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Article:UNESCO
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The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community — as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the [[Millennium Development Goals|Millennium Development Goals (MDG)]] — underpin all UNESCO's strategies and activities.
 
The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community — as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the [[Millennium Development Goals|Millennium Development Goals (MDG)]] — underpin all UNESCO's strategies and activities.
   
==History==
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== '''baydateh kbarrrr ==
UNESCO and its mandate for international co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.<ref>League of Nations. Records of the Second Assembly. Plenary Meetings. 5 September-5 October 1921. Geneva. P. 313</ref>
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== Heading text ==
The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications.
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'''
The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC.<ref name="unesdoc.unesco.org">{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000790/079049eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947–1987. Paris, December 1987. LAD.85/WS/4 Rev. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
On 18 December 1925, the [[International Bureau of Education]] (IBE) began work as a [[non-governmental]] organization in the service of international educational development.<ref>UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology.</ref>
 
However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of [[World War II]].
 
 
After the signing of the [[Atlantic Charter]] and the [[Declaration of the United Nations]], the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945.
 
On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR.
 
This was followed by the [[Dumbarton Oaks Conference]] proposals of 9 October 1944.
 
Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the [[United Nations Conference on International Organization]] (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was [[Rab Butler]], the [[Minister of Education]] for the United Kingdom.<ref>[http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1949/jan/26/the-work-of-unesco THE WORK OF U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949)]. Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.</ref> At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117626e.pdf |title=United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117626e.pdf |title=Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 16 November 1945. United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. P. 93. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
 
The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. [[Julian Huxley]] to the post of Director-General.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114580e.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 1st Session. (1947). General Conference, First Session, held at UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 &#91;1 C/Resolutions&#93;. (Paris.) Item 14, p. 73. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=1 July 2012}}</ref>
 
The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.<ref>[http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114586e.pdf UNESCO. General Conference, 8th Session. (1955). Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, [[Montevideo]], 1954: Resolutions. 8 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution II.1.2, p.12. UNESDOC database]</ref>
 
This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in terms of how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.
 
 
Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]]) and other scientists in 1950<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001269/126969eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref> and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001140/114032e.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems."<ref>UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.</ref> South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of [[Nelson Mandela]].
 
 
UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.<ref>The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.</ref>
 
This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0005/000590/059046eb.pdf |title=Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114591e.pdf#xml=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?database=&set=4CFE6AEC_1_103&hits_rec=1&hits_lng=eng |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in [[Jomtien]], Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000975/097551e.pdf |title=UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
Ten years later, the 2000 [[World Education Forum]] held in [[Dakar]], Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001211/121147e.pdf |title=UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
 
UNESCO's early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0004/000419/041943eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of [[Abu Simbel]] to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the [[Aswan Dam]]. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including [[Mohenjo-daro]] (Pakistan), [[Fes]] (Morocco), [[Kathmandu]] (Nepal), [[Borobudur]] (Indonesia) and the [[Acropolis]] (Greece).
 
The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001140/114044e.pdf |title=Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
The [[World Heritage Committee]] was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the [[World Heritage List]] in 1978.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0003/000347/034793eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the [[Intangible Cultural Heritage]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001331/133171e.pdf |title=Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>) and 2005 ([[Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001428/142825e.pdf |title=Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>).
 
 
An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the [[European Council for Nuclear Research]] (CERN)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001137/113790e.pdf |title=UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution 7.2.2.1, p. 9. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref> in 1954.
 
 
Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001145/114593e.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's [[Man and the Biosphere Programme]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0006/000677/067785eo.pdf |title="Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
 
In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings.
 
In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001480/148006eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
In response to calls for a "[[New World Information and Communication Order]]" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0003/000323/032363eb.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref> which produced the 1980 [[MacBride report]] (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate [[Seán MacBride]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0004/000400/040066eb.pdf |title=MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
 
Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001085/108540eo.pdf |title=UNESCO. (1996). UNESCO and an Information Society for All: a position paper. (UNESCO: Paris). CII-96/WS/4. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref> programme and Toward Knowledge Societies<ref>{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001321/132114e.pdf |title=UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. (2003). Communiqué: Ministerial Round Table on "Towards Knowledge Societies." (UNESCO Headquarters, 9 and 10 October 2003). 14 October 2003. 32 C/INF.26. UNESDOC database |format=PDF |accessdate=1 July 2012}}</ref> programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 ([[Geneva]]) and 2005 ([[Tunis]]).
 
 
In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/general_conference_admits_palestine_as_unesco_member_state/|title=General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member|date=31 October 2011|accessdate=11 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/palestinianauthority/8860951/US-withdraws-Unesco-funding-after-it-accepts-Palestinian-membership.html |title=US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership |first=Adrian |last=Blomfield |work=The Telegraph |date=31 October 2011 |accessdate=31 October 2011}}</ref>
 
Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member.
 
As a result, it will withdraw its funding which accounts for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/01/world/middleeast/unesco-approves-full-membership-for-palestinians.html |title=Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians |first1=Steven |last1=Erlanger |first2=Scott |last2=Sayare |work=The New York Times |date=31 October 2011 |accessdate=31 October 2011}}</ref>
 
Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the [[Palestinian National Authority|Palestinian Authority]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/after-unesco-vote-israeli-sanctions-on-palestinian-authority-anger-u-s-1.393600|title=After UNESCO vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S.|work=Haaretz|date=4 November 2011|accessdate=11 December 2011}}</ref> claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-03/middleeast/world_meast_israel-unesco_1_unesco-palestinian-bid-palestinian-state?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST|publisher=CNN|title=Israel freezes UNESCO funds|date=3 December 2011|accessdate=11 December 2011}}</ref>
 
   
 
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