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Article:Alien and Sedition Acts
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[[Image:Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).png|thumb|250px|upright|Text of the Aliens Act]]
 
[[Image:Alien and Sedition Acts (1798).png|thumb|250px|upright|Text of the Aliens Act]]
[[Image:Sedition Act (1798).png|thumb|250px|upright|Text of the Sedition Act]]
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[[Image:Sedition Act (1798).png|thumb|250px|upright|Text of the Sedition Act]]
   
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the [[Federalist Party|Federalists]] in the [[5th United States Congress]] in the aftermath of the [[French Revolution]] and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the [[Quasi-War]]. They were signed into law by President [[John Adams]]. Opposition to Federalists among [[Democratic-Republican Party|Demjhvjjjhjgovernment.<ref>''[http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html Letter to William Smith], November 13, 1787''</ref> When Democratic-Republicans in some states refused to enforce federal laws, such as the [[Whiskey tax]], and threatened to rebel, Federalists threatened to send the army to force them to capitulate.<ref name="Knott p48">Knott. "Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth". p48</ref> As the unrest sweeping Europe was bleeding over into the United States, calls for secession reached unparalleled heights, and the fledgling nation seemed ready to rip itself apart.<ref name="Knott p48"/> Some of this was seen by Federalists as having been caused by French and French-sympathizing immigrants.<ref name="Knott p48"/> The acts were thus meant to guard against this real threat of anarchy. Democratic-Republicans denounced them, though they did use them after the 1800 election against Federalists.<ref name="Chernow, Ron 2004. p668">Chernow, Ron. "Alexander Hamilton". 2004. p668. Penguin Press.</ref> They became a major political issue in the elections of 1798 and 1800. They were very controversial in their own day, as they remain to the present day. Opposition to them resulted in the highly controversial [[Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions]], authored by [[James Madison]] and [[Thomas Jefferson]].''''''Dennis is coo
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The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the [[Federalist Party|Federalists]] in the [[5th United States Congress]] in the aftermath of the [[French Revolution]] and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the [[Quasi-War]]. They were signed into law by President [[John Adams]]. Opposition to Federalists among [[Democratic-Republican Party|Demjhvjjjhjgovernment.<ref>''[http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html Letter to William Smith], November 13, 1787''</ref> When Democratic-Republicans in some states refused to enforce federal laws, such as the [[Whiskey tax]], and threatened to rebel, Federalists threatened to send the army to force them to capitulate.<ref name="Knott p48">Knott. "Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth". p48</ref> As the unrest sweeping Europe was bleeding over into the United States, calls for secession reached unparalleled heights, and the fledgling nation seemed ready to rip itself apart.<ref name="Knott p48"/> Some of this was seen by Federalists as having been caused by French and French-sympathizing immigrants.<ref name="Knott p48"/> The acts were thus meant to guard against this real threat of anarchy. Democratic-Republicans denounced them, though they did use them after the 1800 election against Federalists.<ref name="Chernow, Ron 2004. p668">Chernow, Ron. "Alexander Hamilton". 2004. p668. Penguin Press.</ref> They became a major political issue in the elections of 1798 and 1800. They were very controversial in their own day, as they remain to the present day. Opposition to them resulted in the highly controversial [[Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions]], authored by [[James Madison]] and [[Thomas Jefferson]].''''''Dennis is cool and LARRY BIRD<33333333333"
 
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Twenty-five people were arrested, eleven were tried, and ten were convicted. [[James Thomson Callender]], a Scottish citizen, had been expelled from Great Britain for his political writings. Living first in Philadelphia, then seeking refuge close in Virginia, he wrote a book entitled ''The Prospect Before Us'' (read and approved by Vice President Jefferson before publication) in which he called the Adams administration a "continual tempest of malignant passions" and the President a "repulsive pedant, a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor". Callender, already residing in Virginia and writing for the ''Richmond Examiner'', was indicted under the Sedition Act. Callender was convicted, fined $200 and sentenced to nine months in jail.<ref>Miller, John C. ''Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts'' (New York: Little Brown and Company 1951) pp. 211-220.</ref> [[Matthew Lyon]], born in Ireland, was a Democratic-Republican congressman from Vermont. He was indicted under the Sedition Act for an essay he had written in the ''Vermont Journal'' accusing the administration of "ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice". While awaiting trial, Lyon commenced publication of ''Lyon's Republican Magazine'', subtitled "The Scourge of Aristocracy". At trial, he was fined $1,000 and sentenced
 
Twenty-five people were arrested, eleven were tried, and ten were convicted. [[James Thomson Callender]], a Scottish citizen, had been expelled from Great Britain for his political writings. Living first in Philadelphia, then seeking refuge close in Virginia, he wrote a book entitled ''The Prospect Before Us'' (read and approved by Vice President Jefferson before publication) in which he called the Adams administration a "continual tempest of malignant passions" and the President a "repulsive pedant, a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor". Callender, already residing in Virginia and writing for the ''Richmond Examiner'', was indicted under the Sedition Act. Callender was convicted, fined $200 and sentenced to nine months in jail.<ref>Miller, John C. ''Crisis in Freedom: The Alien and Sedition Acts'' (New York: Little Brown and Company 1951) pp. 211-220.</ref> [[Matthew Lyon]], born in Ireland, was a Democratic-Republican congressman from Vermont. He was indicted under the Sedition Act for an essay he had written in the ''Vermont Journal'' accusing the administration of "ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and selfish avarice". While awaiting trial, Lyon commenced publication of ''Lyon's Republican Magazine'', subtitled "The Scourge of Aristocracy". At trial, he was fined $1,000 and sentenced
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