ClueBot NG Report Interface

// Report


[pending revision][pending revision]
(See also)
(Tag: repeating characters)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Redirect|Vāsudeva|the father of Lord Krishna|Vasudeva|Vaishnavism|Krishna Vasudeva}}
Krishna is also known as Hindu Jesus, and if you worship him, you will burn in hell according to our true lord and saviour, Jesus Christ.
{{about|the Hindu deity}}
{{Infobox deity<!--Wikipedia:WikiProject Hindu mythology-->
|type = Hindu
|Image = SDIM2052-Krishna-Udaipur-x3f.png
|Caption =Shree Krishna with the [[Flute]]
|Name = Krishna
|Sanskrit_Transliteration = Kṛṣṇa
|Devanagari = कृष्ण
|Born = [[Mathura]], present-day [[Mathura district]], [[Uttar Pradesh]], [[India]]
|Affiliation = Full incarnation of [[Vishnu]] ([[Svayam Bhagavan]])<ref>Bhagavata Purana (10.2.9): Lord Vishnu Instructs his Yogamaya, Goddess Durga to take birth as daughter of Yasoda and confirms that he himself shall descend on Earth with his six opulences as the son of Devaki</ref><ref>In Mahabharata Vanaparvan (12.46,47), < a href=""> Lord Krishna</a> says to Arjuna,"O invincible one, you are Nara and I am Narayana, and we, the sages Nara-Narayana, have come to this world at proper time.." In the same Parva, chapter 30 (verse 1), Lord Shiva says to Arjuna "In former birth you were Nara and with Narayana as your companion, performed austerities for thousands of years at Badari".</ref><ref name="autogenerated3">Bhagavata Purana (11.7.18), Uddhava praises Lord Krishna: "O Lord, feeling weary of material life and tormented by its distresses, I now surrender unto You because You are the perfect master. You are the unlimited, all-knowing Supreme God, whose personal supreme abode is Vaikuṇṭha which is free from all disturbances. In fact, You are known as Narayaṇa, the true friend of all living beings.</ref><ref name="Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva 49.20">Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva 49.20</ref><ref>Bhagavata Purana (1.3.28)</ref>
|Mantra = Om Namo Narayanaye, Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaye, Om Vishnave Namah, [[Hare Krishna (mantra)|Hare Krishna Mantra]]
|Weapon = [[Sudarshana Chakra]]
|Consort = [[Rukmini]], [[Satyabhama]], [[Jambavati]], [[Kalindi]], [[Mitravinda]], [[Nagnajiti]], [[Bhadra (Krishna's wife)|Bhadra]], [[Lakshmana (Krishna's wife)|Lakshmana]], [[Radha]]
|Abode = [[Goloka|Goloka Vrindavana]], [[Gokul]]a, [[Dvārakā|Dwarka]], [[Vaikuntha]] <ref name="autogenerated3"/>
|Mount = [[Garuda]]
|Texts = ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'', ''[[Vishnu Purana]]'', ''[[Mahabharata]]'', ''[[Bhagavad Gita]]''
{{Hinduism small}}
'''Krishna''' ([[Sanskrit]]: कृष्ण'' {{IAST|Kṛṣṇa}}'' in [[IAST]], pronounced {{IPA-sa|ˈkr̩ʂɳə||Krishna.ogg}}) is the [[Daśāvatāra|eighth]] [[avatar|incarnation]] of Lord [[Vishnu]] in [[Hinduism]]. The name Krishna appears as the 57th and 550th name of Lord Vishnu in ''[[Vishnu Sahasranama]]'' of the ''[[Mahabharata]]'', and is also listed in the 24 [[Keshava Namas]] of Lord Vishnu which are recited and praised at the beginning of all [[Hinduism|Vedic]] [[Puja (Hinduism)|pujas]]. A puja is the ritualistic worship offered in Hinduism.
According to the ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'', which is a [[sattva|sattvic]] [[purana]],<ref>As categorized in Padma Purana, Uttara-khanda, 236.18–21</ref> Krishna is termed as ''[[Svayam Bhagavan]]'' since he was the ''purna-avatara'' or full incarnation of the Supreme God [[Vishnu]].<ref>Bhagavata Purana - Canto 10 Chapter 2 Verse 9</ref><ref>Bhagavata Purana - Canto 1 Chapter 3 Verse 28</ref>
Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a [[Venu|flute]] as in the ''Bhagavata Purana'',<ref name=Knott56>{{Harvnb|Knott|2000|p=56}}</ref> or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the ''[[Bhagavad Gita]]''.<ref name=Knott2000>{{Harvnb|Knott|2000|loc=p. 36, p. 15}}</ref> The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of [[Hindu philosophy|Hindu philosophical]] and theological traditions.<ref name = Thomson>{{cite journal |author = Richard Thompson, Ph.D. | date = December 1994 | title = Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism | url = |accessdate = 2008-04-12}}</ref> They portray him in various perspectives: a God-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the supreme being.<ref name=" Mahony1987">{{cite journal
| author = Mahony, W.K. | year = 1987 | title = Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities | journal = History of Religions | volume = 26 | issue = 3 | pages = 333–335 | jstor = 1062381 | publisher = American Oriental Society| ref = harv | doi=10.1086/463085}}</ref> The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the ''Mahabharata'', the ''[[Harivamsa]]'', the ''Bhagavata Purana'', and the ''[[Vishnu Purana]]''.
[[Purana|Puranic sources]] mention <ref name="ReferenceA">The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8), the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.</ref> Krishna's disappearance marks the end of [[Dvapara Yuga]] and the start of [[Kali Yuga]] (present age), which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE.<ref>See: Matchett, Freda, ''"The Puranas"'', p 139 and Yano, Michio, ''"Calendar, astrology and astronomy"'' in {{Cite book|last=Flood| first=Gavin (Ed)| year=2003| title=Blackwell companion to Hinduism| place=| publisher= [[Blackwell Publishing]]| edition=| isbn=0-631-21535-2|ref=harv|postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref> Worship of the deity Krishna, either in the form of [[Krishna Vasudeva|Vasudeva]], [[Bala Krishna]] or [[Gopal (Krishna)|Gopala]] can be traced to as early as 4th century BC.<ref name = "Cultofgopal"/><ref name = "Hastings540"/> Worship of Krishna as ''svayam bhagavan'', or the supreme being, known as [[Krishnaism]], arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the [[bhakti movement]]. From the 10th century AD, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as [[Jagannatha]] in [[Odisha]], [[Vithoba]] in [[Maharashtra]] and [[Shrinathji]] in [[Rajasthan]]. Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna has also spread in the West, largely due to the [[International Society for Krishna Consciousness]].<ref name="bare_url">{{Cite journal |last = Selengut |first= Charles| title = Charisma and Religious Innovation:Prabhupada and the Founding of ISKCON| journal = [[ISKCON Communications Journal]]| volume= 4| issue = 2|year = 1996|url= |ref = harv |postscript = <!--None-->}}</ref>
==Name and titles==
[[File:RadhaKrishnaUdaipur.JPG|thumb|200px|upright|14th-century Fresco of Krishna on interior wall City Palace, [[Udaipur]]]]
{{Main|List of titles and names of Krishna}}
The [[Sanskrit]] word in its origin language ''{{IAST|Kṛṣṇa}}'' is primarily an adjective meaning "Black" or "Dark",<ref name="dictionaries">
*[ Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (2008 revision)]
*[ Apte Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
</ref> sometimes it is also translated as "all attractive".<ref>{{cite book|last=Rosen|first=Steven|title=Essential Hinduism|year=2006|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|page=224|url=|isbn=978-0-275-99006-0}}</ref>
As a Name of [[Vishnu]], Krishna listed as the 57th Name in the ''[[Vishnu Sahasranama]]''. Based on His Name, Krishna is often depicted in [[murti]]s as black or blue-skinned. Krishna is also known by various [[List of titles and names of Krishna|other names, epithets and titles]], which reflect His many associations and attributes. Among the most common Names are ''Mohan'' "enchanter of women or cowherdesses", ''[[Govinda]]'', "Finder of the cows", or ''[[Gopala Krishna|Gopala]]'', "Protector of the cows", which refer to Krishna's Childhood in [[Vraja]] (in present day [[Uttar Pradesh]]).<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=17}}</ref><ref name="Hilt">{{cite book
|author = Hiltebeitel, Alf
|title = Rethinking the Mahābhārata: a reader's guide to the education of the dharma king
|publisher = University of Chicago Press
|location = Chicago
|year = 2001
|pages = 251–53, 256, 259
|isbn = 0-226-34054-6
}}</ref> Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, ''[[Jagannatha]]'', a popular Incarnation of [[Jagannatha Puri|Puri]], [[Odisha]] in eastern India.<ref>{{cite book
|author = B.M.Misra
|title = Orissa: Shri Krishna Jagannatha: the Mushali parva from Sarala's Mahabharata
|publisher = [[Oxford University Press]], USA
|isbn = 0-19-514891-6
}} in {{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=139}}</ref>
[[File:Krishna with flute.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Krishna with cows, herdsmen and [[Gopi]]s, Pahari painting [Himalayan] from [[Smithsonian Institution]]]]
Krishna is easily recognized by his representations. Though his skin colour may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in [[murti]]s, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with blue skin. He is often shown wearing a yellow silk [[dhoti]] and a peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristically relaxed pose, playing the [[bansuri|flute]].<ref name="Grolier">{{cite book
|author =
|title = The Encyclopedia Americana
|publisher = Grolier
|location = [s.l.]
|year = 1988
|page = 589
|isbn = 0-7172-0119-8
|oclc =
|doi =
|accessdate =
{{cite book |title= The New Encyclopædia Britannica |author = Benton, William|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1974|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica|isbn=9780852292907|page= 885|url=}}</ref> In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other with a flute raised to his lips, in the ''[[Tribhanga]]'' posture, accompanied by [[Cattle|cows]], emphasizing his position as the divine herdsman, ''Govinda'', or with the [[gopi]]s (milkmaids) i.e. Gopikrishna, stealing butter from neighbouring houses i.e. Navneet Chora or Gokulakrishna, defeating the vicious serpent i.e. Kaliya Damana Krishna, lifting the hill i.e. Giridhara Krishna on and so forth from his childhood / youth events.
A steatite ([[soapstone]]) tablet unearthed from [[Mohenjo-daro]], [[Larkana District|Larkana district]], [[Sindh]] depicting a young boy uprooting two trees from which are emerging two human figures is an interesting archaeological find for fixing dates associated with Krishna. This image recalls the Yamalarjuna episode of ''Bhagavata'' and ''Harivamsa Purana''. In this image, the young boy is undoubtedly Krishna, and the two human beings emerging from the trees are the two cursed [[gandharvas]], identified as Nalakubara and Manigriva. Dr. E.J.H. Mackay, who did the excavation at Mohanjodaro, compares this image with the Yamalarjuna episode. Prof. V.S. Agrawal has also accepted this identification. Thus, it seems that the Indus valley people knew stories related to Krishna. This lone find may not establish Krishna as contemporary with Pre-Indus or Indus times, but, likewise, it cannot be ignored.<ref name=""/><ref name=autogenerated2>Mackay's report part 1, pp.344–45, Part 2, plate no.90, object no. D.K.10237</ref><ref name=autogenerated1>Age of Bharata War by G.C. AGARWALA and K.L VERMA page.81</ref>
[[File:Balakrishna at National Museum, New Delhi.jpg|thumb|200px|upright|[[Bala Krishna]] dancing, sculpture from [[National Museum, New Delhi]].]]
The scene on the battlefield of the epic ''[[Mahabharata]]'', notably where he addresses Pandava prince [[Arjuna]] in the ''[[Bhagavad Gita]]'', is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often with supreme God characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the [[chakra]] or in his two-armed form as a charioteer. Cave paintings dated to 800 BCE in [[Mirzapur]], [[Mirzapur district]], [[Uttar Pradesh]], show raiding horse-charioteers, one of whom is about to hurl a wheel, and who could potentially be identified as Krishna.<ref>D. D. Kosambi (1962), Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture, New Delhi, CHAPTER I: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE BHAGAVAD-GITA, paragraph 1.16</ref>
Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures:<ref>{{cite book |author=Harle, J. C. |title=The art and architecture of the Indian Subcontinent |publisher=[[Yale University Press]] |location=New Haven, Conn |year=1994 |page=410 |isbn=0-300-06217-6 |quote=figure 327. Manaku, Radha‭'‭s messenger describing Krishna standing with the cow-girls, from Basohli.|doi= |accessdate=}}</ref> his brother [[Balarama]] and sister [[Subhadra]], or his main queens [[Rukmini]] and [[Satyabhama]].
Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort [[Radha]]. [[Vaishnavism in Manipur|Manipuri Vaishnavas]] do not worship Krishna alone, but as [[Radha Krishna]],<ref>
{{cite book |title= Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature|last= Datta|first= Amaresh|authorlink= |coauthors= Mohan Lal|year= 1994|publisher= Sahitya Akademi|location= |isbn= |page= 4290 |url=}}
</ref> a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools [[Rudra Sampradaya|Rudra]]<ref>The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long]. 1843, p.390 [,M1]</ref> and [[Nimbarka sampradaya]],<ref>Ramesh M. Dave, K. K. A. Venkatachari, ''The Bhakta-bhagawan Relationship: Paramabhakta Parmeshwara Sambandha''. Sya. Go Mudgala, Bochasanvasi Shri Aksharpurushottama Sanstha, 1988. p.74</ref> as well as that of [[Swaminarayan]] sect. The traditions celebrate [[Radha Ramana]] [[murti]], who is viewed by [[Gaudiya]]s as a form of Radha Krishna.<ref>{{Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=52}}</ref>
Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (''[[Bala Krishna]]'', {{IAST|Bāla Kṛṣṇa}} the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter or [[Laddu]] in his hand being Laddu Gopal.<ref>
{{cite book |title= Students' Britannica India|last= Hoiberg|first= Dale |authorlink= |coauthors= Ramchandani, Indu|year= 2000|publisher= Popular Prakashan|location= |isbn=9780852297605|page= 251|url=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal | title = The Qualities of Sri Krsna | author = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami| authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami | publisher = GNPress | year = 1998 | pages = 152 pages | isbn = 0-911233-64-4 | ref = harv | postscript = <!--None-->}}</ref> Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as [[Jaganatha]] of [[Odisha]], [[Vithoba]] of [[Maharashtra]]<ref name = "vithoba">[[Vithoba]] is not only viewed as a form of Krishna. He is also by some considered that of Vishnu, [[Shiva]] and [[Gautama Buddha]] according to various traditions. See: {{cite encyclopedia
| title = ''Sri-Vitthal: Ek Mahasamanvay (Marathi)'' by R.C. Dhere
| volume = 5
| url=,M1|accessdate=2008-09-20|author= Kelkar, Ashok R.| encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia of Indian literature|publisher = [[Sahitya Akademi]]|pages= 4179|year = 2001|origyear = 1992}} and {{Cite book|author=Mokashi, Digambar Balkrishna|coauthors= Engblom, Philip C.|title=Palkhi: a pilgrimage to Pandharpur&nbsp;— translated from the Marathi book Pālakhī by Philip C. Engblom|year=1987|publisher=[[State University of New York Press]]|isbn=0-88706-461-2| url =|page = 35|location=Albany}}</ref> and [[Shrinathji]] in [[Rajasthan]].
==Literary sources==
{{See also|Krishna in the Mahabharata}}
[[File:Meister der Bhâgavata-Purâna-Handschrift 001.jpg|thumb|200px|left|[[Yashoda]] bathing the child Krishna]]
The earliest text to explicitly provide detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic [[Mahabharata]] which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu.<ref>
{{cite web |url=|title= Britannica: Mahabharata|accessdate=2008-10-13 |work = encyclopedia|publisher= Encyclopædia Britannica Online |year= 2008|author = Wendy Doniger}}</ref> Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (''Bhishma Parva'') of the epic that constitute the ''[[Bhagavad Gita]]'' contain the advice of Krishna to the warrior-hero [[Arjuna]], on the battlefield. Krishna is already an adult in the epic, although there are allusions to his earlier exploits. The ''[[Harivamsa]]'', a later appendix to this epic, contains the earliest detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth.
The [[Rig Veda]] 1.22.164 sukta 31 mentions a herdsman "who never stumbles".<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Rig Veda: Rig-Veda Book 1: HYMN CLXIV. Viśvedevas | |date= |accessdate=2012-06-02}}</ref> Some Vaishnavite scholars, such as [[Bhaktivinoda Thakura]], claim that this herdsman refers to Krishna.<ref name = Bhaktivinda>[[Gaudiya]] scholar, [[Bhaktivinoda Thakura]] in his ''Dasa Mula Tattva'' Ch.3: '{{IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa}}—The Supreme Absolute Truth', Part: ''Vedic Evidences of {{IAST|Śrī Kṛṣṇa}} ’s Divinity''</ref> [[Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar]] also attempted to show that "the very same Krishna" made an appearance, e.g. as the ''drapsa ... krishna'' "black drop" of [[Mandala 8|RV 8]].96.13.<ref>Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya ''Krishna-cult in Indian Art''. 1996 M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.&nbsp;126: "According to (D.R.Bhadarkar), the word Krishna referred to in the expression 'Krishna-drapsah' in the Rig- Veda, denotes the very same Krishna".</ref> Some authors have also likened prehistoric depictions of deities to Krishna.
[[Chandogya Upanishad]] (3.17.6) composed around 900 BCE<ref>{{cite book|url= |title=The Himalayan Masters: A Living Tradition |publisher=Himalayan Institute Press |accessdate=2002|year=2002}}</ref> mentions Vasudeva Krishna {{quote|as the son of Devaki and the disciple of Ghora Angirasa , the seer who preached his disciple the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya.’ Having been influenced by the philosophy of ‘Chhandogya’ Krishna in the Bhagavadgita while delivering the discourse to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra discussed about sacrifice, which can be compared to purusha or the individual.}}<ref name="">[]{{dead link|date=April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url= |title=Matapariksha: An examination of religions, Volume 1 By John Muir | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-23|year=1852}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url= |title=The Religions of India Volume 1, Volume 1 By Edward Washburn Hopkins | |date= August 2008|accessdate=2011-10-23|isbn=9780554343327}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url= |title=Indian Hist (Opt) By Reddy | |date= 2006-12-01|accessdate=2011-10-23|isbn=9780070635777}}</ref>
[[Yāska]]'s ''[[Nirukta]]'', an etymological dictionary around 6th century BC, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of [[Akrura]], a motif from well known Puranic story about Krishna.<ref name = bryant4>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=4}}</ref> [[Shatapatha Brahmana]] and ''Aitareya-Aranyaka'', associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins.<ref>Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya ''Krishna-cult in Indian Art''. 1996 M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.128: Satha-patha-brahmana and Aitareya-[[Aranyaka]] with reference to first chapter.</ref>
[[Pāṇini]], the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to 5th century or 6th century BC) mentions a character called Vāsudeva, son of Vasudeva, and also mentions Kaurava and Arjuna which testifies to Vasudeva Krishna, Arjuna and Kauravas being contemporaries.<ref name=""/><ref name = "Hastings">{{Harvnb|Hastings|2003|pp=540–42}}</ref><ref>Pâṇ. IV. 3. 98, Vâsudevârjunâbhyâm vun. See Bhandarkar, Vaishnavism and Śaivism, p. 3 and J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 168. Sûtra 95, just above, appears to point to bhakti, faith or devotion, felt for this Vâsudeva.</ref>
[[Megasthenes]] (350 – 290 BC) a [[Greek ethnographer]] and an ambassador of [[Seleucus I]] to the court of [[Chandragupta Maurya]] made reference to [[Megasthenes' Herakles|Herakles]] in his famous work [[Indica (Megasthenes)|Indica]]. Many scholars have suggested that the deity identified as Herakles was Krishna. According to [[Arrian]], [[Diodorus]], and [[Strabo]], Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshipped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common in the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is a little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the [[Yadu]] dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Methora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the [[Yamuna]], the famous river in the Krishna story. [[Quintus Curtius]] also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted [[King Porus|Porus]], Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard.<ref>Krishna: a sourcebook, pp 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007</ref>
The name Krishna occurs in Buddhist writings in the form Kānha, phonetically equivalent to Krishna.<ref>III. i. 23, Ulâro so Kaṇho isi ahosi</ref>
The Ghata-Jâtaka (No. 454) gives an account of Krishna's childhood and subsequent exploits which in many points corresponds with the Brahmanic legends of his life and contains several familiar incidents and names, such as Vâsudeva, Baladeva, Kaṃsa. Yet it presents many peculiarities and is either an independent version or a misrepresentation of a popular story that had wandered far from its home. Jain tradition also shows that these tales were popular and were worked up into different forms, for the Jains have an elaborate system of ancient patriarchs which includes Vâsudevas and Baladevas. Krishna is the ninth of the Black Vâsudevas and is connected with Dvâravatî or Dvârakâ. He will become the twelfth tîrthankara of the next world-period and a similar position will be attained by Devakî, Rohinî, Baladeva and Javakumâra, all members of his family. This is a striking proof of the popularity of the Krishna legend outside the Brahmanic religion.<ref>Hemacandra Abhidhânacintâmani, Ed. Boehtlingk and Rien, p. 128, and Barnett's translation of the Antagada Dasāo, pp. 13-15 and 67-82.</ref>
According to [[Arthasastra]] of [[Kautilya]] (4th century BCE) ''Vāsudeva'' was worshiped as supreme Deity in a strongly monotheistic format.<ref name="Hastings"/>
Around 150 BC, [[Patanjali]] in his ''[[Mahabhashya]]'' quotes a verse: "May the might of Krishna accompanied by Samkarshana increase!" Other verses are mentioned. One verse speaks of "Janardhana with himself as fourth" (Krishna with three companions, the three possibly being Samkarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha). Another verse mentions musical instruments being played at meetings in the temples of Rama ([[Balarama]]) and Kesava (Krishna). Patanjali also describes dramatic and mimetic performances (Krishna-Kamsopacharam) representing the killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=5}}</ref>
In the 1st century BC, there seems to be evidence for a worship of five Vrishni heroes (Balarama, Krishna, [[Pradyumna]], [[Aniruddha]] and [[Samba]]) for an inscription has been found at [[Mora, Uttar Pradesh|Mora]] near Mathura, which apparently mentions a son of the great ''satrap'' [[Rajuvula]], probably the ''satrap'' Sodasa, and an image of Vrishni, "probably Vasudeva, and of the "Five Warriors".<ref>{{cite book |title= Hindu Gods and Heroes: Studies in the History of the Religion of India|last= Barnett|first= Lionel David|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1922 |publisher= J. Murray|location= |isbn= |page= 93|url=}}</ref> Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the [[Mathura Museum]].<ref name=Puri1968>{{cite book
|author = Puri, B.N.
|year = 1968
|title = India in the Time of Patanjali
|publisher = Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan
|isbn =
}}Page 51: The coins of Raj uvula have been recovered from the Sultanpur District..
the Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum,</ref><ref>
{{cite book |title= Hindu Gods and Heroes: Studies in the History of the Religion of India|last= Barnett|first= Lionel David|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1922 |publisher= J. Murray|location= |isbn= |page= 92 |url=}}</ref>
Many [[Puranas]] tell Krishna's life-story or some highlights from it. Two Puranas, the ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'' and the ''[[Vishnu Purana]]'', that contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna’s story and teachings are the most theologically venerated by the [[Vaishnava]] schools.<ref name = "Elkman1986">{{cite book
|author = Elkman, S.M.
|coauthors = Gosvami, J.
|year = 1986
|title = Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement
|publisher = Motilal Banarsidass
|isbn =
}}</ref> Roughly one quarter of the ''Bhagavata Purana'' is spent extolling his life and philosophy.
<!-- {{quote|A steatite tablet unearthed from Mohanjodaro depicting a young boy uprooting the two trees from which are emerging two human figures is an interesting archaeological finding for fixing the date of Krishna. This image recalls the Yamalarjuna episode of Bhagavata and Harivamsa Purana. In this image, the young boy depicted is undoubtedly Krishna and two human beings emerging out of the trees are the two cursed Gandharvas, identified as Nalkubara & Manigriva, who were turned into to two Arjuna trees or Yamalarjuna got liberated by Krishna. Dr. E.J.H. Mackay did the excavation at Mohanjodaro who compares this image with the Yamalarjuna episode. Prof. V.S. Agrawal has also accepted this identification. This seems that the Indus valley people knew Krishna’s exploits and stories related to Krishna. However, this lone finding may not substantiate to corroborate with the date of Krishna contemporary to Pre-Indus or Indus times but at the same time it cannot be ignored.|<ref name=""/><ref name=autogenerated2 /><ref name=autogenerated1 />}} -->
This summary is based on details from the ''[[Mahābhārata]]'', the ''[[Harivamsa]]'', the ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'' and the ''[[Vishnu Purana]]''. The scenes from the narrative are set in north [[India]], mostly in the present states of [[Uttar Pradesh]], [[Bihar]], [[Haryana]], [[Delhi]] and [[Gujarat]].
[[File:Brooklyn Museum - Krishna Carried Across the River.jpg|thumb|200px|Krishna Carried Across the River]]
According to [[Bhagavata Purana]], Krishna was born to [[Devaki]] and her husband, [[Vasudeva]].<ref>Bhagavata Purana 3.2.25</ref>{{citation needed|date=October 2013}} In the story of Krishna the deity is the agent of conception and also the offspring.{{citation needed|date=October 2013}} Because of his sympathy for the earth, the divine Vishnu himself descended into the womb of [[Devaki]] and was born as her son, Vaasudeva (i.e., Krishna).{{citation needed|date=October 2013}} This is occasionally brought up as evidence for the hypothesis that "virgin birth" tales are fairly common in non-Christian religions around the world.<ref name="Hitchens, Christopher">Christopher Hitchens, God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (Paperback), 2007, p. 23</ref><ref name="Cohen, Chapman">Chapman Cohen, Essays in Freethinking, 1927, "Monism and Religion"</ref><ref name="Joseph, Peter">{{cite web|url= |title=Peter Joseph, Zeitgeist: The Movie, 2007| |date=2010-07-29 |accessdate=2013-04-03}}</ref> However, there is nothing in Hindu scriptures to suggest that it was a "virgin" birth. By the time of conception and birth of Krishna, Devaki was married to [[Vasudeva]] and had already borne 7 children.<ref name="Vishnu Puran">{{cite web|url= |title=Vishnu Puran, Part IV, Section XV | |date= |accessdate=2013-04-03}}</ref>
The Hindu Vishnu Purana relates: "Devaki bore in her womb the lotus-eyed deity...before the birth of Krishna, no one “could bear to gaze upon Devaki, from the light that invested her, and those who contemplated her radiance felt their minds disturbed.” This reference to light is reminiscent of the Vedic hymn "To an Unknown God," which refers to a Golden Child. According to F. M. Müller this term means "the golden gem of child" and is an attempt at naming the sun.
Krishna belonged to the [[Vrishni]] clan of [[Yadava]]s from [[Mathura, Uttar Pradesh|Mathura]],<ref>Pargiter, F.E. (1972) [1922]. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, pp.105-107.</ref> and was the eighth son born to the princess [[Devaki]], and her husband [[Vasudeva]].
Mathura (in present day [[Mathura district]], [[Uttar Pradesh]]) was the capital of the [[Yadava]]s, to which Krishna's parents Vasudeva and Devaki belonged. King [[Kamsa|Kansa]], Devaki's brother,<ref>According to the Bhagavata and Vishnu Puranas, but in some Puranas like Devi-Bhagavata-Purana, her paternal uncle. See the Vishnu-Purana Book V Chapter 1, translated by H. H. Wilson, (1840), the Srimad Bhagavatam, translated by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, (1988) copyright Bhaktivedanta Book Trust</ref> had ascended the throne by imprisoning his father, King [[Ugrasena]]. Afraid of a [[prophecy]] from a divine voice from the heavens that predicted his death at the hands of [[Devaki]]'s eighth "garbha", Kansa had the couple locked into a [[Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi|prison cell]]. After Kansa killed the first six children, Devaki apparently had a miscarriage of the seventh. However in reality, the womb was actually transferred to Rohini secretly. This was how [[Balarama]], Krishna's elder brother was born. Once again Devaki became pregnant. Now due to the miscarriage, Kansa was in a puzzle regarding 'The Eighth One' but his ministers advised that the divine voice from the heavens emphasised "the eight garbha" and so this is the one. That night Krishna was born in the Rohini [[nakshatra]] and simultaneously Goddess Durga was born as Yogamaya in Gokulam to Nanda and Yashoda.
Since Vasudeva knew Krishna's life was in danger, Krishna was secretly taken out of the prison cell to be raised by his foster parents, [[Yasoda]] <ref name="yashoda">{{cite web|url= |title=Yashoda and Krishna | |date=2011-10-10 |accessdate=2011-10-23}}</ref> and [[Nanda (mythology)|Nanda]], in [[Gokul]]a (in present day [[Mathura district]]). Two of his other siblings also survived, [[Balarama]] (Devaki's seventh child, transferred to the womb of [[Rohini Devi|Rohini]], Vasudeva's first wife) and [[Subhadra]] (daughter of Vasudeva and Rohini, born much later than Balarama and Krishna).<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|pp=124–130,224}}</ref>
===Childhood and youth===
[[File:Krishna Holding Mount Govardhan - Crop.jpg|thumb|upright|200px|Krishna holding [[Govardhan hill]] as depicted in [[Pahari painting]]]]
Nanda was the head of a community of cow-herders, and he settled in [[Vrindavana]]. The stories of Krishna's childhood and youth tell how he became a cow herder,<ref>[[Swami Tripurari|Tripurari, Swami]], ''[ Gopastami]'', ''[ Sanga]'', 1999.</ref> his mischievous pranks as ''Makhan Chor'' (butter thief), his foiling of attempts to take his life, and his role as a protector of the people of Vrindavana.
Krishna killed the [[demoness]] [[Putana]], disguised as a wet nurse, sent by Kansa for Krishna's life. He tamed the serpent [[Kāliyā]], who previously poisoned the waters of [[Yamuna]] river, thus leading to the death of the cowherds. In Hindu art, Krishna is often depicted dancing on the multi-hooded Kāliyā.
Krishna lifted the [[Govardhana hill]] and taught [[Indra]], the king of the [[Deva (Hinduism)|devas]] and rain, a lesson to protect native people of Brindavana from persecution by Indra and prevent the devastation of the pasture land of Govardhan. Indra had too much pride and was angry when Krishna advised the people of Brindavana to take care of their animals and their environment that provide them with all their necessities, instead of worshipping Indra annually by spending their resources.<ref name="UC">{{cite book
|author = Lynne Gibson
|title = Calcutta Review
|publisher = University of Calcutta Dept. of English
|location = India
|year = 1844
|page = 119
}}</ref><ref name="MW">{{cite book
|author = Lynne Gibson
|title = Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions
|publisher = Merriam-Webster
|location =
|year = 1999
|page = 503
}}</ref> In the view of some, the spiritual movement started by Krishna had something in it which went against the orthodox forms of worship of the [[Vedas|Vedic]] gods such as Indra.<ref name="RT">{{cite book
|author = The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore (ed. Sisir Kumar Das)
|title = A Vision of Indias History
|location = Sahitya Akademi
|year = 1996
|page = 444
|isbn = 81-260-0094-5
|publisher = Sahitya Akademi
In Bhagavat Purana, Krishna says that the rain came from the nearby hill Govardhana, and advised that the people worshiped the hill instead of Indra. This made Indra furious, so he punished them by sending out a great storm. Krishna then lifted Govardhan and held it over the people like an umbrella.
The stories of his play with the [[gopi]]s (milkmaids) of Brindavana, especially [[Radha]] (daughter of Vrishbhanu, one of the original residents of Brindavan) became known as the ''[[Rasa lila]]'' and were romanticised in the poetry of [[Jayadeva]], author of the [[Gita Govinda]]. These became important as part of the development of the Krishna [[bhakti]] traditions worshiping [[Radha Krishna]].<ref>{{cite book
|author = Schweig, G.M.
|year = 2005
|title = Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story.
|publisher = [[Princeton University Press]], Princeton, NJ; Oxford
|isbn = 0-691-11446-3
Krishna’s childhood reinforces the Hindu concept of [[lila]], playing for fun and enjoyment and not for sport or gain. His interaction with the [[gopis]] at the rasa dance or [[Rasa-lila]] is a great example of this. Krishna played his flute and the gopis came immediately from whatever they were doing, to the banks of the [[Yamuna River]], and joined him in singing and dancing. Even those who could not physically be there joined him through meditation.<ref>Largen, Kristin Johnston. ” God at Play: Seeing God Through the Lens of the Young Krishna”. Wiley-Blackwell. September 1, 2011. p. 256.</ref> The story of Krishna’s battle with [[Kāliyā]] also supports this idea in the sense of him dancing on Kāliyā’s many hoods. Even though he is doing battle with the serpent, he is in no real danger and treats it like a game. He is a protector, but he only appears to be a young boy having fun.<ref>Largen, Kristin Johnston. ” God at Play: Seeing God Through the Lens of the Young Krishna”. Wiley-Blackwell. September 1, 2011. p. 255.</ref> This idea of having a playful god is very important in Hinduism. The playfulness of Krishna has inspired many celebrations like the Rasa-lila and the Janmashtami : where they make human pyramids to break open handis (clay pots) hung high in the air that spill buttermilk all over the group after being broken by the person at the top. This is meant to be a fun celebration and it gives the participants a sense of unity. Many believe that lila being connected with Krishna gives Hindus a deeper connection to him and thus a deeper connection to Vishnu also; seeing as Krishna is an incarnation of Vishnu. Theologists, like Kristin Johnston Largen, believe that Krishna’s childhood can even inspire other religions to look for lila in deities so that they have a chance to experience a part of their faith that they may not have previously seen.<ref>Largen, Kristin Johnston. ” God at Play: Seeing God Through the Lens of the Young Krishna”. Wiley-Blackwell. September 1, 2011. p. 253-261.</ref>
===The prince===
[[File:Krishna Rukmini Satyabhama Garuda.jpg|thumb|200px|Krishna with his two principal queens. (From left) [[Rukmini]], Krishna, [[Satyabhama]] and his vahana [[Garuda]].]]
On his return to Mathura as a young man, Krishna overthrew and killed his maternal uncle, Kansa, after avoiding several assassination attempts from Kansa's followers. He reinstated Kansa's father, [[Ugrasena]], as the king of the Yadavas and became a leading prince at the court.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=290}}</ref> During this period, he became a friend of [[Arjuna]] and the other [[Pandava]] princes of the [[Kuru (kingdom)|Kuru]] kingdom, who were his cousins. Later, he took his Yadava subjects to the city of [[Dvārakā|Dwaraka]] (in modern [[Gujarat]]) and established his own kingdom there.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|pp=28–29}}</ref>
Krishna married [[Rukmini]], the [[Vidarbha]] princess, by abducting her, at her request, from her proposed wedding with [[Shishupala]]. He married eight queens—collectively called the ''[[Ashtabharya]]''—including Rukmini, [[Satyabhama]], [[Jambavati]], [[Kalindi]], [[Mitravinda]], [[Nagnajiti]], [[Bhadra (Krishna's wife)|Bhadra]] and [[Lakshmana (Krishna's wife)|Lakshmana]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=152}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=The Ashta-Bharyas|last= Aparna Chatterjee|date=December 10, 2007|work=[[American Chronicle]]|accessdate=21 April 2010}}</ref> Krishna subsequently married [[Junior wives of Krishna|16,000 or 16,100 maidens]] who were held captive by the [[asura|demon]] [[Narakasura]], to save their honour.<ref>Charudeva Shastri, Suniti Kumar Chatterji(1974) [ Charudeva Shastri Felicitation Volume, p. 449]</ref><ref>David L. Haberman, (2003) Motilal Banarsidass, [ The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin, p. 155], ISBN 81-208-1861-X</ref> Krishna killed the demon and released them all. According to social custom of the time, all of the captive women were degraded, and would be unable to marry, as they had been under the Narakasura's control. However Krishna married them to reinstate their status in the society. This symbolic wedding with 16,100 abandoned daughters was more of a mass women rehabilitation.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|pp=130–133}}</ref> In Vaishnava traditions, Krishna's wives are forms of the goddess [[Lakshmi]]— consort of Vishnu, or special [[jiva|souls]] who attained this qualification after many lifetimes of [[tapasya|austerity]], while his two queens, Rukmani and Satyabhama, are expansions of [[Lakshmi]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Rosen|2006|p=136}}</ref>
When Yudhisthira was assuming the title of emperor, he had invited all the great kings to the ceremony and while paying his respects to them, he started with Krishna because he considered Krishna to be the greatest of them all. While it was a unanimous feeling amongst most present at the ceremony that Krishna should get the first honours, his cousin [[Shishupala]] felt otherwise and started berating Krishna. Due to a vow given to Shishupal's mother, Krishna forgave a hundred verbal abuses by Shishupal, and upon the one hundred and first, he assumed his Virat (universal) form and killed Shishupal with his [[Chakra]]. The blind king [[Dhritarashtra]] also obtained divine vision during this time to be able to see this form of Krishna. Essentially, [[Shishupala]] and [[Dantavakra]] were both re-incarnations of Vishnu's gate-keepers [[Jaya-Vijaya|Jaya and Vijaya]], who were cursed to be born on Earth, to be delivered by the Vishnu back to [[Vaikuntha]].<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Krishna & Shishupal | |date=2007-06-19 |accessdate=2011-10-23}}</ref>
===Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita===
{{Main|Kurukshetra War|Bhagavad Gita}}
[[File:Krishna Mediating between the Pandavas and Kauravas.jpeg|thumb|200px|upright|Krishna Mediating between the Pandavas and Kauravas]]
Once battle seemed inevitable, Krishna offered both sides the opportunity to choose between having either his army called [[narayani sena]] or himself alone, but on the condition that he personally would not raise any weapon. Arjuna, on behalf of the Pandavas, chose to have Krishna on their side, and [[Duryodhana]], Kaurava prince, chose Krishna's army. At the time of the great battle, Krishna acted as Arjuna's charioteer, since this position did not require the wielding of weapons.
Upon arrival at the battlefield, and seeing that the enemies are his family, his grandfather, his cousins and loved ones, Arjuna is moved and says his heart does not allow him to fight and he would rather prefer to renounce the kingdom. and put down his ''[[Gandiva|Gandiv]]'' (Arjuna's bow). Krishna then advises him about the battle, with the conversation soon extending into a discourse which was later compiled as the [[Bhagavad Gita]].<ref>Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita, by Robert N. Minor in {{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|pp=77–79}}</ref>
[[File:Avatars of Vishnu.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Krishna displays his [[Vishvarupa]] (Universal Form) to [[Arjuna]] on the battlefield of [[Kurukshetra]].]]
Krishna asked Arjuna, "Have you within no time, forgotten the Kauravas' evil deeds such as not accepting the eldest brother Yudhishtira as King, usurping the entire Kingdom without yielding any portion to the Pandavas, meting out insults and difficulties to Pandavas, attempt to murder the Pandavas in the [[Barnava]] lac guest house, publicly disrobing and disgracing Draupadi. Krishna further exhorted in his famous Bhagavad Gita, "Arjuna, do not engage in philosophical analyses at this point of time like a Pundit. You are aware that Duryodhana and Karna particularly have long harboured jealousy and hatred for you Pandavas and badly want to prove their hegemony. You are aware that Bhishmacharya and your Teachers are tied down to their dharma of protecting the unitarian power of the Kuru throne. Moreover, you Arjuna, are only a mortal appointee to carry out my divine will, since the Kauravas are destined to die either way, due to their heap of sins. Open your eyes O Bhaarata and know that I encompass the Karta, Karma and Kriya, all in myself. There is no scope for contemplation now or remorse later, it is indeed time for war and the world will remember your might and immense powers for time to come. So rise O Arjuna!, tighten up your Gandiva and let all directions shiver till their farthest horizons, by the reverbration of its string."
[[File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Wajangpop van karbouwenhuid voorstellende Prabu Kresna TMnr 809-163e.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Krishna in [[Balinese art|Balinese]] [[Wayang]] form]]
Krishna had a profound effect on the Mahabharata war and its consequences. He had considered the Kurukshetra war to be a last resort after voluntarily acting as a messenger in order to establish peace between the Pandavas and Kauravas. But, once these peace negotiations failed and was embarked into the war, then he became a clever strategist. During the war, upon becoming angry with Arjuna for not fighting in true spirit against his ancestors, Krishna once picked up a carriage wheel in order to use it as a weapon to challenge [[Bhishma]] when the latter injured him. Upon seeing this, Bhishma dropped his weapons and asked Krishna to kill him. However, Arjuna apologized to Krishna, promising that he would fight with full dedication here/after, and the battle continued. Krishna had directed [[Yudhisthira]] and Arjuna to return to Bhishma the boon of "victory" which he had given to Yudhisthira before the war commenced, since he himself was standing in their way to victory. Bhishma understood the message and told them the means through which he would drop his weapons—which was if a woman entered the battlefield. Next day, upon Krishna's directions, [[Shikhandi]] ([[Amba (Mahabharata)|Amba]] reborn) accompanied Arjuna to the battlefield and thus, Bhishma laid down his arms. This was a decisive moment in the war because Bhishma was the chief commander of the Kaurava army and the most formidable warrior on the battlefield. Krishna aided Arjuna in killing [[Jayadratha]], who had held the other four Pandava brothers at bay while Arjuna's son [[Abhimanyu]] entered [[Drona]]'s [[Padmavyuha|Chakravyuha]] formation—an effort in which he was killed by the simultaneous attack of eight Kaurava warriors. Krishna also caused the downfall of Drona, when he signalled [[Bhima]] to kill an elephant called [[Ashwatthama]], the namesake of Drona's son. Pandavas started shouting that Ashwatthama was dead but Drona refused to believe them saying he would believe it only if he heard it from Yudhisthira. Krishna knew that Yudhisthira would never tell a lie, so he devised a clever ploy so that Yudhisthira wouldn't lie and at the same time Drona would be convinced of his son's death. On asked by Drona, Yudhisthira proclaimed {{quote|''Ashwathama Hatahath, naro va Kunjaro va''}} i.e. Ashwathama had died but he was nor sure whether it was a Drona's son or an elephant. But as soon as Yudhisthira had uttered the first line, Pandava army on Krishna's direction broke into celebration with drums and conchs, in the din of which Drona could not hear the second part of the Yudhisthira's declaration and assumed that his son indeed was dead. Overcome with grief he laid down his arms, and on Krishna's instruction [[Dhrishtadyumna]] beheaded Drona.
[[File:KRISHNA BREAKS HIS VOW.jpg|upright|200px|thumb|Krishna breaks his vow]]
When Arjuna was fighting [[Karna]], the latter's chariot's wheels sank into the ground. While Karna was trying to take out the chariot from the grip of the Earth, Krishna reminded Arjuna how Karna and the other Kauravas had broken all rules of battle while simultaneously attacking and killing Abhimanyu, and he convinced Arjuna to do the same in revenge in order to kill Karna. During the final stage of the war, when [[Duryodhana]] was going to meet his mother [[Gandhari (character)|Gandhari]] for taking her blessings which would convert all parts of his body on which her sight falls to steel, Krishna tricks him to wearing banana leaves to hide his groin. When Duryodhana meets Gandhari, her vision and blessings fall on his entire body except his groin and thighs, and she becomes unhappy about it because she was not able to convert his entire body to steel. When Duryodhana was in a mace-fight with Bhima, Bhima's blows had no effect on Duryodhana. Upon this, Krishna reminded Bhima of his vow to kill Duryodhana by hitting him on the thigh, and Bhima did the same to win the war despite it being against the rules of mace-fight (since Duryodhana had himself broken [[Dharma]] in all his past acts). Thus, Krishna's unparalleled strategy helped the Pandavas win the Mahabharata war by bringing the downfall of all the chief Kaurava warriors, without lifting any weapon. He also brought back to life Arjuna's grandson [[Parikshit]], who had been attacked by a [[Brahmastra]] weapon from Ashwatthama while he was in his mother's womb. Parikshit became the Pandavas' successor.
[[File:Krishna and pradyumna.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Krishna and Pradyumna battle the demon Nikumbha who assumes the form of bird]]
Krishna had a total of 16,108 wives, of which only eight were his princely wives,also known as [[Ashtabharya]],or patrani ([[Rukmini]], [[Satyabhama]], [[Jambavati]], [[Nagnajiti]], [[Kalindi]],[[Mitravinda]], [[Bhadra (Krishna's wife)|Bhadra]], [[Lakshmana (Krishna's wife)|Lakshmana]]) and the [[Junior wives of Krishna|other 16,100]] were rescued from Narakasura. They had been forcibly kept in his palace and after Krishna had killed [[Narakasura]] he rescued these 16,100 women and freed them. However, all of them returned to Krishna saying that because they had been kept by Narakasura none of their families would accept them and also nobody would marry any of them. So to stop them from being unprotected Krishna married them all on a single day, by taking 16,100 forms. The chief amongst them is sometimes called [[Rohini (Krishna's wife)|Rohini]]. He gave them shelter in his new palace and a respectful place in society. However keeping his princely wives as wives he never had any relations with the other women, and many Hindu scriptures describe them as dancing around Krishna, singing songs of praise.<ref>B. R. Kishore, Lord Krishna, page 47</ref><ref>Francis Hamilton, Genealogies of the Hindus extracted from Sacred Texts, page 123, 145</ref>
The first son of Queen [[Rukmini]] was [[Pradyumna]], and also born of her were [[Charudeshna]], [[Sudeshna]] and the powerful [[Charudeha]], along with Sucharu, Chharugupta, Bhadracaru, Charuchandra, Vicaru and Caru, the tenth. Pradyumna fathered the greatly powerful [[Aniruddha]] in the womb of [[Rukmavati]], the daughter of Rukmi. This took place while they were living in the city of [[Bhojakata]].
[[File:Krishna flute suchindram temple car carving.jpg|thumb|200px|upright|Temple car carving of Krishna playing flute with Radha, suchindram, Tamil Nadu]]
The ten sons of [[Satyabhama]] were Bhanu, Subhanu, Svarbhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanuman, Chandrabhanu, Brihadbhanu, Atibhanu (the eighth), Sribhanu and Pratibhanu. Krishna is an important deity in Hinduism and seen as a very symbolic Lord.
[[Samba (Krishna's son)|Samba]], Sumitra, Purujit, Satajit, Sahasrajit, Vijaya, Citraketu, Vasuman, Dravida and Kratu were the sons of [[Jambavati]]. These ten, headed by [[Samba (Krishna's son)|Samba]], were their father's favorites.
The sons of [[Nagnajiti]] were Vira, Candra, Asvasena, Citragu, Vegavan, Vrisha, Ama, Sanku, Vasu and the opulent Kunti.
Sruta, Kavi, Vrisha, Vira, Subahu, Bhadra, Santi, Darsa and Purnamasa were sons of [[Kalindi]]. Her youngest son was Somaka.
[[Mitravinda]]'s sons were Vrika, Harsha, Anila, Gridhra, Vardhana, Unnada, Mahamsa, Pavana, Vahni and Kshudhi.
Sangramajit, Brihatsena, Sura, Praharana, Arijith, Jaya and Subhadra were the sons of [[Bhadra (Krishna's wife)|Bhadra]], together with Vama, Ayur and Satyaka.
[[Lakshmana (Krishna's wife)|Lakshmana]]'s sons were Praghosha, Gatravan, Simha, Bala, Prabala, Urdhaga, Mahasakti, Saha, Oja and Aparajita.
Diptiman, Tamratapta and others were the sons of Krishna and [[Rohini (Krishna's wife)|Rohini]].
===Later life===
{{main|Mausala Parva}}
[[File:Illustrations from the Barddhaman edition of Mahabharata in Bangla, which were printed in wood engraving technique (6).jpg|thumb|left|200px|The hunter Jara about to shoot arrow towards Krishna.]]
According to Mahabharata, the Kurukshetra war resulted in the death of all 100 sons of Gandhari. On the night before Duryodhana's death, Lord Krishna visited Gandhari to offer his condolences. Gandhari felt that Krishna knowingly did not put an end to the war, and in a fit of rage and sorrow, Gandhari cursed that Krishna, along with everyone else from [[yadu]] dynasty, would perish after 36 years. Krishna himself knew and wanted this to happen as he felt that the Yadavas had become very haughty and arrogant ''(adharmi)'', so he ended Gandhari's speech by saying "tathastu" (so be it).<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Lord Krishna's Disappearance, Disappearance of Lord Krishna, Life Span of Lord Krishn, Disappearance of Sri Krishna | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-23}}</ref><ref>[ ]{{dead link|date=October 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=MAHABHARATA -Krishna's Return to Heaven | |date= |accessdate=2011-10-23}}</ref>
After 36 years passed, a fight broke out between the [[Yadava]]s, at a festival, who killed each other. His elder brother, [[Balarama]], then gave up his body using [[Yoga]]. Krishna retired into the forest and started meditating under a tree. The Mahabharata also narrates the story of a hunter who kills Krishna. The hunter Jara, mistook Krishna's partly visible left foot for that of a deer, and shot an arrow, wounding and killing him mortally. After he realised the mistake, Krishna told Jara, "O Jara, you were [[Vaali]] in your previous birth, killed by myself as [[Rama]] in [[Tretayuga]]. Here you had a chance to even it and since all acts in this world are done as desired by me, you need not worry for this". Krishna's soul then ascended to heaven, while his mortal body was cremated by Arjuna.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|pp=148}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=|title= The Mahabharata (originally published between 1883 and 1896)|accessdate=2008-10-13|work= book|publisher= Sacred Texts|date= 2006 - digitized|author = Kisari Mohan Ganguli|chapter = Book 16: Mausala Parva Sections 4-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author = Mani, Vettam|title = Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature|publisher = Motilal Banarsidass|year = 1975|location = Delhi|isbn = 0-8426-0822-2|authorlink =Vettam Mani|page=429}}</ref>
According to [[Purana|Puranic sources]],<ref name="ReferenceA"/> Krishna's disappearance marks the end of [[Dvapara Yuga]] and the start of [[Kali Yuga]], which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE.<ref>See: Matchett, Freda, ''"The Puranas"'', p 139 and Yano, Michio, ''"Calendar, astrology and astronomy"'' in {{Cite book|last=Flood| first=Gavin (Ed)| year=2003| title=Blackwell companion to Hinduism| place=| publisher= [[Blackwell Publishing]]| edition=| isbn=0-631-21535-2|ref=harv|postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref> Vaishnava teachers such as [[Ramanujacharya]] and [[Gaudiya Vaishnavas]] held the view that the body of Krishna is completely spiritual and never decays (Achyuta) as this appears to be the perspective of the [[Bhagavata Purana]]. [[Chaitanya Mahaprabhu|Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu]] (an incarnation of Lord Sri Krishna according to the [[Bhavishya Purana]]) exhorted, "Krishna Naama Sankirtan" i.e. the constant chanting of the Krishna's name is the supreme healer in [[Kali Yuga]]. It destroys sins and purifies the hearts through Bhakti ensures universal peace.
Krishna never appears to grow old or age at all in the historical depictions of the [[Puranas]] despite passing of several decades, but there are grounds for a debate whether this indicates that he has no material body, since battles and other descriptions of the Mahabhārata epic show clear indications that he seems to be subject to the limitations of nature.<ref name = Sutton>Sutton (2000) pp.174-175</ref> While battles apparently seem to indicate limitations, Mahabharata also shows in many places where Krishna is not subject to any limitations as through episodes Duryodhana trying to arrest Krishna where his body burst into fire showing all creation within him.<ref>{{cite web |url=|title= The Mahabharata, Book 5: Udyoga Parva: Bhagwat Yana Parva: section CXXXI (originally published between 1883 and 1896)|accessdate=2008-10-13 |work= book|publisher= Sacred Texts|date= 2006 - digitized|author = Kisari Mohan Ganguli}}</ref> Krishna is also explicitly described as without deterioration elsewhere.<ref>{{cite web |url=|title= The Mahabharata, Book 5: Udyoga Parva: Bhagwat Yana Parva: section CXXX(originally published between 1883 and 1896)|accessdate=2008-10-13 |work= book|publisher= Sacred Texts|date= 2006 - digitized|author = Kisari Mohan Ganguli}} "Knowest thou not sinless Govinda, of terrible prowess and incapable of deterioration?"</ref>
[[File:Rasa Lila in Manipuri dance style.jpg|thumb|200px|''[[Rasa lila|Rasa Lila]]'' in [[Manipuri dance]] style.]]
The worship of Krishna is part of [[Vaishnavism]], which regards Vishnu as the [[Supreme God]] and venerates His associated [[avatar]]s, their consorts, and related saints and teachers. Krishna is especially looked upon as a full manifestation of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself.<ref>{{cite book |author=John Dowson |title=Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature |publisher=Kessinger Publishing |location= |year=2003 |page= 361|isbn=0-7661-7589-8| url =}}</ref> However the exact relationship between Krishna and Vishnu is complex and diverse,<ref name = Beck>See Beck, Guy, ''"Introduction"'' in {{Harvnb|Beck|2005|pp=1–18}}</ref> where Krishna is sometimes considered an independent deity, supreme in his own right.<ref name=Knott55>{{Harvnb|Knott|2000|p=55}}</ref> Out of many deities, Krishna is particularly important, and traditions of Vaishnava lines are generally centered either on Vishnu or on Krishna, as supreme. The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the sects of Krishna, reserving the term "Vaishnavism" for sects focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an avatar, rather than as a transcendent Supreme Being.<ref>Flood (1996) p. 117</ref>
All Vaishnava traditions recognise Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna with Vishnu; while traditions, such as [[Gaudiya Vaishnavism]],<ref name = McDaniel>See McDaniel, June, ''"Folk Vaishnavism and {{IAST|Ṭhākur Pañcāyat}}: Life and status among village Krishna statues"'' in {{Harvnb|Beck|2005|p=39}}</ref><ref name=Kennedy1925>{{cite book| author = Kennedy, M.T.| year = 1925 | title = The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal| publisher = H. Milford, Oxford university press| isbn = }}</ref> [[Vallabha Sampradaya]] and the [[Nimbarka Sampradaya]], regard Krishna as the ''[[svayam bhagavan]]'', original form of God.<ref name="KK">{{cite book |author=K. Klostermaier |title=The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972-1984 |publisher=Brill Academic Pub |location= |year=1997 |page= 109 |isbn=90-04-07863-0 |quote= For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but svayam bhagavan, the Lord himself.|url= |accessdate= | others = Crotty, Robert B.}}</ref><ref name = VaisnavaInstitute1956>
{{cite book |title= Indian Philosophy & Culture|last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1975|publisher= Institute of Oriental Philosophy|location= Vrindāvan (India)|isbn= |page= 148|url= |author1= Philosophy, Vrindāvan (India) Institute of Oriental |author2= (vrindāvan, Institute of Oriental Philosophy |author3= India), |author4= Institute, Vaishnava Research}} "On the touch-stone of this definition of the final and positive characteristic of Sri Krsna as the Highest Divinity as Svayam-rupa Bhagavan."</ref><ref name=Delmonico>Delmonico, N., ''The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism'' in {{Harvnb|Ekstrand|2004}}</ref><ref name=De1960>{{cite book
|author = De, S.K.
|year = 1960
|title = Bengal's contribution to Sanskrit literature & studies in Bengal Vaisnavism
|publisher = KL Mukhopadhyaya
}}p. 113: "The Bengal School identifies the Bhagavat with Krishna depicted in the Shrimad-Bhagavata and presents him as its highest personal God."</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Bryant|2007|p=381}}</ref> [[Swaminarayan]], the founder of the [[Swaminarayan Sampraday]] also worshipped Krishna as God himself. "Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of the [[Vasudeva]], Krishna, and [[Gopal (Krishna)|Gopala]] of late [[Vedic period]].<ref>
{{cite web |url=|title= Vaishnava|accessdate=2008-10-13 |work= encyclopedia|publisher= Division of Religion and Philosophy University of Cumbria|date= }}
[Vaishnava] University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008</ref> Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.<ref name = "Princeton">{{cite book
|author = Graham M. Schweig
|title = Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story
|publisher = Princeton University Press
|location = Princeton, N.J
|year = 2005
|pages = Front Matter
|isbn = 0-691-11446-3
|oclc =
|doi =
|accessdate =
|nopp = true
===Early traditions===
[[File:Krishna Janmashtami.jpg|thumb|left|200px|An image of [[Bala Krishna]] displayed during [[Janmashtami]] celebrations at a [[List of Swaminarayan temples#London|Swaminarayan Temple]] in London]]
The deity ''Krishna-Vasudeva'' (''{{IAST|kṛṣṇa vāsudeva}}'' "Krishna, the son of [[Vasudeva]]") is historically one of the earliest forms of worship in [[Krishnaism]] and [[Vaishnavism]].<ref name = "Cultofgopal">{{cite journal
|title = A Revolution in {{IAST|Kṛṣṇaism}}: The Cult of Gopāla: History of Religions, Vol. 25, No. 4 (May, 1986 ), pp. 296-317
|publisher =
|last = Hein
|first = Norvin
|jstor = 1062622
}}</ref><ref name = bryant4/> It is believed to be a significant tradition of the early history of the worship of Krishna in antiquity.<ref name = "Hastings540"/><ref>Bhattacharya, Gouriswar: ''Vanamala of Vasudeva-Krsna-Visnu and Sankarsana-Balarama''. In: Vanamala. Festschrift A.J. Gail. Serta Adalberto Joanni Gail LXV. diem natalem celebranti ab amicis collegis discipulis dedicata.</ref> This tradition is considered as earliest to other traditions that led to amalgamation at a later stage of the historical development. Other traditions are [[Bhagavatism]] and the cult of [[Gopala]], that along with the cult of [[Bala Krishna]] form the basis of current tradition of monotheistic religion of Krishna.<ref name = kk20072>
{{Cite book
|author = Klostermaier, Klaus K.
|page = 206
|year = 2005
|title = A Survey of Hinduism
|publisher = State University of New York Press; 3 edition
|isbn = 0-7914-7081-4
|quote = Present day Krishna worship is an amalgam of various elements. According to historical testimonies Krishna-Vasudeva worship already flourished in and around Mathura several centuries before Christ. A second important element is the cult of Krishna Govinda. Still later is the worship of Bala-Krishna, the Child Krishna—a quite prominent feature of modern Krishnaism. The last element seems to have been Krishna Gopijanavallabha, Krishna the lover of the Gopis, among whom Radha occupies a special position. In some books Krishna is presented as the founder and first teacher of the Bhagavata religion.
|ref = harv
|postscript = <!--None-->
{{cite journal
|title = Review:''Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes.'' by Milton Singer; Daniel H. H. Ingalls, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (May, 1968 ), pp. 667-670
|publisher =
|last = Basham
|first = A. L.
|jstor = 2051211
</ref> Some early scholars would equate it with Bhagavatism,<ref name = "Hastings540">{{cite book
|author = Hastings, James Rodney
|authorlink = James Hastings
|editor =
|others = John A Selbie
|title = Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics
|edition = Volume 4 of 24 ( Behistun (continued) to Bunyan.)
|language =
|publisher = Kessinger Publishing, LLC
|location = Edinburgh
|year = 2nd edition 1925-1940, reprint 1955, 2003
|origyear = 1908-26
|page = 476
|quote = The encyclopedia will contain articles on all the religions of the world and on all the great systems of ethics. It will aim at containing articles on every religious belief or custom, and on every ethical movement, every philosophical idea, every moral practice.
|isbn = 0-7661-3673-6
|oclc =
|doi =
|url =
|accessdate = 2008-05-03
}}pp.540-42</ref> and the founder of this religious tradition is believed to be Krishna, who is the son of Vasudeva, thus his name is ''Vāsudeva''; he is said to be historically part of the Satvata tribe, and according to them his followers called themselves Bhagavatas and this religion had formed by the 2nd century BC (the time of [[Patanjali]]), or as early as the 4th century BC according to evidence in [[Megasthenes]] and in the [[Arthasastra]] of [[Kautilya]], when ''Vāsudeva'' was worshiped as supreme deity in a strongly monotheistic format, where the supreme being was perfect, eternal and full of grace.<ref name = "Hastings540"/>
In many sources outside of the cult, the devotee or [[bhakta]] is defined as ''Vāsudevaka''.<ref>{{cite book
|author = Singh, R.R.
|year = 2007
|title = Bhakti And Philosophy
|publisher = Lexington Books
|isbn = 0-7391-1424-7
:p. 10: "[Panini's] term Vāsudevaka, explained by the second century B.C commentator Patanjali, as referring to "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods."</ref> The [[Harivamsa]] describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a [[Vaishnava]] concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or [[avatar]].<ref>
{{cite journal |title= The emergence of a group of four characters (Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) in the Harivamsa: points for consideration|journal = Journal of Indian Philosophy|author = Couture, André|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2006|publisher= |location= |volume = 34|issue = 6|pages= 571–585|url= |doi= 10.1007/s10781-006-9009-x |ref= harv }}</ref>
===Bhakti tradition===
{{Main|Bhakti yoga}}
Bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However Krishna is an important and popular focus of the devotional and ecstatic aspects of Hindu religion, particularly among the [[Vaishnava]] sects.<ref name = McDaniel/><ref name = "Klostermaier1974">{{cite journal
|author = Klostermaier, K.
|year = 1974
|title = The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin
|journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
|volume = 94
|issue = 1
|pages = 96–107
|doi = 10.2307/599733
|jstor = 599733
|publisher = American Oriental Society
|ref = harv
}}</ref> Devotees of Krishna subscribe to the [[lila (divine play)|concept of ''lila'']], meaning 'divine play', as the central principle of the Universe. The ''lilas'' of Krishna, with their expressions of personal love that transcend the boundaries of formal reverence, serve as a counterpoint to the actions of another avatar of Vishnu: [[Rama]], "He of the straight and narrow path of ''maryada,'' or rules and regulations."<ref name = "Kennedy1925"/>
[[File:KRISHNA.jpg|thumb|left|200px|krishna with flute]]
The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna became prominent in southern India in the 7th to 9th centuries AD. The earliest works included those of the [[Alvars|Alvar]] saints of the [[Tamil language|Tamil]] country.<ref name=Vaudeville1962>{{cite journal
|author = Vaudeville, C.
|year = 1962
|title = Evolution of Love-Symbolism in Bhagavatism
|journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
|volume = 82
|issue = 1
|pages = 31–40
|doi = 10.2307/595976
|jstor = 595976
|publisher = American Oriental Society
|ref = harv
}}</ref> A major collection of their works is the ''[[Divya Prabandham]]''. The Alvar [[Andal]]'s popular collection of songs [[Tiruppavai]], in which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous of the oldest works in this genre.<ref name="cassel">{{cite book |author=Bowen, Paul |title=Themes and issues in Hinduism |publisher=Cassell |location=London |year=1998 |pages=64–65 |isbn=0-304-33851-6 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=}}</ref><ref name=Radhak1975>{{cite book
|author = Radhakrisnasarma, C.
|year = 1975
|title = Landmarks in Telugu Literature: A Short Survey of Telugu Literature
|publisher = Lakshminarayana Granthamala
|isbn =
<ref name=histor>{{cite book
|author = Sisir Kumar Das
|year = 2005
|title = A History of Indian Literature, 500-1399: From Courtly to the Popular
|publisher = Sahitya Akademi
|page = 49
|isbn = 81-260-2171-3
}}</ref> [[Kulasekaraazhvaar]]'s [[Mukundamala]] was another notable work of this early stage.
===Spread of the Krishna-bhakti movement===
[[File:Westindischer Maler um 1550 001.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Gita Govinda]] by [[Jayadeva]].]]
The movement spread rapidly from northern India into the south, with the [[Sanskrit]] poem ''[[Gita Govinda]]'' of [[Jayadeva]] (12th century AD) becoming a landmark of devotional, Krishna-based literature. It elaborated a part of the Krishna legend—his love for one particular [[gopi]], called [[Radha]], a minor character in ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'' but a major one in other texts like ''[[Brahma Vaivarta Purana]]''. By the influence of ''Gita Govinda'', Radha became inseparable from devotion to Krishna.<ref name=" Mahony1987">{{cite journal| author = Mahony, W.K. | year = 1987 | title = Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities | journal = History of Religions | volume = 26| issue = 3 | pages = 333–335 | doi = 10.2307/599733 | jstor = 1062381}}</ref>
While the learned sections of the society well versed in Sanskrit could enjoy works like ''Gita Govinda'' or Bilvamangala's ''Krishna-Karnamritam'', the masses sang the songs of the devotee-poets, who composed in the regional languages of India. These songs expressing intense personal devotion were written by devotees from all walks of life. The songs of [[Meera]] and [[Surdas]] became epitomes of Krishna-devotion in north India.
[[File:Radhakrishna manor.JPG|thumb|200px|Krishna (left) with the flute with gopi-consort Radha, [[Bhaktivedanta Manor]], [[Watford]], England]]
These devotee-poets, like the Alvars before them, were aligned to specific theological schools only loosely, if at all. But by the 11th century AD, [[Vaishnava]] Bhakti schools with elaborate theological frameworks around the worship of Krishna were established in north India. [[Nimbarka]] (11th century AD), [[Vallabhacharya]] (15th century AD) and ([[Chaitanya Mahaprabhu|Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu]] an incarnation of Lord Sri Krishna according to the [[Bhavishya Purana]]) (16th century AD) all inspired by the teachings of [[Madhvacharya]] (11th century AD) were the founders of the most influential schools. These schools, namely [[Nimbarka Sampradaya]], [[Vallabha Sampradaya]] and [[Gaudiya Vaishnavism]] respectively, see Krishna as the supreme God, rather than an avatar, as generally seen.
In the [[Deccan]], particularly in [[Maharashtra]], saint poets of the [[Varkari]] sect such as [[Dnyaneshwar]], [[Namdev]], [[Janabai]], [[Eknath]] and [[Tukaram]] promoted the worship of [[Vithoba]],<ref name = "vithoba"/> a local form of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century.<ref name=" Mahony1987" /> In southern India, [[Purandara Dasa]] and [[Kanakadasa]] of [[Karnataka]] composed songs devoted to the Krishna image of [[Udupi]]. [[Rupa Goswami]] of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti named Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.<ref name = "Klostermaier1974"/>
===In the West===
In 1965, the Krishna-bhakti movement had spread outside India when its founder,[[Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]], (who was instructed by his [[guru]], [[Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura]]) traveled from his homeland in West Bengal to New York City. A year later in 1966, after gaining many followers, he was able to form the [[International Society for Krishna Consciousness]] (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement. The purpose of this movement was to write about Krishna in English and to share the [[Gaudiya Vaishnava]] philosophy with people in the Western world by spreading the teachings of [[Chaitanya Mahaprabhu|Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu]] (an incarnation of Lord Sri Krishna according to the [[Bhavishya Purana]]). In an effort to gain attention, followers chanted the names of God in public locations. This chanting was known as hari-nama sankirtana and helped spread the teaching. Additionally, the practice of distributing prasadam or “sanctified food” worked as a catalyst in the dissemination of his works. In the Hare Krishna movement, [[Prasad]] was a vegetarian dish that would be first offered to Krishna. The food’s proximity to Krishna added a “spiritual effect,” and was seen to “counteract material contamination affecting the soul.” Sharing this sanctified food with the public, in turn, enabled the movement to gain new recruits and further spread these teachings.<ref name="bare_url" /><ref>''Srila Prabhupada - He Built a House in which the whole world can live in peace, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1984, ISBN 0-89213-133-0'' page xv</ref><ref name="dwyer">”Dwyer, G. (2010). Krishna prasadam: the transformative power of sanctified food in the Krishna Consciousness Movement. Religions Of South Asia, 4(1), 89-104. doi:10.1558/rosa.v4i1.89”</ref>
[[File:Navaneeta krishna in thiruvellarai,trichy.JPG|thumb|200px|left|Navaneeta krishna]]
===In South India===
In South India, Vaishnavas usually belong to the [[Sri Sampradaya]]. The acharyas of the Sri Sampradaya have written reverentially about Krishna in most of their works like the [[Thiruppavai]] by Andal<ref>{{cite web|first=Andal|title=Thiruppavai|url=|work=Ibiblio|accessdate=24 May 2013}}</ref> and Gopala Vimshati by Sri [[Vedanta Desika]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Desika|first=Vedanta|title=Gopala Vimshati|url=|work=Ibiblio, Sripedia|accessdate=23 May 2013}}</ref> In South India, devotion to Krishna, as an avatar of Vishnu, spread in the face of opposition to [[Buddhism]], [[Shaktism]], and [[Shaivism]] and ritualistic Vedic sacrifices. The [[acharyas]] of the Sri Sampradaya like [[Manavala Mamunigal]], [[Vedanta Desika]] strongly advocated surrender to Vishnu as the aim of the Vedas. Out of 108 [[Divya Desams]] there are 97 Divya Desams in South India.
==In the performing arts==
[[File:Kathakali of kerala.jpg|thumb|left|upright|200px|A [[Kathakali]] performer as Krishna]]
While discussing the origin of [[Indian theatre]], Horwitz talks about the mention of the Krishna story in [[Patanjali]]'s [[Mahabhashya]] (c. 150 BC), where the episodes of slaying of Kamsa (Kamsa Vadha) and "Binding of the heaven storming titan" (Bali Bandha) are described.<ref>Varadpande p.231</ref> [[Bhasa]]'s ''Balacharitam'' and ''Dutavakyam'' (c. 400 BC) are the only [[Sanskrit]] plays centered on Krishna written by a major classical dramatist. The former dwells only on his childhood exploits and the latter is a one-act play based on a single episode from the ''Mahābhārata'' when Krishna tries to make peace between the warring cousins.<ref>Varadpande p.232-3</ref>
From the 10th century AD, with the growing [[bhakti movement]], Krishna became a favorite subject of the arts. The songs of the ''[[Gita Govinda]]'' became popular across India, and had many imitations. The songs composed by the Bhakti poets added to the repository of both folk and classical singing.
The [[classical Indian dance]]s, especially [[Odissi dance|Odissi]] and [[Manipuri dance|Manipuri]], draw heavily on the story. The '[[Rasa lila]]' dances performed in [[Vrindavan]] shares elements with [[Kathak]], and the [[Krisnattam]], with some cycles, such as Krishnattam, traditionally restricted to the [[Guruvayur temple]], the precursor of [[Kathakali]].<ref name=Zarrilli2000>{{cite book
|author = Zarrilli, P.B.
|year = 2000
|title = Kathakali Dance-Drama: Where Gods and Demons Come to Play
|publisher = Routledge
|page = 246
The [[Sattriya]] dance, founded by the [[Assam]]ese Vaishnava saint [[Srimanta Sankardeva|Sankardeva]], extols the virtues of Krishna. Medieval [[Maharashtra]] gave birth to a form of storytelling known as the ''Hari-Katha'', that told Vaishnava tales and teachings through music, dance, and narrative sequences, and the story of Krishna one of them. This tradition spread to [[Tamil Nadu]] and other southern states, and is now popular in many places throughout India.
Narayana Tirtha's (17th century AD) ''Krishna-Lila-Tarangini'' provided material for the musical plays of the ''Bhagavata-Mela'' by telling the tale of Krishna from birth until his marriage to [[Rukmini]]. [[Tyagaraja]] (18th century AD) wrote a similar piece about Krishna called ''Nauka-Charitam''. The narratives of Krishna from the Puranas are performed in [[Yakshagana]], a performance style native to [[Karnataka]]'s coastal districts. Many movies in all Indian languages have been made based on these stories. These are of varying quality and usually add various songs, melodrama, and special effects.
==In other religions==
The most exalted figures in [[Jainism]] are the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Krishna, when he was incorporated into the [[Jain]] list of heroic figures, presented a problem with his activities which are not pacifist. The concept of [[Baladeva]], [[Vasudeva]] and [[Prati-Vasudeva]] was used to solve it.{{POV-statement|1=Was Krishna Incorporated in Jain list of heroes?|date=December 2012}} The Jain list of sixty-three Shalakapurshas or notable figures includes, amongst others, the twenty-four Tirthankaras and nine sets of this triad. One of these triads is Krishna as the Vasudeva, Balarama as the Baladeva and Jarasandha as the Prati-Vasudeva. He was a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The stories of these triads can be found in the ''Harivamsha'' of Jinasena (not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to ''Mahābhārata'') and the ''Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita'' of Hemachandra.<ref name = Jer>See Jerome H. Bauer ''""Hero of Wonders, Hero in Deeds: [ '''Vasudeva '''Krishna in Jaina Cosmohistory] '' in {{Harvnb|Beck|2005|pp=167–169}}</ref>
In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. The villain is the Prati-vasudeva. Baladeva is the upholder of the Jain principle of non-violence. However, Vasudeva has to forsake this principle to kill the Prati-Vasudeva and save the world.
<ref>{{cite book
|author = Jaini, P.S.
|year = 1993
|title = Jaina Puranas: A Puranic Counter Tradition
|isbn = 978-0-7914-1381-4
|url =
}}</ref><ref name=Cort1993>{{cite book
|author = Cort, J.E.
|year = 1993
|title = An Overview of the Jaina Puranas
|url =
|isbn = 9781438401362
[[File:Krishna-in-Kyoto-1.jpg|thumb|upright|200px|Depiction of Krishna playing flute in the temple constructed in AD 752 on the order of Emperor Shomu; Todai-ji Temple, Great Buddha Hall in Nara, [[Japan]]]]
The story of Krishna occurs in the [[Jataka]] tales in [[Buddhism]],<ref>
{{cite web
|url =
|title = Andhakavenhu Puttaa
|publisher =
|accessdate = 2008-06-15
</ref> in the Vaibhav Jataka as a prince and legendary conqueror and king of India.<ref name=Law1941>{{cite book
|author = Law, B.C.
|year = 1941
|title = India as Described in Early Texts of Buddhism and Jainism
|publisher = Luzac
|isbn =
}}</ref> In the Buddhist version, Krishna is called ''Vasudeva'', ''Kanha'' and [[Keshava]], and [[Balarama]] is his older brother, Baladeva. These details resemble that of the story given in the [[Bhagavata Purana]]. Vasudeva, along with his nine other brothers (each son a powerful wrestler) and one elder sister (Anjana) capture all of [[Jambudvipa]] (many consider this to be India) after beheading their evil uncle, King [[Kamsa|Kansa]], and later all other kings of Jambudvipa with his [[Sudarshana Chakra]]. Much of the story involving the defeat of [[Kamsa|Kansa]] follows the story given in the [[Bhagavata Purana]].<ref name=Jaiswal>{{cite journal
|author = Jaiswal, S.
|year = 1974
|title = Historical Evolution of the Ram Legend
|journal = Social Scientist
|jstor = 3517633
|volume = 21
|issue = 3-4
|pages = 89–97
As depicted in the [[Mahābhārata]], all of the sons are eventually killed due to a curse of sage Kanhadipayana ([[Veda Vyasa]], also known as Krishna Dwaipayana). Krishna himself is eventually speared by a hunter in the foot by mistake, leaving the sole survivor of their family being their sister, Anjanadevi of whom no further mention is made.<ref name=Hiltebeitel1990>{{cite book
|author = Hiltebeitel, A.
|year = 1990
|title = The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata
|publisher = State University of New York Press
|isbn =
Since Jataka tales are given from the perspective of [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]]'s previous lives (as well as the previous lives of many of Buddha's followers), Krishna appears as one of the lives of [[Sariputra]], one of Buddha's foremost disciples and the "Dhammasenapati" or "Chief General of the Dharma" and is usually shown being Buddha's "right hand man" in Buddhist art and iconography.<ref>''[ The Turner of the Wheel]''. The Life of Sariputta, compiled and translated from the Pali texts by Nyanaponika Thera</ref> The [[Bodhisattva]], is born in this tale as one of his youngest brothers named Ghatapandita, and saves Krishna from the grief of losing his son.<ref name=Law1941/> The 'divine boy' Krishna as an embodiment of wisdom and endearing prankster forms a part of the pantheon of gods in [[Japanese Buddhism]]
{{cite journal
|title = Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring, 1987 ), pp. 1-23
|publisher =
|last = Guth
|first = C.M.E
|jstor = 2385037
===Bahá'í Faith===
Bahá'ís believe that Krishna was a "[[Manifestation of God]]", or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the Word of God progressively for a gradually maturing humanity. In this way, Krishna shares an exalted station with [[Abraham]], [[Moses]], [[Zoroaster]], [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]], [[Muhammad]], [[Jesus]], the [[Báb]], and the founder of the [[Bahá'í Faith]], [[Bahá'u'lláh]].<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |last= Smith |first= Peter |encyclopedia= A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith |title= Manifestations of God |year= 2000 |publisher=Oneworld Publications |location= Oxford |isbn= 1-85168-184-1 |pages= 231}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |author= Esslemont, J.E. |authorlink=John Esslemont |year= 1980 |title= Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era |edition= 5th |publisher=Bahá'í Publishing Trust |location=Wilmette, Illinois, USA |isbn= 0-87743-160-4 |url= |page = 2}}</ref>
===Ahmadiyya Islam===
[[File:Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad2.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Mirza Ghulam Ahmad]], founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement]]
Members of the [[Ahmadiyya|Ahmadiyya Community]] believe Krishna to be a great prophet of God as described by their founder, [[Mirza Ghulam Ahmad]]. This belief is maintained by the [[Qur'anic]] Principle that God has sent prophets and messengers to every nation of the world leaving no region without divine guidance (see for instance {{Quran-usc|10|47|style=nosup}} and {{Quran-usc|16|36|style=nosup}}). There is also a saying reportedly of the Islamic prophet [[Muhammad]] which says<ref></ref>
<blockquote>There was a prophet of God in India who was dark in colour and his name was ''Kahan''.</blockquote>
Ghulam Ahmad also claimed to be the likeness of Krishna as a latter day reviver of religion and morality whose mission was to reconcile man with God.<ref name = Sialkot>{{cite book | title = Lecture Sialkot | first = Mirza Ghulam | last = Ahmad | publisher = Islam International Publications Ltd. | location = Tilford | year = 2007 |isbn = 1-85372-917-5 | url =}}</ref> Ahmadis maintain that the [[Sanskrit]] term ''Avatar'' is synonymous with the term 'prophet' of the Middle Eastern religious tradition as God's intervention with man; as God appoints a man as his vicegerent upon earth. In ''Lecture Sialkot'', Ghulam Ahmed wrote:
<blockquote>Let it be clear that Raja Krishna, according to what has been revealed to me, was such a truly great man that it is hard to find his like among the Rishis and Avatars of the Hindus. He was an Avatar—i.e., Prophet—of his time upon whom the Holy Spirit would descend from God. He was from God, victorious and prosperous. He cleansed the land of the Aryas from sin and was in fact the Prophet of his age whose teaching was later corrupted in numerous ways. He was full of love for God, a friend of virtue and an enemy of evil.<ref name = Sialkot/></blockquote>
Krishna is also called Murli Dhar. The flute of Krishna means the flute of revelation and not the physical flute. Krishna lived like humans and he was a prophet.<ref>{{cite web|title=Krishna|url=|accessdate=2011-01-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|first=Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth|title=Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth|publisher=Ahmadiyya Muslim Community}}</ref>
===Spritual Masters for teachings of Krishna===
*[[A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]]<ref>{{Cite book| first = Satsvarupa| last =Dasa Goswami| authorlink = Gurupada| title =Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 1-2| publisher = [[Bhaktivedanta Book Trust]]| year = 2002 | pages = vol.1 1133 pages vol.2 1191 pages | isbn = 0-89213-357-0| nopp = true}}</ref>
*[[Bhakti Rakshaka Sridhara Deva Gosvami]]
*[[Swami Baba Premananda Bharati]]
*[[Jagadguru Kripalu Maharaj]] 1922 CE
Krishna worship or reverence has been adopted by several [[new religious movements]] since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in [[occult]] texts, along with [[Greek mythology|Greek]], [[Buddhist]], [[Bible|Biblical]] and even historical figures.<ref>{{cite journal |last= Harvey |first= D. A. |authorlink= |year= 2003|month= |title= Beyond Enlightenment: Occultism, Politics, and Culture in France from the Old Regime to the ''Fin-de-Siècle'' |journal= [[The Historian (journal)|The Historian]] |volume= 65 |issue= 3 |pages= 665–694| publisher = [[Blackwell Publishing]] |quote=|doi= 10.1111/1540-6563.00035 |ref= harv}}</ref> For instance, [[Édouard Schuré]], an influential figure in [[perennial philosophy]] and occult movements, considered Krishna a ''Great Initiate''; while [[Theosophist]]s regard Krishna as an incarnation of [[Maitreya (Theosophy)|Maitreya]] (one of the [[Ascended master|Masters of the Ancient Wisdom]]), the most important spiritual teacher for humanity along with [[Buddha]].<ref name = Schure>{{cite book|last = Schure| first = Edouard| authorlink = Édouard Schuré |title=Great Initiates: A Study of the Secret History of Religions| publisher = Garber Communications| year = 1992|isbn = 0-89345-228-9}}</ref><ref name = Others>See for example: {{cite book|last = Hanegraaff |first = Wouter J. | authorlink = Wouter Hanegraaff |title = New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought |publisher = [[Brill Publishers]] |year= 1996|page =390 |isbn=90-04-10696-0}}, {{cite book|last = Hammer |first =Olav| authorlink = Olav Hammer |title = Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age|publisher =[[Brill Publishers]] |year=2004 |pages =62, 174 |isbn = 90-04-13638-X}}, and {{cite book|last = Ellwood |first = Robert S. |title =Theosophy: A Modern Expression of the Wisdom of the Ages | publisher = Quest Books |page= 139 |year =1986 |isbn=0-8356-0607-4 }}</ref> Krishna was canonized by [[Aleister Crowley]] and is [[Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica|recognized as a saint]] in the [[Gnostic Mass]] of [[Ordo Templi Orientis]].<ref>Crowley associated Krishna with Roman god [[Dionysus]] and [[Magick (Aleister Crowley)|Magickal formulae]] IAO, [[Aum|AUM]] and [[INRI]]. See {{Cite book|last = Crowley|first = Aleister| authorlink = Aleister Crowley | title = Liber Aleph |publisher = Weiser Books| isbn=0-87728-729-5| page = 71|url =|year = 1991}} and {{cite book | last = Crowley|first = Aleister| authorlink = Aleister Crowley| title = [[The Book of Lies (Crowley)|The Book of Lies]]| publisher = Red Wheels| year = 1980|isbn = 0-87728-516-0| pages = 24–25}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last = Apiryon |first = Tau |coauthors = Apiryon |title = Mystery of Mystery: A Primer of Thelemic Ecclesiastical Gnosticism | publisher = Red Flame|location= Berkeley, CA|year = 1995| isbn = 0-9712376-1-1}}</ref>
One of the finest museums on the theme of Krishna, The Srikrishna Museum, Kurukshetra; was established by Kurukshetra Development Board in 1987. It has a collection of wide variety of sculptures, paintings and other artistic creations relating to the legend of Sri Krishna.
Srikrishna Museum has six galleries where a variety of art objects including wood carvings, metal castings, ivory carvings, miniature paintings, palm leaf etches, illustrated manuscripts, tableaux depicting facets of life of Sri Krishna are displayed. Paintings in Kangra and Madhubani styles, pattachitra (folk paintings of Orissa) depicting scenes from Mahabharata are prominently displayed.
Visitors are greeted by splendid sculpture of Ganesha in a dancing mudra (posture) at the entrance of the Museum.<ref></ref>
==See also==
* [[Pradyumna]]
* [[Aniruddha]]
* [[Vajra (King Aniruddha's Son)]]
* [[Dashavatara]]
* [ Shri Krishna 24 Naam Mala]
==Further reading==
*{{Cite book
|last = Beck
|first = Guy L.
|authorlink = Guy Beck
|title = Sonic theology: Hinduism and sacred sound
|publisher = [[University of South Carolina Press]]
|location = Columbia, S.C
|year = 1993
|url =
|isbn = 0-87249-855-7
|postscript = <!--None-->
*{{Cite book
|last = Bryant
|first = Edwin F.
|title = Krishna: the beautiful legend of God;
|publisher = Penguin |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=0-14-044799-7
|url =
|postscript = <!--None-->}}
*{{Cite book
|last = Bryant
|first = Edwin F.
|year = 2007
|title = Krishna: A Sourcebook
|publisher = Oxford University Press, USA
|pages =
|isbn = 0-19-514891-6
|url =
|postscript = <!--None-->
*''The Mahabharata'' of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated by [[Kisari Mohan Ganguli]], published between 1883 and 1896
*''The Vishnu-Purana'', translated by H. H. Wilson, (1840)
*''The Srimad Bhagavatam'', translated by [[A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]], (1988) copyright [[Bhaktivedanta Book Trust]]
*{{Cite book | last = Knott | first = Kim | year = 2000 | page = 160 | title = Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction | publisher = Oxford University Press, USA | isbn = 0-19-285387-2 | url = | postscript = <!--None-->}}
*''The Jataka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births'', edited by E. B. Cowell, (1895)
*{{Cite book |first=Maria|last= Ekstrand|editor= Bryant, Edwin H. |title=The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant |publisher=[[Columbia University Press]] |location=New York |year=2004 |pages= |isbn=0-231-12256-X |url= |postscript=<!--None--> }}
*{{cite web|last=Gaurangapada|first=Swami|title=Sixty-four qualities of Sri Krishna|url=|work=Nitaaiveda|publisher=Nitaiiveda|accessdate=24 May 2013}}
*{{Cite journal | title = The Qualities of Sri Krsna | first = S.D |last=Goswami| authorlink = Satsvarupa dasa Goswami | publisher = GNPress | year = 1998 | isbn = 0-911233-64-4 | url = | postscript = <!--None-->}}{{dead link|date=April 2012}}
*''Garuda Pillar of Besnagar'', Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908–1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129.
*{{cite book
|author = Flood, G.D.
|year = 1996
|title = An Introduction to Hinduism
|publisher = Cambridge University Press
|isbn = 0-521-43878-0
|url =
*{{Cite book | title =Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity | last = Beck| first = Guy L. (Ed.) | authorlink = Guy Beck |url = | publisher = SUNY Press | year = 2005 | isbn =0-7914-6415-6 | ref =harv | postscript =<!--None-->}}
*{{Cite book |last = Rosen |first = Steven | authorlink = Satyaraja Dasa|title=Essential Hinduism |publisher=Praeger |location=New York |year=2006 |pages= |isbn=0-275-99006-0 |ref = harv |postscript = <!--None-->}}
*{{Cite book
|last = Valpey
|first = Kenneth R.
|year = 2006
|title = Attending {{IAST|Kṛṣṇa}}'s image: {{IAST|Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā}} as devotional truth
|publisher = Routledge
|location = New York
|pages =
|isbn = 0-415-38394-3
|url =
|format =
|ref = harv
|postscript = <!--None-->
*{{Cite book
|last = Sutton
|first = Nicholas
|title = Religious doctrines in the Mahābhārata
|publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Publ., |year=2000 |page=477 |isbn=81-208-1700-1
|url =
|postscript = <!--None-->}}
*''History of Indian Theatre'' By M. L. Varadpande. Chapter ''Theatre of Krishna'', pp.&nbsp;231–94. Published 1991, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-278-0.
==External links==
{{Sister project links}}
<!--======================== {{No more links}} ============================
| is not a collection of links nor should it be used for advertising. |
| |
| Excessive or inappropriate links WILL BE DELETED. |
| See [[Wikipedia:External links]] & [[Wikipedia:Spam]] for details. |
| |
| If there are already plentiful links, please propose additions or |
| replacements on this article's discussion page, or submit your link |
| to the relevant category at the Open Directory Project ( |
| and link back to that category using the {{dmoz}} template. |
====={{No more links}}===
*[ Vedic Archeology (A Vaishnava Perspective)] (
*[ Article on the chronology of Krishna] (
{{Krishna|state = collapsed}}
{{VishnuAvatars|state = collapsed}}
{{Mahābhārata|state = collapsed}}
{{Hindu Culture and Epics|state = collapsed}}
{{Caitanya sampradaya}}
{{Authority control|LCCN=sh/85/73290}}
[[Category:Krishna| ]]
[[Category:Characters in the Mahabharata]]
[[Category:Characters in the Bhagavata Purana]]
[[Category:Commerce gods]]
[[Category:Forms of Vishnu]]
[[Category:Hindu gods]]
[[Category:Names of God in Hinduism]]
{{Link FA|id}}
{{Link GA|as}}
Reason:ANN scored at 0.96795
Your username:

Note: Comments are completely optional. You do not have to justify your edit.
If this is a false positive, then you're right, and the bot is wrong - you don't need to explain why.