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Article:Holodomor
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{{Holodomor}}
 
{{Holodomor}}
The '''Holodomor''' ({{lang-uk|Голодомор}}, "''Extermination by hunger''" or "''Hunger-extermination''";<ref>{{cite book|last=Jones|first=Adam|title=Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction|year=2010|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780415486187|page=194}}</ref> derived from 'Морити голодом', ''"Killing by Starvation"'' <ref>Andrea Graziosi, ''"Les Famines Soviétiques de 1931-1933 et le Holodomor Ukrainien."'', Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, 46/3, p. 457</ref><ref>Nicolas Werth, "La grande famine ukrainienne de 1932-1933" in Nicolas Werth, La terreur et le désarroi: Staline et son système, Paris, 2007, p. 132. ISBN 2262024626</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Graziosi|first=Andrea|title=LES FAMINES SOVIÉTIQUES DE 1931-1933 ET LE HOLODOMOR UKRAINIEN|year=2005|publisher=Cahier du Monde Russe|page=464}}</ref>) was a man-made [[famine]] in the [[Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic|Ukrainian SSR]] and a part of the [[Soviet famine of 1932–33]]. During the Holodomor, which is also known as the "Terror-Famine" and "Famine-Genocide",{{sfn|Davies|2006|p=[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4yWin1-ckYgC&pg=PA145 145]}}{{sfn|Baumeister|1999|p=179}}{{sfn|Sternberg|Sternberg|2008|p=[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TFT2l-RH9FIC&pg=PA67 67]}} millions of Ukrainians and other ethnicities died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the [[history of Ukraine]].<ref name="britannica">[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/612921/Ukraine/275912/Industrialization-and-collectivization{{spaced ndash}}"The famine of 1932–33"], ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."</ref> Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized in [[Ukraine]] and some other countries as [[genocide]] of Ukrainians.<ref name=zakon>[http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=376-16&zahyst=4/UMfPEGznhhAMY.Zi691C5hHI4ags80msh8Ie6 Law of Ukraine "On Holodomor 1932—1933 in Ukraine]</ref>
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The '''Holodomor''' ({{lang-uk|Голодомор}}, "''Extermination by hunger''" or "''Hunger-extermination''";<ref>{{cite book|last=Jones|first=Adam|title=Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction|year=2010|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780415486187|page=194}}</ref> derived from 'Морити голодом', ''"Killing by Starvation"'' <ref>Andrea Graziosi, ''"Les Famines Soviétiques de 1931-1933 et le Holodomor Ukrainien."'', Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, 46/3, p. 457</ref><ref>Nicolas Werth, "La grande famine ukrainienne de 1932-1933" in Nicolas Werth, La terreur et le désarroi: Staline et son système, Paris, 2007, p. 132. ISBN 2262024626</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Graziosi|first=Andrea|title=LES FAMINES SOVIÉTIQUES DE 1931-1933 ET LE HOLODOMOR UKRAINIEN|year=2005|publisher=Cahier du Monde Russe|page=464}}</ref>) was a man-made [[famine]] in the [[Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic|Ukrainian SSR]] and adjacent [[Cossack]] territories in 1932 and 1933. During the famine, which is also known as the "Terror-Famine in Ukraine" and "Famine-Genocide in Ukraine",{{sfn|Davies|2006|p=[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4yWin1-ckYgC&pg=PA145 145]}}{{sfn|Baumeister|1999|p=179}}{{sfn|Sternberg|Sternberg|2008|p=[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TFT2l-RH9FIC&pg=PA67 67]}} millions of Ukrainians and [[Cossacks]] died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the [[history of Ukraine]].<ref name="britannica">[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/612921/Ukraine/275912/Industrialization-and-collectivization{{spaced ndash}}"The famine of 1932–33"], ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."</ref> Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized in [[Ukraine]] and some other countries as [[genocide]] of Ukrainians.<ref name=zakon>[http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=376-16&zahyst=4/UMfPEGznhhAMY.Zi691C5hHI4ags80msh8Ie6 Law of Ukraine "On Holodomor 1932—1933 in Ukraine]</ref>
   
 
The estimates of the death toll by scholars has varied greatly. Recent research has narrowed the estimates to between 1.8{{sfn|Wheatcroft|2001a}} and 5{{sfn|Conquest|2002}} million, with modern consensus for a likely total of 3–3.5 million.<ref>{{cite journal |author= Jacques Vallin, France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, SerhiyPyrozhkov.|title= The great famine:population losses in Ukraine|journal= Demography and social economy |volume= 2|issue=12 |pages=3–11|year=2009 |pmid= |doi= |url= http://dse.org.ua/arhcive/12_2009.pdf}}</ref> According to the decision of the Kyiv Appellation Court, the demographic losses due to the famine amounted to 10 million lives, with 3.9 million famine deaths, and a 6.1 million birth deficit.<ref name = "nalivajchenko 2010">{{cite web |title= Наливайченко назвал количество жертв голодомора в Украине |url= http://lb.ua/news/2010/01/14/19793_Nalivaychenko_nazval_kolichestvo_zh.html |language= Russian |publisher= LB.ua |date= 14 January 2010 |accessdate=21 July 2012 }}</ref>
 
The estimates of the death toll by scholars has varied greatly. Recent research has narrowed the estimates to between 1.8{{sfn|Wheatcroft|2001a}} and 5{{sfn|Conquest|2002}} million, with modern consensus for a likely total of 3–3.5 million.<ref>{{cite journal |author= Jacques Vallin, France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, SerhiyPyrozhkov.|title= The great famine:population losses in Ukraine|journal= Demography and social economy |volume= 2|issue=12 |pages=3–11|year=2009 |pmid= |doi= |url= http://dse.org.ua/arhcive/12_2009.pdf}}</ref> According to the decision of the Kyiv Appellation Court, the demographic losses due to the famine amounted to 10 million lives, with 3.9 million famine deaths, and a 6.1 million birth deficit.<ref name = "nalivajchenko 2010">{{cite web |title= Наливайченко назвал количество жертв голодомора в Украине |url= http://lb.ua/news/2010/01/14/19793_Nalivaychenko_nazval_kolichestvo_zh.html |language= Russian |publisher= LB.ua |date= 14 January 2010 |accessdate=21 July 2012 }}</ref>
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