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ID:1602493
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Article:Ghana Empire
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(Economy)
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A seventeenth-century chronicle written in [[Timbuktu]], the ''[[Tarikh al-fattash]]'', gives the name of the capital as "Koumbi".<ref name=Houdas76/> Beginning in the 1920s, French archaeologists began excavating the site of Koumbi-Saleh, although there have always been controversies about the location of Ghana's capital and whether Koumbi-Saleh is the same town as the one described by al-Bakri. The site was excavated in 1949–50 by Thomassey and Mauny{{sfn|Thomassey|Mauny|1951}} and by another French team in 1975–81.{{sfn|Berthier|1997}} However, the remains of Koumbi Saleh are impressive, even if the remains of the royal town, with its large palace and burial mounds has not been located. Another problem for archaeology is that al-Idrisi, a twelfth-century writer, described Ghana's royal city as lying on a riverbank, a river he called the "Nile" following the geographic custom of his day of confusing the Niger and Senegal, which do not meet, as forming a single river often called the "Nile of the Blacks". Whether al-Idrisi was referring to a new and later capital located elsewhere, or whether there was confusion or corruption in his text is unclear, however he does state that the royal palace he knew of was built in 510&nbsp;AH (1116–1117&nbsp;AD), suggesting that it was a newer town, rebuilt closer to the Niger than Koumbi Saleh.<ref>al-Idrisi in Levtzion and Hopkins, ''Corpus'', pp. 109–110.</ref>
 
A seventeenth-century chronicle written in [[Timbuktu]], the ''[[Tarikh al-fattash]]'', gives the name of the capital as "Koumbi".<ref name=Houdas76/> Beginning in the 1920s, French archaeologists began excavating the site of Koumbi-Saleh, although there have always been controversies about the location of Ghana's capital and whether Koumbi-Saleh is the same town as the one described by al-Bakri. The site was excavated in 1949–50 by Thomassey and Mauny{{sfn|Thomassey|Mauny|1951}} and by another French team in 1975–81.{{sfn|Berthier|1997}} However, the remains of Koumbi Saleh are impressive, even if the remains of the royal town, with its large palace and burial mounds has not been located. Another problem for archaeology is that al-Idrisi, a twelfth-century writer, described Ghana's royal city as lying on a riverbank, a river he called the "Nile" following the geographic custom of his day of confusing the Niger and Senegal, which do not meet, as forming a single river often called the "Nile of the Blacks". Whether al-Idrisi was referring to a new and later capital located elsewhere, or whether there was confusion or corruption in his text is unclear, however he does state that the royal palace he knew of was built in 510&nbsp;AH (1116–1117&nbsp;AD), suggesting that it was a newer town, rebuilt closer to the Niger than Koumbi Saleh.<ref>al-Idrisi in Levtzion and Hopkins, ''Corpus'', pp. 109–110.</ref>
   
==Economy==
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Whales
Most of our information about the economy of Ghana comes from merchants, and therefore we know more about the commercial aspects of its economy, and less about the way in which the rulers and nobles may have obtained agricultural products through tribute or taxation. The empire became wealthy because of their trading. They had an abundant amount of gold and salt. Al-Bakri noted that merchants had to pay a one gold dinar tax on imports of salt, and two on exports of salt. Other products paid fixed dues, al-Bakri mentioned both copper and "other goods." Imports probably included products such as textiles, ornaments and other materials. Many of the hand-crafted leather goods found in old [[Morocco]] may also had their origins in the empire.<ref>Chu, Daniel and Skinner, Elliot. A Glorious Age in Africa, 1st ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965.</ref> The main centre of trade was [[Koumbi Saleh]]. The king claimed as his own all nuggets of gold, and allowed other people to have only gold dust.<ref>al-Bakri in Levtzion and Hopkins, eds. and trans. ''Corpus'', p. 81.</ref> In addition to the exerted influence of the king onto local regions, tribute was also received from various tributary states and [[chiefdoms]] to the empire's periphery.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml Ancient Ghana.]</ref> The introduction of the camel played a key role in Soninke success as well, allowing products and goods to be transported much more efficiently across the Sahara. These contributing factors all helped the empire remain powerful for some time, providing a rich and stable economy that was to last over several centuries.
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They are fun
The empire was also known to be a major education hub.
 
   
 
==Government==
 
==Government==
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