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Article:English people
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(English nationality)
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The English people are the source of the English language, the [[Westminster system|parliamentary system]], the [[English law|common law system]] and numerous major sports. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former [[British Empire]].
 
The English people are the source of the English language, the [[Westminster system|parliamentary system]], the [[English law|common law system]] and numerous major sports. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former [[British Empire]].
 
==English nationality==
 
 
Although England is no longer an independent nation state, but rather a [[constituent country]] within the United Kingdom, the English may still be regarded as a "nation" according to the ''[[Oxford English Dictionary]]'''s definition: a group united by factors that include "language, culture, history, or occupation of the same territory".<ref>"Nation", sense 1. ''The Oxford English Dictionary'', 2nd edtn., 1989'.</ref>
 
 
The concept of an "English nation" is far older than that of the "British nation", and the 1990s witnessed a revival in English self-consciousness.<ref name=KK-262-290>{{harvnb|Kumar|2003|pp=262–290}}</ref> This is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland&nbsp; – which take their most solid form in the new [[devolution|devolved]] political arrangements within the United Kingdom&nbsp; – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the [[British Empire]] and the present.{{sfn|Kumar|2003|pp=[http://assets.cambridge.org/97805217/71887/sample/9780521771887ws.pdf 1–18]}}<!--includes a link to the first 18 pages--><ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/596703.stm English nationalism 'threat to UK'], [[BBC]], Sunday, 9 January 2000</ref><ref>[http://www.economist.com/world/britain/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10064563 The English question Handle with care], [[the Economist]] 1 November 2007</ref>
 
 
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or hyphenated identities.{{sfn|Condor|Gibson|Abell|2006}}<ref>"Ethnic minorities feel strong sense of identity with Britain, report reveals" Maxine Frith ''[[The Independent]]'' 8 January 2004. [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/ethnic-minorities-feel-strong-sense-of-identity-with-britain-report-reveals-578503.html]; Hussain, Asifa and Millar, William Lockley (2006) ''Multicultural Nationalism'' [[Oxford University Press]] p149-150 [http://books.google.com/books?id=d2Hv2QMMVrQC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&dq=English+identity+Pakistani+British&source=web&ots=vK18u7nyNp&sig=mbDfLkCfSSRAXuOIyKbDnTcadJs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result]; "Asian recruits boost England fan army" by Dennis Campbell, ''[[The Guardian]]'' 18 June 2006. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jun/18/worldcup2006.sport]; "National Identity and Community in England" (2006) ''Institute of Governance'' Briefing No.7. [http://www.institute-of-governance.org/forum/Leverhulme/briefing_pdfs/IoG_Briefing_07.pdf]</ref> Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the [[Office for National Statistics]] compared the ''ethnic'' identities of British people with their perceived ''national'' identity. They found that while 58% of white people described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British".<ref>"78 per cent of [[British Bangladeshi|Bangladeshis]] said they were British, while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh", and the largest percentage of non-whites to identify as English were the people who described their ethnicity as "[[mixed race|Mixed]]" (37%).[http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=459 'Identity', ''National Statistics'', 21 February 2006]</ref>
 
 
===Relationship to Britishness===
 
 
It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. In the [[2001 UK census]], respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were [[Tick (checkmark)|tick boxes]] for '[[Irish people|Irish']] and for '[[Scottish people|Scottish']], there were none for 'English', or '[[Welsh people|Welsh']], who were subsumed into the general heading 'White British'.<ref>[http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/grosweb/grosweb.nsf/pages/file5/$file/supporting_information.pdf Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information] ([[PDF]]; see p. 43); see also [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/04/23/ncen23.xml Philip Johnston, "Tory MP leads English protest over census", ''Daily Telegraph'' 15 June 2006].</ref> Following complaints about this, the 2011 census will "allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."<ref>[http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census/2011Census/CollectingtheInfo/questionnairedevelopment.asp 'Developing the Questionnaires', ''National Statistics Office''].</ref> Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English identity, [[Krishan Kumar]] describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British". He notes that this slip is normally made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom rarely say 'British' when they mean 'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is also "problematic for the English [...] when it comes to conceiving of their national identity. It tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles".{{sfn|Kumar|2003|pp=1–2}}
 
 
In 1965, the historian [[A. J. P. Taylor]] wrote,
 
:"When the ''[[Oxford History of England]]'' was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word. It meant indiscriminately England and Wales; Great Britain; the United Kingdom; and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a [[Great Power]] and indeed continue to do so. [[Bonar Law]], by origin a [[Scottish Canadian|Scotch Canadian]], was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" [...] Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests, especially from the [[Scottish people|Scotch]]."<ref>A. J. P. Taylor, ''English History, 1914–1945'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), p. v</ref>
 
However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book ''The Isles'' (1999), [[Norman Davies]] lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa.<ref>Norman Davies, ''The Isles'' (1999){{Page needed|date=September 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In December 2010, [[Matthew Parris]] in ''[[The Spectator]]'', analysing the use of “English” over “British”, argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has recently been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness.<ref>Matthew Parris, in ''The Spectator'' dated 18 December 2010: “With a shrug of the shoulders, England is becoming a nation once again”.</ref>
 
 
===Historical origins and identity===
 
The conventional view of English origins is that the English are primarily descended from the [[Anglo-Saxons]], the term used to describe the various [[Germanic peoples|Germanic]] tribes that migrated to Great Britain following the end of the [[Roman occupation of Britain]], with assimilation of later migrants such as the [[Vikings]] and [[Normans]]. This version of history is considered by some historians as simplistic or even incorrect on the basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. Based on a re-estimation of the number of settlers, some have taken the view that it is highly unlikely that the existing British Celtic-speaking population was substantially displaced by the Anglo-Saxons and that instead a process of acculturation took place, with an Anglo-Saxon ruling elite imposing their culture on the local populations.<ref>Michael Jones, ''The End of Roman Britain'', pp.8–38.</ref><ref>See also "Britain AD: a quest for Arthur, England and the Anglo-Saxons" by [[Francis Pryor]]</ref> However, many historians, while making allowance for British survival, still hold to the view that there was significant displacement of the indigenous population.<ref>{{Cite journal|format=PDF|url= http://www.ucl.ac.uk/mace-lab/macepdf/Thomas-PRSB-06-Apartheid.pdf|title=Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England|author=Mark G. Thomas, Michael P. H. Stumpf and Heinrich Hark|publisher=Royal Society|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref><ref>Andrew Tyrrell, ''Corpus Saxon'' in ''Social Identity in Early Medieval Britain'' by Andrew Tyrrell and William O. Frazer (London: Leicester University Press. 2000)</ref>
 
 
The [[Celt]]ic-speaking populations, particularly in their use of [[Brythonic languages]] such as [[Cornish language|Cornish]], [[Cumbric language|Cumbric]], and [[Welsh language|Welsh]], held on for several centuries in parts of England such as [[Cornwall]], Devon, [[Cumbria]] and a part of [[Lancashire]].<ref>''Chamber's cyclopædia of English literature: a history, critical and biographical, of authors in the English tongue from the earliest times till the present day, with specimens of their writings, Volume 1'' Robert Chambers, John Liddell Geddie, David Patrick, 1922. Page.2</ref><ref>''The Cornish language and its literature'', [[Peter Berresford Ellis]], Routledge, 1974 ISBN 0-7100-7928-1, ISBN 978-0-7100-7928-2. page. 20</ref> Historian Catherine Hills describes what she calls the "[[National myth|national origin myth]]" of the English:
 
:The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons&nbsp;... is still perceived as an important and interesting event because it is believed to have been a key factor in the identity of the present inhabitants of the British Isles, involving migration on such a scale as to permanently change the population of south-east Britain, and making the English a distinct and different people from the Celtic [[Irish people|Irish]], [[Welsh people|Welsh]] and [[Scottish people|Scots]]&nbsp;....this is an example of a national origin myth&nbsp;... and shows why there are seldom simple answers to questions about origins.<ref>Catherine Hills, ''The Origins of the English'' (London: Duckworth, Duckworth Debates in Archaeology, 2003), p. 18, ISBN 0-7156-3191-8</ref>
 
 
Recent books by [[Stephen Oppenheimer]] and [[Bryan Sykes]] have argued that the recent genetic studies in fact do not show a clear dividing line between the English and their 'Celtic' neighbours, but that there is a gradual [[cline (population genetics)|clinal]] change from west coast Britain to east coast Britain. They suggest that the majority of the ancestors of British peoples were the original palaeolithic settlers of Great Britain, and that the differences that exist between the east and west coasts of Great Britain though not large, are deep in prehistory, mostly originating in the upper palaeolithic and Mesolithic (15,000–7,000 years ago). Furthermore, Oppenheimer stated that genetic testing has proven that "75% of British and Irish ancestors arrive[d] between 15,000 and 7,500 years ago" (that is, long before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons, and even before [[Celtic settlement of Great Britain and Ireland|that of the Celts]]).<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E00EED91431F935A35750C0A9619C8B63 ''A United Kingdom? Maybe'' NY Times]</ref> There is support to say that these ancestors came from the [[Iberian peninsula]] and southwestern [[France]] {{dubious|date=June 2013}}, but not from [[Central Europe]], where the Proto-Celts once lived. But more recent research has largely discredited these older theories, as deeper and more precise understandings of genetic markers are made clear.
 
   
 
==History of English people==
 
==History of English people==
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