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ID:1631831
User:WackyPhysicist
Article:Jesus
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(Existence)
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Prior to the [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]], the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the gospels and the Jesus of history.{{sfn|Levine|2006|p=5}} Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them.{{sfn|Witherington|1997|pp=9–13}}{{sfn|Powell|1998|pp=19–23}} Scholars have studied and debated a number of issues concerning the historical Jesus, such as his existence, the origins and historical reliability of the gospels and other sources, and the precise portrait of the historical figure.
 
Prior to the [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]], the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the gospels and the Jesus of history.{{sfn|Levine|2006|p=5}} Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them.{{sfn|Witherington|1997|pp=9–13}}{{sfn|Powell|1998|pp=19–23}} Scholars have studied and debated a number of issues concerning the historical Jesus, such as his existence, the origins and historical reliability of the gospels and other sources, and the precise portrait of the historical figure.
   
=== Existence ===
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Jesus does not exist, believers need to go to hell.
{{Main|Historicity of Jesus|Christ myth theory}}
 
{{See also|Josephus on Jesus|Tacitus on Jesus}}
 
[[File:WorksJosephus1640TP.jpg|thumb|upright|A 1640 edition of the [[Josephus on Jesus|works of Josephus]], a 1st-century [[Roman Jews|Romano-Jewish]] historian who referred to Jesus{{sfn|Blomberg|2009|pp=431–436}}|alt=Front cover of the "Famous and memorable works of Josephus"]]
 
   
The [[Christ myth theory]], which questions the existence of Jesus, appeared in the 18th century. Some of its supporters contend that Jesus is a myth invented by early Christians.<ref>{{cite book|title=A theory of primitive Christian religion|first= Gerd|last= Theissen|year= 2003 |isbn= 978-0-334-02913-7 |publisher=SCM Press |pages= 23–27}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=The historical Jesus: ancient evidence for the life of Christ|last=Habermas|first=Gary|year= 1996 |isbn= 978-0-89900-732-8 |publisher=College Press |pages= 27–31, 47–51}}</ref>{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000| pp= 7–8}} Supporters of the theory point to the lack of any known written references to Jesus during his lifetime and to the relative scarcity of non-Christian references to him in the 1st century, which they use to challenge the veracity of the existing accounts of him.{{sfn|Eddy|Boyd|2007|p=162}} Beginning in the 20th century, scholars such as [[G. A. Wells]], [[Robert M. Price]] and Thomas Brodie have presented various arguments to support the Christ myth theory.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|last=Wells|first= G. A. |title=Jesus, Historicity of|editor-first= Tom |editor-last=Flynn |encyclopedia=The New Encyclopedia of Disbelief|publisher= Prometheus Books|year= 2007| page= 446 |isbn=978-1-59102-391-3}}</ref>{{sfn|Stanton|2002|p=143}}{{sfn|Eddy|Boyd|2007|pp=24–27}} However, today virtually all scholars of antiquity agree that [[Historicity of Jesus|Jesus existed]] and regard events such as his baptism and his crucifixion as historical.{{sfn|Dunn|2003|p=339}}<ref>{{cite book |last=Brown |first=Raymond E. |year=1994 |publisher=Doubleday |isbn=978-0-385-19397-9 |title=The Death of the Messiah: from Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels|page=964}}</ref>{{sfn|Stanton|2002|p=145}} [[Robert E. Van Voorst]] and (separately) [[Michael Grant (author)|Michael Grant]] state that biblical scholars and classical historians now regard theories of the non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted.<ref name=Grant1977/>{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000|p=16}}
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PEACE OUT
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LoLTroLL
In response to the argument that the lack of the contemporary references implies that Jesus did not exist, Van Voorst has stated that, "as every good student of history knows", such [[arguments from silence]] are "specially perilous".{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000|p= 14}} Arguments from silence generally fail unless a fact is known to the author and is important enough and relevant enough to be mentioned in the context of a document.<ref>{{cite book|title=From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods|first1= Martha C. |last1=Howell |first2= Walter |last2=Prevenier |year= 2001| isbn= 978-0-8014-8560-2 |publisher=Cornell University Press| pages= 73–74}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Research Methodology in History|publisher=Atlantic Publishers & Dist|first= Krishnaji |last=Chitnis |year=2006|isbn= 978-81-7156-121-6 |page= 56}}</ref> [[Bart D. Ehrman]] argues that although Jesus had a large impact on future generations, his impact on the society of his time was "practically nil". It would therefore be unsound to expect contemporary accounts of his deeds.{{sfn|Ehrman|1999|p= 56}}
 
 
Ehrman says that arguments based on the lack of physical or archeological evidence of Jesus and of any writings from him are poor, as there is no such evidence of "nearly ''anyone'' who lived in the first century".<ref name=EhrmanDid29>{{cite book|last=Ehrman|first=Bart D.|title=Did Jesus Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth|year=2012|publisher=HarperOne|page=29|isbn=978-0-06-208994-6 |url =http://books.google.com/?id=hf5Rj8EtsPkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=did+jesus+exist+bart+ehrman#v=snippet&q=%22nearly%20anyone%20who%20lived%20in%20the%20first%20century%22&f=false}}</ref> Teresa Okure writes that the existence of historical figures is established by the analysis of later references to them, rather than by contemporary relics and remnants.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|last=Teresa|first= Okure |title=Historical Jesus Research in Global Cultural Context|encyclopedia=Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=LuKMmVu0tpMC&pg=PA953#v=onepage&q&f=false |editor-last1=Holmén|editor-last2= Porter |year= 2011| isbn= 978-90-04-16372-0 |pages= 953–954|editor1-first= Tom |publisher=Brill| editor2-first= Stanley E.}}</ref> A number of scholars caution against the use of such [[arguments from ignorance]] and consider them generally inconclusive or fallacious.<ref>{{cite book|title=A Systematic Theory of Argumentation|first1= Frans H. |last1=van Eemeren |first2= Rob |last2=Grootendorst|year= 2003| isbn= 978-0-521-53772-8| publisher= Cambridge University Press |page= 182}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy|first1= Nicholas |last1=Bunnin |first2=Jiyuan |last2=Yu |year= 2009|publisher= John Wiley & Sons| isbn= 978-0-470-99721-5 |page= 48}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Arguments from Ignorance|first= Douglas |last=Walton |year= 2009| isbn= 978-0-271-01474-6|publisher= Pennsylvania State University Press |pages= 1–4}}</ref> [[Doug Walton|Douglas Walton]] states that arguments from ignorance can only lead to sound conclusions in cases where we can assume that our "knowledge-base is complete".<ref>{{cite journal|first=Douglas|last= Walton|title=Nonfallacious arguments from ignorance| journal=American Philosophical Quarterly |volume=29|issue= 4|year= 1992| pages= 381–387}}</ref>
 
 
Non-Christian sources used to establish the historical existence of Jesus include the works of first-century historians Josephus and [[Tacitus]].<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|editor-last=Bockmuehl |editor-first= Markus N. A. |title=Sources and methods |first=Christopher |last=Tuckett |year=2001|encyclopedia= Cambridge Companion to Jesus|publisher= Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-79678-1|pages=123–4|quote=All this does at least render highly implausible any far-fetched theories that even Jesus’ very existence was a Christian invention. The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate (for whatever reason) and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score.}}</ref>{{sfn|Blomberg|2009|pp=431–436}}{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000|pp=39–53}} Josephus scholar [[Louis H. Feldman]] has stated that "few have doubted the genuineness" of Josephus' reference to Jesus in [[s:The Antiquities of the Jews/Book XX#Chapter 9|book 20]] of the ''[[Antiquities of the Jews]]'', and it is disputed only by a small number of scholars.{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000| p= 83}}<ref>{{cite book |last= Maier|first= Paul L.|year=1995|title= Josephus, the essential works: a condensation of Jewish antiquities and The Jewish war| isbn= 978-0-8254-3260-6 |page= 285 |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=c2Tu1Yp3n0EC&pg=PA285#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> Tacitus referred to Christ and his execution by Pilate in [[wikisource:The Annals (Tacitus)/Book 15#44|book 15]] of his work ''[[Annals (Tacitus)|Annals]]''. Scholars generally consider Tacitus's reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.<ref>{{cite book|title=Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies|first=Craig A.|last= Evans |year=2001 |isbn =978-0-391-04118-9| page= 42 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DRcQ2bkLxc8C&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q&f=false |publisher= Brill}}</ref>
 
   
 
=== Historicity of events ===
 
=== Historicity of events ===
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