there are no longer regularly-scheduled scene nights in any city in the country. Although in recent years Creative New Zealand (New Zealand's Arts Council) has shown support of some darkwave-experimental artists such as Jordan Reyne, the genre remains largely unacknowledged by the local music industry and many of the bands and musicians survive on overseas sales via internet and wider-reaching darkwave fan networks.
 
 
==Folk music==
 
[[File:1981 Maori Culture group. Photographer Paul Gilbert.jpg|thumb|250px|right|[[Māori culture]] group at 1981 [[Nambassa]] festival.]]
 
 
===Māori music===
 
{{Main|Māori music}}
 
In summary, pre-European Māori singing was micro-tonal, with a repeated melodic line that did not stray far from a central note. Group singing was in unison or at the octave. Instrumental music was played on [[Taonga pūoro]], a variety of blown, struck and twirled instruments. Missionaries brought harmony, a wider compass and their instruments which were gradually adopted in new compositions. The action song (''waiata-ā-ringa'') was largely developed in the early 20th century. Since colonisation, Māori music has developed in parallel and in interaction with styles from overseas, generating a rich brew of new styles.<ref>Linkels, Ad (2000). "The real music of paradise". In Broughton, S., & Ellingham, M. (eds.), ''World music, vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific'', pp 218–229. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.</ref>
 
 
===Pioneer folk music===
 
The early European ([[Pākehā]]) settlers had [[folk music]] similar to, and shared with [[Music of Australia|Australia]]'s. The tradition is invigorated with several festivals, especially the annual [[Tahora]] gathering, and musicians like [[Mike Harding (New Zealand)|Mike Harding]] have won some fame for performing old and original New Zealand folks music.
 
 
===Brass bands===
 
[[File:Napier Bagpipe Practice.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Twilight bagpipe band practice, Napier.]]
 
New Zealand has a proud history of Brass Bands, which hold regular provincial contests, and often celebrate cultural events. The NZ National Band has earned international accolades. http://www.brassnz.co.nz/
 
 
[http://www.nzartilleryband.co.nz The Band Of The Royal Regiment Of New Zealand Artillery] is a Military Brass Band based in Auckland. It is a Territorial (Part time) Sub Unit of the New Zealand Army and its members are all New Zealand Defence Force personal who fulfill the role of Bandsmen/Bandswomen {{Citation needed|date=May 2012}} .
 
 
It represents the New Zealand Army at many military functions and has a history of 148 years with its 150th anniversary to be celebrated in 2014.
 
 
http://www.nzartilleryband.co.nz/
 
 
===Highland pipe bands===
 
[[New Zealand#Culture|New Zealand]] is said to have more pipebands per person than [[Scotland]];<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/673085.stm "Piping up a storm Down Under"], March 2000, BBC</ref> historical links are maintained by Caledonian Societies throughout the country. The nation is often reminded of its colonial heritage by the stirring sounds of [[bagpipes]] at military commemorations and parades.
 
 
==Musical theatre==
 
The most well-known musical theatre production written by a New Zealander is the [[Rocky Horror Show]] musical, written by [[Richard O'Brien]], and first performed on stage in London during 1973. {{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}
 
 
==Classical composers==
 
The formal traditions of [[European classical music]] took a long time to develop in New Zealand, due to its geographical isolation. Composers such as [[Alfred Hill (composer)|Alfred Hill]] were educated in [[Europe]] and brought late [[Romantic Music]] traditions to New Zealand. He attempted to graft them on to New Zealand themes with one notable success, the popular "Waiata Poi". However, before 1960 New Zealand did not have a distinct classical style of its own, having "a tendency to over-criticize home-produced goods".<ref>{{cite journal|last=Sell|first=David|title=The Composer in New Zealand|journal=Composer|year=1962|month=Spring|issue=9|pages=21}}</ref>
 
 
[[Douglas Lilburn]], working predominantly in the third quarter of the 20th century, is often credited with being the first [[composer]] to 'speak' with a truly New Zealand voice and gain international recognition for it. Lilburn's ''Second Piano Sonatina'' was described as "a work which seems to draw on the best of Lilburn's past...specially suited to New Zealand."<ref>{{cite journal|last=Platt|first=Peter|journal=Composer|year=1963|issue=12}}</ref> He also pioneered electronic music. Lilburn and other composers working during the late 1950s and 60s, including [[Edwin Carr (composer)|Edwin Carr]], developed a new direction in New Zealand music that was distinctly separate from its influences.<ref name="canz"/>
 
 
With significant acceleration New Zealanders have found their own style and place, with people such as Larry Pruden, [[David Griffiths (composer)|David Griffiths]], John Cousins, David Farquhar, [[Jenny McLeod]], [[Jack Body]], [[Gillian Whitehead]], [[Dorothy Quita Buchanan|Dorothy Buchanan]], [[Anthony Ritchie]], [[Ivan Zagni]], Martin Lodge, [[Nigel Keay]] and Ross Harris leading the way.
 
 
Diverse musical currents in the world from the [[Europe]]an [[avant-garde]] to [[United States|American]] [[minimalism]] have influenced particular New Zealand composers to varying degrees. Increasingly, there are more cross-over composers fusing Pacific, [[Asia]]n and [[Europe]]an influences along with electronic instruments and techniques into a new sound, [[Gareth Farr]], [[Philip Dadson]] and composer co-operative Plan9 among them. The latter provided much of the ambient music used in [[The Lord of the Rings film trilogy|''The Lord of the Rings'' film trilogy]].
 
 
In 2004, [[Wellington]] composer [[John Psathas]] achieved the largest audience for New Zealand-composed music when his fanfares and other music were heard by billions at the opening and closing ceremonies of the [[Athens]] [[2004 Summer Olympics]]. In the same year, he took the Tui Award for Best Classical Recording at the Vodafone NZ Music Awards and the SOUNZ Contemporary Award at the [[Australasian Performing Right Association|APRA]] Silver Scrolls.
 
 
There are several twelve-month Composer-in-Residence positions available in New Zealand, notably with the [[Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra]] and at the [[University of Otago]] ([[Mozart Fellowship]]).
 
 
===Orchestras and choirs===
 
New Zealand has a number of world-class orchestras and choirs, notably the [[New Zealand Symphony Orchestra]] (NZSO), the [[Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra]] (APO), the [[New Zealand National Youth Orchestra|National Youth Orchestra]] (NYO), [[New Zealand Youth Choir]], [[Voices New Zealand Chamber Choir]], [[City of Dunedin Choir]], [[Auckland Choral Society]] and Christchurch City Choir. Many of these choirs perform around New Zealand and compete against other choirs in the world.
 
 
There are also a number of semi-professional regional orchestras presenting their own concert series each year. These include the [[Opus Chamber Orchestra]] in [[Hamilton, New Zealand|Hamilton]], the [[Wellington Orchestra|Vector Wellington Orchestra]], the [[Christchurch Symphony Orchestra]] (CSO) and the [[Southern Sinfonia]] in [[Dunedin]].
 
 
===Chamber music and other ensembles===
 
New Zealand has one full-time professional string quartet, the [[New Zealand String Quartet]] and two professional trios, the NZTrio and the [[New Zealand Chamber Soloists]]. Other string quartets include the [[Nevine String Quartet]] and the Jade String Quartet. There are several groups performing new music from local and overseas composers. These include the [[Karlheinz Company]], [http://stroma.wellington.net.nz/home.htm/ Stroma], [http://www.175east.co.nz/ 175 East], Strike and Okta.
 
 
Chamber Music New Zealand is an organisation that promotes concerts throughout New Zealand providing a performing platform for local and international artists.
 
 
===Soloists===
 
Prominent New Zealand musicians performing at home and abroad include Dame [[Kiri Te Kanawa]], Sir [[Donald McIntyre]], [[Simon O'Neill]], [[Jonathan Lemalu]], [[Teddy Tahu Rhodes]], [[Anna Leese]], Dame [[Malvina Major]], [[Michael Houstoun]], David Guerin, [[Hayley Westenra]], [[Jeffrey Grice]], [[John Chen]] and recently, [[Elliot Brown]]. Those of earlier times included [[Oscar Natzka]], [[Richard Farrell]] and Dame [[Heather Begg]].
 
 
== See also ==
 
*[[New Zealand music festivals]]
 
*[[New Zealand Music Awards]]
 
*''[[Nature's Best]]'', a two-disc compilation album of thirty New Zealand popular music songs
 
*[[Blues in New Zealand]]
 
*[[List of bands from New Zealand]]
 
 
== References ==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.sounz.org.nz SOUNZ] – Centre for New Zealand Music.
 
*[http://www.rianz.org.nz/ RIANZ] – New Zealand's official weekly singles and albums chart.
 
*[http://www.chambermusic.co.nz CMNZ] – Chamber Music New Zealand
 
*[http://www.festival-singers.org.nz/choirs.htm New Zealand Choirs] - New Zealand Festival Singers
 
*[http://www.nzcf.org.nz/ NZCF] - New Zealand Choral Federation
 
{{Polynesianmusic}}
 
{{New Zealand topics}}
 
{{Culture of Oceania}}
 
{{Oceania topic|Music of}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Music Of New Zealand}}
 
[[Category:New Zealand music| ]]
 
 
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