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ID:1580070
User:170.185.195.19
Article:Electron affinity
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(because of exothermic reaction process is defined as change)
(Measurement and use of electron affinity)
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==Measurement and use of electron affinity==
 
==Measurement and use of electron affinity==
   
This property is measured for atoms and molecules in the gaseous state only, since in the solid or liquid states their [[energy level]]s would be changed by contact with other atoms or molecules. A list of the electron affinities was used by [[Robert S. Mulliken]] to develop an [[electronegativity]] scale for atoms, equal to the average of the electron affinity and [[ionization potential]].<ref>Robert S. Mulliken, [[Journal of Chemical Physics]], '''1934''', ''2'', 782.</ref><ref>Modern Physical Organic Chemistry, Eric V. Anslyn and Dennis A. Dougherty, University Science Books, 2006, ISBN 978-1-891389-31-3</ref> Other theoretical concepts that use electron affinity include electronic chemical potential and [[chemical hardness]]. Another example, a molecule or atom that has a more positive value of electron affinity than another is often called an [[electron acceptor]] and the less positive an [[electron donor]]. Together they may undergo [[charge-transfer]] reactions.
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This poo property is measured for atoms and molecules in the gaseous state only, since in the solid or liquid states their [[energy level]]s would be changed by contact with other atoms or molecules. A list of the electron affinities was used by [[Robert S. Mulliken]] to develop an [[electronegativity]] scale for atoms, equal to the average of the electron affinity and [[ionization potential]].<ref>Robert S. Mulliken, [[Journal of Chemical Physics]], '''1934''', ''2'', 782.</ref><ref>Modern Physical Organic Chemistry, Eric V. Anslyn and Dennis A. Dougherty, University Science Books, 2006, ISBN 978-1-891389-31-3</ref> Other theoretical concepts that use electron affinity include electronic chemical potential and [[chemical hardness]]. Another example, a molecule or atom that has a more positive value of electron affinity than another is often called an [[electron acceptor]] and the less positive an [[electron donor]]. Together they may undergo [[charge-transfer]] reactions.
   
 
To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. For any reaction that ''releases'' energy, the ''change'' Δ''E'' in [[total energy]] has a negative value and the reaction is called an [[Exothermic reaction|exothermic process]]. Electron capture for almost all non-[[noble gas]] atoms involves the release of energy<ref>Chemical Principles the Quest for Insight, Peter Atkins and Loretta Jones, Freeman, New York, 2010 ISBN 978-1-4292-1955-6</ref> and thus are exothermic. The positive values that are listed in tables of ''E''<sub>ea</sub> are amounts or magnitudes. It is the word, ''released'' within the definition ''energy released'' that supplies the negative sign. Confusion arises in mistaking ''E''<sub>ea</sub> for a change in energy, Δ''E'', in which case the positive values listed in tables would be for an endo- not exo-thermic process. The relation between the two is ''E''<sub>ea</sub> = −Δ''E''(attach).
 
To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. For any reaction that ''releases'' energy, the ''change'' Δ''E'' in [[total energy]] has a negative value and the reaction is called an [[Exothermic reaction|exothermic process]]. Electron capture for almost all non-[[noble gas]] atoms involves the release of energy<ref>Chemical Principles the Quest for Insight, Peter Atkins and Loretta Jones, Freeman, New York, 2010 ISBN 978-1-4292-1955-6</ref> and thus are exothermic. The positive values that are listed in tables of ''E''<sub>ea</sub> are amounts or magnitudes. It is the word, ''released'' within the definition ''energy released'' that supplies the negative sign. Confusion arises in mistaking ''E''<sub>ea</sub> for a change in energy, Δ''E'', in which case the positive values listed in tables would be for an endo- not exo-thermic process. The relation between the two is ''E''<sub>ea</sub> = −Δ''E''(attach).
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