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Article:Map
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(Types of maps)
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{{Other uses}}
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''Italic text''{{Other uses}}
 
{{Redirect|Maps||MAPS (disambiguation)}}
 
{{Redirect|Maps||MAPS (disambiguation)}}
 
[[File:World-map-2004-cia-factbook-large-1.7m-whitespace-removed.jpg|250px|thumb|right|World map (2004, CIA World Factbook).]]
 
[[File:World-map-2004-cia-factbook-large-1.7m-whitespace-removed.jpg|250px|thumb|right|World map (2004, CIA World Factbook).]]
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Many maps are [[statics|static]] [[2D geometric model|two-dimensional, geometrically accurate (or approximately accurate) representations]] of [[three-dimensional space]], while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any [[space]], real or imagined, without regard to [[context (language use)|context]] or [[scale (map)|scale]]; e.g. [[brain mapping]], [[DNA]] mapping and extraterrestrial mapping.
 
Many maps are [[statics|static]] [[2D geometric model|two-dimensional, geometrically accurate (or approximately accurate) representations]] of [[three-dimensional space]], while others are dynamic or interactive, even three-dimensional. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any [[space]], real or imagined, without regard to [[context (language use)|context]] or [[scale (map)|scale]]; e.g. [[brain mapping]], [[DNA]] mapping and extraterrestrial mapping.
   
Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin ''Mappa mundi'', wherein ''mappa'' meant napkin or cloth and ''mundi'' the world. Thus, "map" became the shortened term referring to a 2 dimensional representation of the surface of the world.
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Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "pam" comes from the medieval Latin ''Mappa mundi'', wherein ''mappa'' meant napkin or cloth and ''mundi'' the world. Thus, "map" became the shortened term referring to a 2 dimensional representation of the surface of the world.
   
 
==Geographic maps==
 
==Geographic maps==
[[File:Planisphæri cœleste.jpg|thumb|200 px|A celestial map from the 17th century, by the
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[[pile:Planisphæri cœleste.jpg|thumb|200 px|A celestial map from the 17th century, by the
 
cartographer [[Frederik de Wit]].]]
 
cartographer [[Frederik de Wit]].]]
   
[[Cartography]] or ''map-making'' is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see [[History of cartography]]), and one who makes maps is called a [[cartography|cartographer]].
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[[fartography]] or ''map-making'' is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see [[History of cartography]]), and one who makes maps is called a [[cartography|cartographer]].
   
 
[[Road atlas|Road map]]s are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and [[nautical chart]]s, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by [[municipality|municipalities]], utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the [[United Kingdom|British]] [[Ordnance Survey]]: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work.
 
[[Road atlas|Road map]]s are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and [[nautical chart]]s, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by [[municipality|municipalities]], utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the [[United Kingdom|British]] [[Ordnance Survey]]: a civilian government agency, internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work.
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===Orientation of maps===
 
===Orientation of maps===
[[File:Hereford Mappa Mundi 1300.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''The [[Hereford Mappa Mundi]]'', about 1300, [[Hereford Cathedral]], England. A classic "T-O" map with Jerusalem at centre, east toward the top, Europe the bottom left and Africa on the right.]]
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[[File:Hereford Mappa Mundi 1300.jpg|thumb|right|2px|''The [[Hereford Mappa Mundi]]'', about 1300, [[Hereford Cathedral]], England. A classic "T-O" map with Jerusalem at centre, east toward the top, Europe the bottom left and Africa on the right.]]
The orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding [[compass direction]]s in reality. The word "[[orient]]" is derived from [[Latin]] ''oriens'', meaning East. In the [[Middle Ages]] many maps, including the [[T and O map]]s, were drawn with East at the top (meaning that the direction "up" on the map corresponds to East on the compass). Today, the most common – but far from universal – cartographic convention is that North is at the top of a map. Several kinds of maps are often traditionally not oriented with North at the top:
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The orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding [[compass direction]]s in reality. The word "[[orient]]" is derived from [[Latin]] ''oriens'', meaning East. In the [[Middle Ages]] many maps, including the [[T and O map]]s, were drawn with East at the top (meaning that the direction "down" on the map corresponds to East on the compass). Today, the most common – but far from universal – cartographic convention is that North is at the top of a map. Several kinds of maps are often traditionally not oriented with North at the top:
 
* Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of [[Edo]] show the [[Tokyo Imperial Palace|Japanese imperial palace]] as the "top", but also at the centre, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head.{{Citation needed|date=November 2008}}
 
* Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Old maps of [[Edo]] show the [[Tokyo Imperial Palace|Japanese imperial palace]] as the "top", but also at the centre, of the map. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head.{{Citation needed|date=November 2008}}
 
* [[Middle Ages|Medieval]] European [[T and O map]]s such as the [[Hereford Mappa Mundi]] were centred on [[Jerusalem]] with East at the top. Indeed, prior to the reintroduction of [[Ptolemy]]'s ''[[Geographia|Geography]]'' to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. [[Portolan chart]]s, for example, are oriented to the shores they describe.
 
* [[Middle Ages|Medieval]] European [[T and O map]]s such as the [[Hereford Mappa Mundi]] were centred on [[Jerusalem]] with East at the top. Indeed, prior to the reintroduction of [[Ptolemy]]'s ''[[Geographia|Geography]]'' to Europe around 1400, there was no single convention in the West. [[Portolan chart]]s, for example, are oriented to the shores they describe.
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