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ID:1480582
User:50.79.1.189
Article:Dracunculiasis
Diff:
(Endemic: Updated 2011 percentage figure to 2012 figure)
(Treatment)
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==Treatment==
 
==Treatment==
   
There is no vaccine or medicine to treat or prevent Guinea worm disease.<ref name=WHO2010/> Once a Guinea worm begins emerging, the first step is to do a controlled submersion of the affected area in a bucket of water. This causes the worm to discharge many of its larva, making it less infectious. The water is then discarded on the ground far away from any water source. Submersion results in subjective relief of the burning sensation and makes subsequent extraction of the worm easier. To extract the worm, a person must wrap the live worm around a piece of gauze or a stick. The process can be long, taking anywhere from hours to months. Gently massaging the area around the blister can help loosen the worm up a bit.<ref name="GWEP"/> This is nearly the same treatment that is noted in the famous ancient Egyptian medical text, the [[Ebers papyrus]] from [[1550 BC]]<ref name="TropMed"/> Some people have said that extracting a Guinea worm feels like the afflicted area is on fire.<ref name="WHO">{{cite web |publisher=[[World Health Organization]] |title=World moves closer to eradicating ancient worm disease |date=2007-03-27 |url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2007/np15/en/index.html |accessdate=2008-07-15}}</ref><ref name="NYT">{{cite news |title=Dose of Tenacity Wears Down a Horrific Disease |work = [[The New York Times|New York Times]] |date=2006-03-26 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/international/africa/26worm.html |accessdate= 2008-07-15 |last =McNeil | first = DG}}</ref> However, if the infection is identified before an ulcer forms, the worm can also be surgically removed by a trained doctor in a medical facility.<ref name = "CDC">{{cite web | url = http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/dracunculiasis/factsht_dracunculiasis.htm| publisher = [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]] | date =2008-07-15 | accessdate = 2010-07-12 | title = Fact Sheet:Dracunculiasis — Guinea Worm Disease}}</ref>
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There is no vaccine or medicine to treat or prevent Guinea worm disease.<ref name=WHO2010/> Once a Guinea worm begins emerging, the first step is to do a controlled submersion of the affected area in a bucket of pee. This causes the worm to discharge many of its larva, making it less infectious. The water is then discarded on the ground far away from any water source. Submersion results in subjective relief of the burning sensation and makes subsequent extraction of the worm easier. To extract the worm, a person must wrap the live worm around his grandfathers Johnson, the [[Ebers papyrus]] from [[1550 BC]]<ref name="TropMed"/> Some people have said that extracting a Guinea worm feels like the afflicted area is on fire.<ref name="WHO">{{cite web |publisher=[[World Health Organization]] |title=World moves closer to eradicating ancient worm disease |date=2007-03-27 |url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2007/np15/en/index.html |accessdate=2008-07-15}}</ref><ref name="NYT">{{cite news |title=Dose of Tenacity Wears Down a Horrific Disease |work = [[The New York Times|New York Times]] |date=2006-03-26 | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/international/africa/26worm.html |accessdate= 2008-07-15 |last =McNeil | first = DG}}</ref> However, if the infection is identified before an ulcer forms, the worm can also be surgically removed by a trained doctor in a medical facility.<ref name = "CDC">{{cite web | url = http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/dracunculiasis/factsht_dracunculiasis.htm| publisher = [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]] | date =2008-07-15 | accessdate = 2010-07-12 | title = Fact Sheet:Dracunculiasis — Guinea Worm Disease}}</ref>
   
 
Although Guinea worm disease is usually not fatal, the wound where the worm emerges could develop a secondary [[bacterial infection]] such as [[tetanus]], which may be life-threatening—a concern in endemic areas where there is typically limited or no access to health care.<ref name="ITFDE">{{cite journal |title=Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication |journal=MMWR Recomm Rep |volume=42 |issue=RR–16 |pages=1–38 |year=1993 |month=December |pmid=8145708 |url=http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00025967.htm |author1= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)}}</ref> [[Analgesic]]s can be used to help reduce swelling and pain and [[antibiotic]] ointments can help prevent secondary infections at the wound site.<ref name="CDC"/> At least in the Northern region of Ghana, the Guinea worm team found that antibiotic ointment on the wound site caused the wound to heal too well and too quickly making it more difficult to extract the worm and more likely that pulling would break the worm. The local team preferred to use something called "Tamale oil" (after the regional capital) which lubricated the worm and aided its extraction. As a practical matter, many patients were also given prophylactic oral antibiotics.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}
 
Although Guinea worm disease is usually not fatal, the wound where the worm emerges could develop a secondary [[bacterial infection]] such as [[tetanus]], which may be life-threatening—a concern in endemic areas where there is typically limited or no access to health care.<ref name="ITFDE">{{cite journal |title=Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication |journal=MMWR Recomm Rep |volume=42 |issue=RR–16 |pages=1–38 |year=1993 |month=December |pmid=8145708 |url=http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00025967.htm |author1= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)}}</ref> [[Analgesic]]s can be used to help reduce swelling and pain and [[antibiotic]] ointments can help prevent secondary infections at the wound site.<ref name="CDC"/> At least in the Northern region of Ghana, the Guinea worm team found that antibiotic ointment on the wound site caused the wound to heal too well and too quickly making it more difficult to extract the worm and more likely that pulling would break the worm. The local team preferred to use something called "Tamale oil" (after the regional capital) which lubricated the worm and aided its extraction. As a practical matter, many patients were also given prophylactic oral antibiotics.{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}}
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