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Article:Enigma machine
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An '''Enigma machine''' is any of a family of related [[Electromechanics|electro-mechanical]] [[rotor machine|rotor cipher machines]] used for the [[encryption]] and decryption of secret messages. Enigma was invented by the [[Germans|German]] engineer [[Arthur Scherbius]] at the end of [[World War I]].<ref>{{Cite book| last=Singh|first=Simon|author-link=Simon Singh|publication-date=1999|title=The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography|publication-place=London|publisher= Fourth Estate|page=127|isbn=1-85702-879-1}}</ref> The early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, and adopted by military and government services of several countries — most notably by [[Nazi Germany]] before and during [[World War II]].<ref>{{cite web | last = Lord | first = Bob | title = 1937 Enigma Manual by: Jasper Rosal - English Translation | year = 1998–2010 | url = http://www.ilord.com/enigma-manual1937-english.html | accessdate =31 May 2011 | ref = harv | postscript = <!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> Several different Enigma models were produced, but the [[Wehrmacht|German military]] models are the ones most commonly discussed.
 
An '''Enigma machine''' is any of a family of related [[Electromechanics|electro-mechanical]] [[rotor machine|rotor cipher machines]] used for the [[encryption]] and decryption of secret messages. Enigma was invented by the [[Germans|German]] engineer [[Arthur Scherbius]] at the end of [[World War I]].<ref>{{Cite book| last=Singh|first=Simon|author-link=Simon Singh|publication-date=1999|title=The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography|publication-place=London|publisher= Fourth Estate|page=127|isbn=1-85702-879-1}}</ref> The early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, and adopted by military and government services of several countries — most notably by [[Nazi Germany]] before and during [[World War II]].<ref>{{cite web | last = Lord | first = Bob | title = 1937 Enigma Manual by: Jasper Rosal - English Translation | year = 1998–2010 | url = http://www.ilord.com/enigma-manual1937-english.html | accessdate =31 May 2011 | ref = harv | postscript = <!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> Several different Enigma models were produced, but the [[Wehrmacht|German military]] models are the ones most commonly discussed.
   
The [[Polish Cipher Bureau]] first broke Germany's military Enigma ciphers in December 1932. Five weeks before the outbreak of World War II, on 25 July 1939, they presented their [[Cryptanalysis of the Enigma|Enigma-decryption techniques]] and equipment to French and British [[military intelligence]] in Warsaw.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.codesandciphers.org.uk/virtualbp/poles/poles.htm |title=Virtual Bletchley Park |publisher=Codesandciphers.org.uk |date= |accessdate=2012-07-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8158782.stm | work=BBC News | first=Laurence | last=Peter | title=How Poles cracked Nazi Enigma secret | date=20 July 2009}}</ref><ref>[http://vod.onet.pl/tajemnice-enigmy,41980,film.html#play ]{{dead link|date=July 2012}}</ref> From 1938 onwards, additional complexity was repeatedly added to the machines, making the initial decryption techniques increasingly unsuccessful. Nonetheless, the Polish breakthrough represented a vital basis for the later British effort.<ref>[[Gordon Welchman]], who became head of [[Hut 6]] at Bletchley Park, has written: "Hut 6 [[Ultra]] would never have gotten off the ground if we had not learned from the Poles, in the nick of time, the details both of the German military version of the commercial Enigma machine, and of the operating procedures that were in use." [[Gordon Welchman]], ''The Hut Six Story'', 1982, p. 289.</ref> During the war, British [[Cryptanalysis|codebreakers]] were able to decrypt a vast number of messages that had been enciphered using the Enigma. The [[Military intelligence|intelligence]] gleaned from this source, codenamed "[[Ultra]]" by the British, was a substantial aid to the [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] war effort.<ref>Much of the German cipher traffic was encrypted on the Enigma machine, hence the term "Ultra" has often been used almost synonymously with "[[Cryptanalysis of the Enigma|Enigma decrypts]]". However, Ultra also encompassed decrypts of the German [[Lorenz cipher|Lorenz SZ 40 and 42 machines]] that were used by the German High Command, and decrypts of [[C-36 (cipher machine)|Hagelin ciphers]] and of other Italian ciphers and codes, as well as of Japanese ciphers and codes such as [[Purple (cipher machine)|Purple]] and [[JN-25]].</ref>
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The [[Polish Cipher Bureau]] first broke Germany's military Enigma ciphers in December 1932. Five weeks before the outbreak of World War II, on 25 July 1939, they presented their [[Cryptanalysis of the Enigma|Enigma-decryption techniques]] and equipment to French and British [[military intelligence]] in Warsaw.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.codesandciphers.org.uk/virtualbp/poles/poles.htm |title=Virtual Bletchley Park |publisher=Codesandciphers.org.uk |date= |accessdate=2012-07-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8158782.stm | work=BBC News | first=Laurence | last=Peter | title=How Poles cracked Nazi Enigma secret | date=20 July 2009}}</ref><ref>[http://vod.onet.pl/tajemnice-enigmy,41980,film.html#play ]{{dead link|date=July 2012}}</ref> From 1938 onwards, additional complexity was repeatedly added to the machines, making the initial decryption techniques increasingly unsuccessful. Nonetheless, the Polish breakthrough represented a vital basis for the later British effort.<ref>[[Gordon Welchman]], who became head of [[Hut 6]] at Bletchley Park, has written: "Hut 6 [[Ultra]] would never have gotten off the ground if we had not learned from the Poles, in the nick of time, the details both of the German military version of the commercial Enigma machine, and of the operating procedures that were in use." [[Gordon Welchman]], ''The Hut Six Story'', 1982, p. 289.</ref> During the war, British [[Cryptanalysis|codebreakers]] were able to decrypt a vast number of messages that had been enciphered using the Enigma. The [[Military intelligence|intelligence]] gleaned from this source, codenamed "[[Ultra]]" by the British, was a substantial aid to the [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] war effort.<ref>Much of the German cipher traffic was encrypted on the Enigma machine, hence the term "Ultra" has often been used almost synonymously with "[[Cryptanalysis of the Enigma|Enigma decrypts]]". However, Ultra also encompassed decrypts of the German [[Lorenz cipher|Lorenz SZ 40 and 42 machines]] that were used by the German High Command, and decrypts of [[C-36 (cipher machine)|Hagelin ciphers]] and of other Italian ciphers and codes, as well as of Japanese ciphers and codes such as [[Purple (cipher machine)|Purple]] and [[JN-25]].</ref>all these things are craps
   
 
The exact influence of Ultra on the course of the war is debated; an oft-repeated assessment is that decryption of German ciphers hastened the [[Victory in Europe Day|end of the European war]] by two years.<ref>Kahn (1991).</ref><ref name="engima_cryptographic_mathematics">{{Cite document|url= http://www.nsa.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications/wwii/engima_cryptographic_mathematics.pdf|title=The Cryptographic Mathematics of Enigma|last= Miller|first=A. Ray|publisher=National Security Agency|year=2001|postscript=<!--None-->|ref= harv}}</ref><ref>[[Bletchley Park]] veteran and historian [[Harry Hinsley|F.H. Hinsley]] is often cited as an authority for the two-year estimate, yet his assessment in ''Codebreakers'' is much less definitive: "Would the [[Soviet Union|Soviets]] meanwhile have defeated [[Germany]], or Germany the Soviets, or would there have been stalemate on the eastern fronts? What would have been decided about the [[atom bomb]]? Not even [[Counter-factual history|counter-factual historians]] can answer such questions. They are questions which do not arise, because the war went as it did. But those historians who are concerned only with the war as it was must ask why it went as it did. And they need venture only a reasonable distance beyond the facts to recognise the extent to which the explanation lies in the influence of Ultra." [[Harry Hinsley|F.H. Hinsley]], "Introduction: The Influence of Ultra in the Second World War," ''Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park'', edited by F.H. Hinsley and Alan Stripp, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 12–13.</ref> [[Winston Churchill]] told the United Kingdom's King [[George VI]] after World War II: "It was thanks to Ultra that we won the war."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/code-breaking.html |title=Code Breaking - World War 2 on History |publisher=History.co.uk |date= |accessdate=2012-07-17}}</ref>
 
The exact influence of Ultra on the course of the war is debated; an oft-repeated assessment is that decryption of German ciphers hastened the [[Victory in Europe Day|end of the European war]] by two years.<ref>Kahn (1991).</ref><ref name="engima_cryptographic_mathematics">{{Cite document|url= http://www.nsa.gov/about/_files/cryptologic_heritage/publications/wwii/engima_cryptographic_mathematics.pdf|title=The Cryptographic Mathematics of Enigma|last= Miller|first=A. Ray|publisher=National Security Agency|year=2001|postscript=<!--None-->|ref= harv}}</ref><ref>[[Bletchley Park]] veteran and historian [[Harry Hinsley|F.H. Hinsley]] is often cited as an authority for the two-year estimate, yet his assessment in ''Codebreakers'' is much less definitive: "Would the [[Soviet Union|Soviets]] meanwhile have defeated [[Germany]], or Germany the Soviets, or would there have been stalemate on the eastern fronts? What would have been decided about the [[atom bomb]]? Not even [[Counter-factual history|counter-factual historians]] can answer such questions. They are questions which do not arise, because the war went as it did. But those historians who are concerned only with the war as it was must ask why it went as it did. And they need venture only a reasonable distance beyond the facts to recognise the extent to which the explanation lies in the influence of Ultra." [[Harry Hinsley|F.H. Hinsley]], "Introduction: The Influence of Ultra in the Second World War," ''Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park'', edited by F.H. Hinsley and Alan Stripp, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 12–13.</ref> [[Winston Churchill]] told the United Kingdom's King [[George VI]] after World War II: "It was thanks to Ultra that we won the war."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/code-breaking.html |title=Code Breaking - World War 2 on History |publisher=History.co.uk |date= |accessdate=2012-07-17}}</ref>
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