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{{About|the "American" blueberry|the "European" blueberry|Bilberry}}
{{Other uses}}
|name = Blueberry
|image = PattsBlueberries.jpg
|image_caption = ''[[Northern highbush blueberry|Vaccinium corymbosum]]''
|regnum = [[Plantae]]
|unranked_divisio = [[Angiosperms]]
|unranked_classis = [[Eudicots]]
|unranked_ordo = [[Asterids]]
|ordo = [[Ericales]]
|familia = [[Ericaceae]]
|genus = ''[[Vaccinium]]''
|sectio = '''''Cyanococcus'''''
|sectio_authority = [[Per Axel Rydberg|Rydb.]]
|subdivision_ranks = Species
|subdivision = See text
'''Blueberries''' are [[perennial]] [[flowering plant]]s with indigo-colored berries from the [[section (botany)|section]] '''''Cyanococcus''''' within the [[genus]] ''[[Vaccinium]]'' (a genus that also includes [[cranberry|cranberries]] and [[bilberry|bilberries]]). [[Species]] in the section ''Cyanococcus'' are the most common<ref>{{cite book|title=Google Books -- Biotechnology of fruit and nut crops By Richard E. Litz|url=|isbn=9780851996622|author1=Litz|first1=Richard E|year=2005}}</ref> fruits sold as "blueberries" and are native to [[North America]] (commercially cultivated highbush blueberries were not introduced into Europe until the 1930s).<ref name=nauman1993/>
They are usually erect, but sometimes [[prostrate shrub|prostrate]] [[shrub]]s varying in size from {{Convert|10|cm|in|sp=us}} to {{Convert|4|m|ft|sp=us}} tall. In commercial blueberry production, smaller species are known as "lowbush blueberries" (synonymous with "wild"), and the larger species are known as "highbush blueberries".
The [[leaf|leaves]] can be either [[deciduous]] or [[evergreen]], [[ovate]] to [[lanceolate]], and {{Convert|1|-|8|cm|in|abbr=on}} long and {{Convert|0.5|-|3.5|cm|in|abbr=on}} broad. The [[flower]]s are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish.
The [[fruit]] is a [[berry]] {{Convert|5|-|16|mm|in|sp=us}} in diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally dark blue when ripe. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery [[epicuticular wax]], colloquially knows as the "bloom".<ref></ref> They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the height of the crop can vary from May to August depending upon these conditions.
The genus ''[[Vaccinium]]'' has a mostly circumpolar distribution with species in America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Many commercially sold species with English [[common name]]s including "blueberry" are currently classified in section ''Cyanococcus'' of the genus ''Vaccinium'' and come predominantly from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American countries.
Several other wild shrubs of the genus ''Vaccinium'' also produce commonly eaten blue berries, such as the predominantly European ''[[Vaccinium myrtillus]]'' and other [[bilberries]], that in many languages have a name that translates "blueberry" in English. See the [[#Identification|Identification]] section for more information.
Note: habitat and range summaries are from the ''Flora of New Brunswick'', published in 1986 by Harold R. Hinds and ''Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast'', published in 1994 by Pojar and MacKinnon
{{div col|colwidth=40em}}
*''[[Vaccinium alaskaense]]'' (Alaskan blueberry): one of the dominant shrubs in Alaskan and British Columbian coastal forests
*''[[Vaccinium angustifolium]]'' (lowbush blueberry): acidic barrens, bogs and clearings, Manitoba to Labrador, south to Nova Scotia and in the USA, to Iowa and Virginia
*''[[Vaccinium boreale]]'' (northern blueberry): peaty barrens, Quebec and Labrador (rare in New Brunswick), south to New York and Massachusetts
*''[[Vaccinium caesariense]]'' (New Jersey blueberry)
*''[[Northern highbush blueberry|Vaccinium corymbosum]]'' (northern highbush blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium constablaei]]'' (hillside blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium darrowii]]'' (evergreen blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium elliottii]]'' (Elliott blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium formosum]]'' (southern blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium fuscatum]]'' (black highbush blueberry; syn. ''V. atrococcum'')
*''[[Vaccinium hirsutum]]'' (hairy-fruited blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium myrsinites]]'' (shiny blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium myrtilloides]] (sour top, velvet leaf, or Canadian blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium operium]]'' (cyan-fruited blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium pallidum]]'' (dryland blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium simulatum]]'' (upland highbush blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium tenellum]]'' (southern blueberry)
*''[[Rabbiteye blueberry|Vaccinium virgatum]]'' (rabbiteye blueberry; syn. ''V. ashei'')
{{div col end}}
Some other blue-fruited species of ''Vaccinium:''
*''[[Vaccinium koreanum]]''
*''[[Vaccinium myrtillus]]'' ([[bilberry]] or European blueberry)
*''[[Vaccinium uliginosum]]''
[[File:Wild Blueberry in autumn foliage.JPG|thumb|Wild blueberry in autumn foliage, [[Pilot Mountain (North Carolina)|Pilot Mtn.]], NC, 10-30-2008]]
Commercially offered blueberries are usually from species that naturally occur only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world, including the [[Pacific Northwest]] and southern United States,<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Plants Profile: ''Vaccinium corymbosum'' L., Highbush blueberry |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |year=2013 |work= |publisher=US Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service |accessdate=30 April 2013}}</ref> South America, Europe, and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries, such as [[huckleberry|huckleberries]] and [[whortleberry|whortleberries]] (North America) and bilberries (Europe). These species are sometimes called "blueberries" and sold as blueberry jam or other products.
The names of blueberries in languages other than English often translate as "blueberry", ''e.g.'', [[Scots (language)|Scots]] ''blaeberry'' and Norwegian ''blåbær''. ''Blaeberry'', ''blåbær'' and French ''myrtilles'' usually refer to the European native [[bilberry]] (''[[Vaccinium myrtillus|V. myrtillus]]''), while ''bleuets'' refers to the North American blueberry. Russian ''голубика'' ("blue berry") does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, but rather to their close relatives, [[Vaccinium uliginosum|bog bilberries]] (''V. uliginosum'').
''Cyanococcus'' blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half. Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries, whortleberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout.
Blueberries may be cultivated, or they may be picked from semiwild or wild bushes. In North America, the most common cultivated species is ''V. corymbosum'', the [[northern highbush blueberry]]. Hybrids of this with other ''Vaccinium'' species adapted to southern U.S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries.<ref name="">{{cite web|title=Growing Highbush Blueberries|url=|publisher=University of New Hampshire-Extension|accessdate=September 22, 2013}}</ref>
[[File:Blueberry plants.jpg|thumb|right|Blueberry flowers]]
So-called "wild" (lowbush) blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, are prized for their intense color. The [[lowbush blueberry]], ''V. angustifolium'', is found from the [[Atlantic provinces]] westward to [[Quebec]] and southward to [[Michigan]] and [[West Virginia]]. In some areas, it produces natural "blueberry barrens", where it is the dominant species covering large areas. Several [[First Nations]] communities in [[Ontario]] are involved in harvesting wild blueberries. Lowbush species are fire-tolerant and blueberry production often increases following a [[wildfire|forest fire]], as the plants regenerate rapidly and benefit from removal of competing vegetation.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}}
"Wild" has been adopted as a marketing term for harvests of managed native stands of lowbush blueberries. The bushes are not planted or genetically manipulated, but they are pruned or burned over every two years, and pests are "managed".<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Wild Blueberry Network Information Centre | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref>
Numerous highbush [[cultivar]]s of blueberries are available, with diversity among them, each having a unique flavor. The most important blueberry breeding program has been the [[USDA-ARS]] breeding program based at Beltsville, Maryland, and Chatsworth, New Jersey. This program began when [[Frederick Coville]] of the USDA-ARS collaborated with [[Elizabeth Coleman White]] of [[New Jersey]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Blueberry Growing Comes to the National Agricultural Library|url=|publisher=Agricultural Research Magazine|accessdate=17 June 2011|date=May/June 2011 - Vol. 59, No. 5}}</ref> In the early part of the 20th century, White offered pineland residents cash for wild blueberry plants with unusually large fruit.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The History of '&#39;Whitesbog Village'&#39; | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref> 'Rubel', one such wild blueberry cultivar, is the origin of many of the current hybrid cultivars.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}}
The [[rabbiteye blueberry]] (''Vaccinium virgatum'' syn. ''V. ashei'') is a southern type of blueberry produced from [[the Carolinas]] to the [[Gulf Coast of the United States|Gulf Coast]] states. Other important species in North America include ''V. pallidum'', the hillside or dryland blueberry. It is native to the eastern U.S., and common in the [[Appalachian Mountains|Appalachians]] and the [[Piedmont (United States)|Piedmont]] of the Southeast. Sparkleberry, ''V. arboreum'', is a common wild species on sandy soils in the Southeast. Its fruits are important to wildlife, and the flowers are important to beekeepers.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}}
==Growing areas==
[[File:BlueberryYield.png|thumb|300px|right|Worldwide highbush blueberry yield]]
Significant production of highbush blueberries occurs in [[British Columbia]], [[Maryland]], [[Western Oregon]], [[Michigan]], [[New Jersey]], [[North Carolina]], and [[Washington (U.S. state)|Washington]]. The production of southern highbush varieties in [[California]] is rapidly increasing, as varieties originating from [[University of Florida]], [[Connecticut]], [[New Hampshire]], [[North Carolina State University]] and [[Maine]] have been introduced. Southern highbush berries are now also cultivated in the Mediterranean regions of Europe, [[Southern Hemisphere]] countries and China.
=== United States ===
[[File:Blueberry Macro 2.JPG|thumb|left|A blueberry]]
Georgia has the longest harvest season in the U.S. lasting from late April through the end of July.<ref></ref> In a little more than 10 years, Georgia has become a major player in the global blueberry market. Georgia is the fourth- or fifth-highest producer of cultivated blueberries in the U.S., with almost 10 percent of production.<ref></ref>  In 2012, Georgia produced 77 million pounds of blueberries from nearly 15,000 acres of orchards.<ref>[[pdf]]</ref>
Maine produces 25% of all lowbush blueberries in North America with {{Convert|24291|ha|acre}} (FAO figures){{Full|date=October 2009}} under cultivation.{{Citation needed|date=April 2009}} Wild blueberry is the official fruit of Maine. But the town of [[Hammonton, NJ]] claims to be the "Blueberry Capital of the World,<ref></ref> with over 80% of all New Jersey's blueberries coming from this town.<ref></ref> Every year the town hosts a large festival that draws thousands of people to celebrate the fruit.<ref></ref>
Michigan is the leader in highbush production.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Agricultural Marketing Resource Center | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref> In 1998, Michigan farms produced {{Convert|220000|t|lb}} of blueberries, accounting for 32% of those eaten in the United States.<ref>[,1607,7-125-1570_2468_2471-12863--,00.html Michigan Department of Agriculture]{{dead link|date=October 2011}}</ref>
Commercial acreages of highbush blueberries are cultivated in the states of New Jersey, [[Florida]], [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] and North Carolina.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=US Highbush Blueberry Council | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= | | |date=2010-06-17 |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref>
Canadian exports of blueberries in 2007 were C$756 million, the largest fruit crop produced nationally, occupying more than half of all Canadian fruit acreage.<ref name=Scrivener>Scrivener L. [ Economy singing the blues, but berries are booming: Health-conscious consumers can't get enough of Canada's most valuable fruit crop], Toronto Star, Jul 28, 2008</ref>
British Columbia is the largest Canadian producer of highbush blueberries, yielding 40 million kilograms in 2009, the world's largest production by region.<ref>[ British Columbia Blueberry Council]</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=United States Highbush Blueberry Council | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref>
[[Atlantic Canada]] contributes approximately half of the total North American wild/lowbush annual production of {{convert|68000|t|lb|abbr=on}}.<ref>Yarborough DE. [;jsessionid=1v47l8zb8oxca.alexandra?format=print Factors contributing to the increase in productivity in the wild blueberry industry], Small Fruits Review, 3(1-2), July 2004, 33-43, Abstract
[[Nova Scotia]], the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada, recognizes the blueberry as its official provincial berry.<ref>Nova Scotia: [ Official emblems and symbols]</ref> The town of [[Oxford, Nova Scotia]] is known as the Wild Blueberry Capital of Canada. [[New Brunswick]] and [[Prince Edward Island]] are other Atlantic provinces with major wild blueberry farming.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Wild Blueberries, Carrots, Cranberries, Battered Vegetables | |date= |accessdate=2009-12-06}}</ref>
[[Quebec]] is a major producer of wild blueberries, especially in the regions of [[Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean]] (where a popular name for inhabitants of the regions is ''bleuets'', or "blueberries") and [[Côte-Nord]], which together provide 40% of [[Quebec]]'s total provincial production.
[[File:Maturing blueberry.jpg|thumb|right|A maturing 'Polaris' blueberry (''Vaccinium corymbosum'')]]
[[File:Seedxb8.tif|thumb|220px|right|When cut and observed under a microscope, compounds in blueberries may fluoresce.{{citation needed|date=December 2012}} With blue excitation light, green emission results ({{gaps|40|×}} magnification of a blueberry seed).{{citation needed|date=December 2012}}]]
Highbush blueberries were first introduced to [[Germany]], [[Sweden]] and the [[Netherlands]] in the 1930s, and have since been spread to Romania, Poland, Italy, Hungary and other countries of Europe.<ref name=nauman1993>{{cite book |first=W. D. |last=Naumann |chapter=Overview of the Vaccinium Industry in Western Europe |chapterurl= |year=1993 |editors=K. A. Clayton-Greene |title=Fifth International Symposium on Vaccinium Culture |isbn=978-90-6605-475-2 |oclc=29663461 |pages=53–58 |publisher=International Society for Horticultural Science |location=Wageningen, the Netherlands}}</ref>
=== Asia ===
The northeastern part of [[Turkey]] is one of the main sources of Caucasian whortleberry (''V. arctostaphylos''), [[bilberry]] (''V. myrtillus'') and bog blueberry, bog whortleberry or bog bilberry (''V. uliginosum''). This region from Artvin to Kırklareli, as well as parts of Bursa (including Rize, Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Samsun, Sinop, Kastamonu, Zonguldak, İstanbul, İzmit and Adapazari) have rainy, humid growing periods and naturally acidic soils suitable for blueberries (Çelik, 2005, 2006 and 2007).{{Full|date=October 2009}}
Native ''Vaccinium'' species and open-pollinated types have been grown for over a hundred years around the Black Sea region of Turkey. These native blueberries are eaten locally as jelly or dried or fresh fruit (Çelik, 2005).{{Full|date=October 2009}} Highbush blueberry cultivation started around the year 2000. The first commercial blueberry orchard was established by Osman Nuri Yildiz and supervised by Dr. Huseyin Celik, the founder of Turkish blueberry cultivation.{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}}
===Southern Hemisphere===
In the Southern Hemisphere, [[Chile]], [[Argentina]], [[Uruguay]], South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia now export blueberries.
Blueberries were first introduced to Australia in the 1950s, but the effort was unsuccessful. In the early 1970s, David Jones from the Victorian Department of Agriculture imported seed from the U.S. and a selection trial was started. This work was continued by Ridley Bell, who imported more American varieties. In the mid-1970s, the Australian Blueberry Growers' Association was formed.<ref name="">[ Australian Blueberry Growers' Association]</ref><ref>Clayton-Greene</ref>
By the early 1980s, the blueberry industry was started in New Zealand and is still growing. <!---(BNZ, n.d)--->
South Africa exports blueberries to Europe.
Commercial blueberry production in Argentina was {{Convert|400|ha|acre}} in 2001 and {{Convert|1600|ha|acre}} in 2004. Production in Argentina is increasing.<ref>[ U.S. Department of Agriculture GAIN Report], Retrieved June 30, 2011</ref> "Argentine blueberry production has thrived in four different regions: the province[s] of Entre Rios in northeastern Argentina, [...] Tucuman, Buenos Aires [...], and the southern Patagonian valleys", according to the report.<ref name=gain2005>{{cite web |first=Francisco |last=Pirovano |title=Argentina Blueberries Voluntary 2005 |url= |date=12 January 2005 |work=GAIN Report |publisher=[[Foreign Agricultural Service]] |accessdate=22 June 2009}}</ref>
Chile is the biggest producer in South America and the largest exporter to the Northern Hemisphere, with an estimated area of {{Convert|12.400|ha|acre}} in 2012 (ODEPA/CIREN). Introduction of the first plants started in the early 1980s, and production started in the late 80s in the southern part of the country. Today, production ranges from [[Copiapó]] in the north to [[Puerto Montt]] in the south, which allows the country to offer blueberries from October through late March. The main production area today is the [[Biobío Region]]. Production has evolved rapidly in the last decade, becoming the fourth most important fruit exported in value terms. Blueberries are exported mainly to North America (80%), followed by Europe (18%).<ref>[], 2007)</ref>
Most of the production comes from the highbush type, but several rabbiteye blueberries are grown in the country, as well.<ref>[], 2007</ref>
In [[Peru]], there are several private initiatives for the development of the crop. Also, the government through its agency Sierra Exportadora, has launched the program "''Peru Berries''" to take advantage of the existence of the ideal soil and climate required by the blueberry.
[[File:Blueberry harvester.jpg|thumbnail|right|Blueberry harvester in [[West Olive, Michigan|West Olive, MI]]]]
===Harvest seasons===
The blueberry harvest in North America varies. It can start as early as May and usually ends in late summer. The principal areas of production in the Southern Hemisphere (Australia, Chile, New Zealand and Argentina) have long periods of harvest. In Australia, for example, due to the geographic spread of blueberry farms and the development of new cultivation techniques, the industry is able to provide fresh blueberries for 10 months of the year – from July through to April.<ref name=""/> Similar to other fruits and vegetables, climate-controlled storage allows growers to preserve picked blueberries. Harvest in the UK is from June to August.
===Harvest methods===
For many years, blueberries were hand picked. In modern times, traditional hand picking is still quite common especially for the more delicate varieties. More commonly, farmers will use harvesters that will shake the fruit off the bush. The fruit is then brought to a cleaning/packaging facility where it is cleaned, packaged, then sold.
[[File:Making Blueberry Jam 2.jpg|thumb|left|Making blueberry jam at home]]
Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, [[purée]], juice, or dried or infused berries, which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as [[jelly (fruit preserves)|jellies]], [[jam]]s, [[blueberry pie]]s, [[muffins]], snack foods and [[cereals]].
Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, [[sugar]], water, and fruit [[pectin]].
Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, which is fermented and then matured; usually the lowbush variety is used.
===Nutrients, phytochemicals and research===
{{nutritional value | name=Blueberries, raw
| image=[[File:Blueberries-In-Pack.jpg|thumb|center|'''<center>A [[punnet]] of blueberries</center>''']]
| kJ=240
| protein=0.74 g
| fat=0.33 g
| carbs=14.49 g
| fiber=2.4 g
| sugars=9.96 g
| calcium_mg=6
| iron_mg=0.28
| magnesium_mg=6
| phosphorus_mg=12
| potassium_mg=77
| sodium_mg=1
| zinc_mg=0.16
| manganese_mg=0.336
| vitC_mg=9.7
| thiamin_mg=0.037
| riboflavin_mg=0.041
| niacin_mg=0.418
| pantothenic_mg=0.124
| vitB6_mg=0.052
| folate_ug=6
| betacarotene_ug=32
| vitA_iu=54
| lutein_ug=80
| vitE_mg=0.57
| vitK_ug=19.3
| source_usda = 1
| note=[ Link to USDA Database entry]
Blueberries have a diverse range of [[micronutrient]]s, with moderate levels (relative to respective [[Dietary Reference Intake]]s) of the essential [[dietary mineral]] [[manganese]], [[vitamin C]], [[vitamin K]] and [[dietary fiber]] (table).<ref>[ In-depth nutrition information on raw blueberries],</ref> One serving provides a relatively low [[glycemic load]] score of 4 out of 100 per day.
Blueberries contain [[anthocyanin]]s, other [[pigment]]s and various [[phytochemical]]s, which are under preliminary research for their potential role in reducing risks of diseases such as [[inflammation]] and [[cancer]].<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention |work=Fact Sheet |publisher=National Cancer Institute }}<br/>[ ]</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, ''et al.'' |title=Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |volume=54 |issue=25 |pages=9329–39 |year=2006 |month=December |pmid=17147415 |doi=10.1021/jf061750g |issn=0021-8561 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Neto CC |title=Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases |journal=Mol Nutr Food Res. |volume=51 |issue=6 |pages=652–64 |year=2007 |month=June |pmid=17533651 |doi=10.1002/mnfr.200600279 |issn=1613-4125}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Srivastava A, Akoh CC, Fischer J, Krewer G |title=Effect of anthocyanin fractions from selected cultivars of Georgia-grown blueberries on apoptosis and phase II enzymes |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |volume=55 |issue=8 |pages=3180–5 |year=2007 |month=April |pmid=17381106 |doi=10.1021/jf062915o |issn=0021-8561 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Schmidt BM, Erdman JW, Lila MA |title=Differential effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins on androgen sensitive and insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines |journal=Cancer Lett. |volume=231 |issue=2 |pages=240–6 |year=2006 |month=January |pmid=16399225 |doi=10.1016/j.canlet.2005.02.003 |issn=0304-3835 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, Akoh CC |title=Phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |volume=53 |issue=18 |pages=7320–9 |year=2005 |month=September |pmid=16131149 |doi=10.1021/jf051333o |issn=0021-8561 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Russell WR, Labat A, Scobbie L, Duncan SH |title=Availability of blueberry phenolics for microbial metabolism in the colon and the potential inflammatory implications |journal=Mol Nutr Food Res. |volume=51 |issue=6 |pages=726–31 |year=2007 |month=June |pmid=17487929 |doi=10.1002/mnfr.200700022 |issn=1613-4125 }}</ref> Similar to red [[grape]], blueberries may contain [[resveratrol]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Rimando AM, Kalt W, Magee JB, Dewey J, Ballington JR |title=Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |volume=52 |issue=15 |pages=4713–9 |year=2004 |month=July |pmid=15264904 |doi=10.1021/jf040095e |issn=0021-8561 }}</ref>
Most studies have been conducted using the highbush [[cultivar]] of blueberries (''V. corymbosum''), while content of [[polyphenol]]s and anthocyanins in lowbush (wild) blueberries (''V. angustifolium'') exceeds values found in highbush cultivars.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Kalt W, Ryan DA, Duy JC, Prior RL, Ehlenfeldt MK, Vander Kloet SP |title=Interspecific variation in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity among genotypes of highbush and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium section cyanococcus spp.) |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |volume=49 |issue=10 |pages=4761–7 |year=2001 |month=October |pmid=11600018 |doi=10.1021/jf010653e |issn=0021-8561}}</ref>
In preliminary research, feeding blueberries to rats reduced [[brain]] damage in experimental [[stroke]]<ref>{{cite journal |author=Sweeney MI, Kalt W, MacKinnon SL, Ashby J, Gottschall-Pass KT |title=Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbush blueberries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain damage |journal=Nutr Neurosci. |volume=5 |issue=6 |pages=427–31 |year=2002 |month=December |pmid=12509072 |url= |doi=10.1080/1028415021000055970 |issn=1028-415X}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Wang Y, Chang CF, Chou J, ''et al.'' |title=Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage |journal=Exp Neurol. |volume=193 |issue=1 |pages=75–84 |year=2005 |month=May |pmid=15817266 |doi=10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.12.014 |issn=0014-4886 }}</ref> and may cause increased production of vascular [[nitric oxide]] that influences blood pressure regulation.<ref>{{cite news| url= | work=Chicago Tribune | title=The benefits of berries | date=2011-03-03}}</ref> Additional research showed that blueberry consumption in rats altered [[glycosaminoglycans]] that are [[vascular tissue|vascular]] cell components affecting control of [[blood pressure]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Kalea AZ, Lamari FN, Theocharis AD, ''et al.'' |title=Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption affects the composition and structure of glycosaminoglycans in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta |journal=J Nutr Biochem. |volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=109–16 |year=2006 |month=February |pmid=16111874 |doi=10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.05.015 |issn=0955-2863 }}</ref>
Other animal studies found blueberry consumption lowered [[cholesterol]] and total blood [[lipid]] levels, possibly affecting symptoms of [[heart disease]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Kalt W, Foote K, Fillmore SA, Lyon M, Van Lunen TA, McRae KB |title=Effect of blueberry feeding on plasma lipids in pigs |journal=Br J Nutr. |volume=100 |issue=1 |pages=70–8 |year=2008 |month=July |pmid=18081945 |doi=10.1017/S0007114507877658 |issn=0007-1145 }}</ref>
Supplementation of diets with wild blueberry juice may affect [[memory]] and learning in older adults, while possibly reducing [[blood sugar]] and symptoms of [[Depression (mood)|depression]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Krikorian R ''et al.'' |title=Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults |journal=J Agric Food Chem. |year=2010 |pmid=20047325 |doi=10.1021/jf9029332 |volume=58 |issue=7 |pages=3996–4000 |pmc=2850944}}</ref>
The application of pesticides is common in large-scale blueberry monoculture in Maine.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Catching the Toxic Drift: How Pesticides Used in the Blueberry Industry Threaten Our Communities, Our Water and the Environment |publisher=Environment Maine |date=2005-08-16 |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref> Because "wild" is a marketing term generally used for all low-bush blueberries, it is not an indication that such blueberries are free from pesticides.
The Environmental
Working Group, referencing the USDA,<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Measure E8: Pesticide Residues on Foods Frequently Consumed by Children |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |date=November 2010 |work= |publisher=EPA |accessdate=9 September 2012}}</ref> rates blueberries as a "significant concern".<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=EWG'S 2011 Shopper's Guide Helps Cut Consumer Pesticide Exposure &#124; Environmental Working Group | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Executive Summary &#124; EWG's Shopper's Guide to Pesticides &#124; Environmental Working Group | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-11}}</ref>
==See also==
* [[List of fruits]]
* [[List of vegetables]]
{{Commons category|Blueberries}}
==Further reading==
* Retamales, J.B. / Hancock, J.F. (2012). ''Blueberries'' (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-826-0
* {{cite book | author=Sumner, Judith | title=American Household Botany: A History of Useful Plants, 1620-1900 | publisher=Timber Press | year=2004 | isbn=0-88192-652-3 | page=125}} [ Google books link]
* Wright, Virginia (2011). ''The Wild Blueberry Book''. Down East Books. ISBN 978-0-89272-939-5
==External links==
* David E. Yarborough, [ Wild Blueberry Culture in Maine]
* [ The Blueberry Bulletin] [[]]
* Clayton-Greene, K. International Society for Horticultural Science, [ The Blueberry Industry in Australia: An Overview]
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[[Category:Flora of Delaware]]
[[Category:Flora of Maryland]]
[[Category:Flora of North Carolina]]
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[[Category:Flora of Virginia]]
[[Category:Flora of Washington, D.C.]]
[[Category:Flora of West Virginia]]
[[Category:Medicinal plants]]
[[Category:Plants of temperate climates]]
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