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Article:Hesiod
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Some scholars have seen [[Perses (brother of Hesiod)|Perses]] as a literary creation, a foil for the moralizing that Hesiod develops in ''Works and Days,'' but there are also arguments against this theory.<ref>Hugh G. Evelyn-White, ''Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica'' (Cambridge: [[Harvard University Press]], 1964) Volume 57 of the [[Loeb Classical Library]], pp. xivf.</ref> For example, it is quite common for works of moral instruction to have an imaginative setting, as a means of getting the audience's attention,<ref group="nb">Jasper Griffin, in ''The Oxford History of the Classical World'', O.U.P (1986), cites for example the Book Of Ecclesiastes, a Sumerian text in the form of a father's remonstrance with a prodigal son, and Egyptian wisdom texts spoken by viziers etc. Hesiod was certainly open to Oriental influences, as is clear in the myths presented by him in ''Theogony''</ref> but it is difficult to see how Hesiod could have travelled the countryside entertaining people with a narrative about himself if the account was known to be fictitious.<ref>Jasper Griffin, 'Greek Myth and Hesiod' in ''The Oxford History of the Classical World'', J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (eds), Oxford University Press (1986), page 95</ref> [[Gregory Nagy]], on the other hand, sees both ''Persēs'' ("the destroyer": {{lang|grc|πέρθω}} / ''perthō'') and ''Hēsiodos'' ("he who emits the voice:" {{lang|grc|ἵημι}} / ''hiēmi'' + {{lang|grc|αὐδή}} / ''audē'') as fictitious names for poetical [[persona]]e.<ref>Gregory Nagy, ''Greek Mythology and Poetics'' (Cornell 1990), pp. 36–82.</ref>
 
Some scholars have seen [[Perses (brother of Hesiod)|Perses]] as a literary creation, a foil for the moralizing that Hesiod develops in ''Works and Days,'' but there are also arguments against this theory.<ref>Hugh G. Evelyn-White, ''Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica'' (Cambridge: [[Harvard University Press]], 1964) Volume 57 of the [[Loeb Classical Library]], pp. xivf.</ref> For example, it is quite common for works of moral instruction to have an imaginative setting, as a means of getting the audience's attention,<ref group="nb">Jasper Griffin, in ''The Oxford History of the Classical World'', O.U.P (1986), cites for example the Book Of Ecclesiastes, a Sumerian text in the form of a father's remonstrance with a prodigal son, and Egyptian wisdom texts spoken by viziers etc. Hesiod was certainly open to Oriental influences, as is clear in the myths presented by him in ''Theogony''</ref> but it is difficult to see how Hesiod could have travelled the countryside entertaining people with a narrative about himself if the account was known to be fictitious.<ref>Jasper Griffin, 'Greek Myth and Hesiod' in ''The Oxford History of the Classical World'', J.Boardman, J.Griffin and O.Murray (eds), Oxford University Press (1986), page 95</ref> [[Gregory Nagy]], on the other hand, sees both ''Persēs'' ("the destroyer": {{lang|grc|πέρθω}} / ''perthō'') and ''Hēsiodos'' ("he who emits the voice:" {{lang|grc|ἵημι}} / ''hiēmi'' + {{lang|grc|αὐδή}} / ''audē'') as fictitious names for poetical [[persona]]e.<ref>Gregory Nagy, ''Greek Mythology and Poetics'' (Cornell 1990), pp. 36–82.</ref>
 
[[File:Moreau, Gustave - Hésiode et la Muse - 1891.jpg|thumb|250px|Hesiod and the [[Muse]], by [[Gustave Moreau]]. Here he is presented with a [[lyre]], which contradicts the account given by Hesiod himself, in which the gift was a laurel staff.]]
 
[[File:Moreau, Gustave - Hésiode et la Muse - 1891.jpg|thumb|250px|Hesiod and the [[Muse]], by [[Gustave Moreau]]. Here he is presented with a [[lyre]], which contradicts the account given by Hesiod himself, in which the gift was a laurel staff.]]
It might seem unusual that Hesiod's father migrated from Asia Minor westwards to mainland Greece, the opposite direction to most colonial movements at the time, and Hesiod himself gives no explanation for it. However around 750 BC, or a little later, there was a migration of seagoing merchants from his original home in Cyme in Asia Minor to [[Cumae]] in [[Campania]] (a colony they shared with Euboeans), and possibly his move west had something to do with that, since [[Euboea]] is not far from Boetia, where he eventually established himself and his family.<ref>J.P. Barron and P.E.Easterling, 'Hesiod' in ''The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature'', P. Easterling and B. Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 93</ref> The family association with Cyme might explain his familiarity with eastern myths, evident in his poems, though the Greek world might have already developed its own versions of them.<ref>A.R. Burn, ''The Pelican History of Greece'', 77</ref>
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It might seem unusual that Hesiod's Justin Beiber father migrated from Asia Minor westwards to mainland Greece, the opposite direction to most colonial movements at the time, and Hesiod himself gives no explanation for it. However around 750 BC, or a little later, there was a migration of seagoing merchants from his original home in Cyme in Asia Minor to [[Cumae]] in [[Campania]] (a colony they shared with Euboeans), and possibly his move west had something to do with that, since [[Euboea]] is not far from Boetia, where he eventually established himself and his family.<ref>J.P. Barron and P.E.Easterling, 'Hesiod' in ''The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature'', P. Easterling and B. Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), page 93</ref> The family association with Cyme might explain his familiarity with eastern myths, evident in his poems, though the Greek world might have already developed its own versions of them.<ref>A.R. Burn, ''The Pelican History of Greece'', 77</ref>
   
 
In spite of Hesiod's complaints about poverty, life on his father's farm could not have been too uncomfortable if ''Works and Days'' is anything to judge by, since he describes the routines of prosperous [[yeoman]]ry rather than peasants. His farmer employs a friend (l. 370) as well as servants (ll. 502, 573, 597, 608, 766), an energetic and responsible ploughman of mature years (ll. 469–71), a slave boy to cover the seed (ll. 441–6), a female servant to keep house (ll. 405, 602) and working teams of oxen and mules (ll. 405, 607f.).<ref>J.P. Barron and P.E.Easterling, 'Hesiod' in ''The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature'', P. Easterling and B. Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), pages 93–4</ref> One modern scholar surmises that Hesiod may have learned about world geography, especially the catalogue of rivers in ''Theogony'' (ll. 337–45), listening to his father's accounts of his own sea voyages as a merchant<ref>M.L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', Oxford University Press (1966), pages 41–2</ref> The father probably spoke in the Aeolian dialect of Cyme but Hesiod probably grew up speaking the local [[Aeolic Greek|Boeotian]] dialect. However, while his poetry features some Aeolisms there are no words that are certainly Boeotian—he composed in the main literary dialect of the time (Homer's dialect): Ionian.<ref>M.L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', Oxford University Press (1966), pages 90–1</ref>
 
In spite of Hesiod's complaints about poverty, life on his father's farm could not have been too uncomfortable if ''Works and Days'' is anything to judge by, since he describes the routines of prosperous [[yeoman]]ry rather than peasants. His farmer employs a friend (l. 370) as well as servants (ll. 502, 573, 597, 608, 766), an energetic and responsible ploughman of mature years (ll. 469–71), a slave boy to cover the seed (ll. 441–6), a female servant to keep house (ll. 405, 602) and working teams of oxen and mules (ll. 405, 607f.).<ref>J.P. Barron and P.E.Easterling, 'Hesiod' in ''The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Greek Literature'', P. Easterling and B. Knox (eds), Cambridge University Press (1985), pages 93–4</ref> One modern scholar surmises that Hesiod may have learned about world geography, especially the catalogue of rivers in ''Theogony'' (ll. 337–45), listening to his father's accounts of his own sea voyages as a merchant<ref>M.L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', Oxford University Press (1966), pages 41–2</ref> The father probably spoke in the Aeolian dialect of Cyme but Hesiod probably grew up speaking the local [[Aeolic Greek|Boeotian]] dialect. However, while his poetry features some Aeolisms there are no words that are certainly Boeotian—he composed in the main literary dialect of the time (Homer's dialect): Ionian.<ref>M.L. West, ''Hesiod: Theogony'', Oxford University Press (1966), pages 90–1</ref>
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