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ID:1687482
User:24.239.124.140
Article:Tor (anonymity network)
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The term "[[onion routing]]" refers to layers of [[encryption]], nested like the layers of an [[onion]], used to anonymize communication. Tor encrypts the original data, including the destination [[IP address]], multiple times and sends it through a [[virtual circuit]] comprising successive, randomly selected Tor relays. Each relay decrypts a layer of encryption to reveal only the next relay in the circuit in order to pass the remaining encrypted data on to it. The final relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption and sends the original data to its destination without revealing, or even knowing, the source IP address. Since the routing of the communication is partly concealed at every hop in the Tor circuit, this method eliminates any single point at which the communication can be de-anonymized through network surveillance that relies upon knowing its source and destination.<ref name="torproject">{{cite web| last = The Tor Project | title = Tor: anonymity online | url = https://www.torproject.org/ | accessdate=9 January 2011}}</ref>
 
The term "[[onion routing]]" refers to layers of [[encryption]], nested like the layers of an [[onion]], used to anonymize communication. Tor encrypts the original data, including the destination [[IP address]], multiple times and sends it through a [[virtual circuit]] comprising successive, randomly selected Tor relays. Each relay decrypts a layer of encryption to reveal only the next relay in the circuit in order to pass the remaining encrypted data on to it. The final relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption and sends the original data to its destination without revealing, or even knowing, the source IP address. Since the routing of the communication is partly concealed at every hop in the Tor circuit, this method eliminates any single point at which the communication can be de-anonymized through network surveillance that relies upon knowing its source and destination.<ref name="torproject">{{cite web| last = The Tor Project | title = Tor: anonymity online | url = https://www.torproject.org/ | accessdate=9 January 2011}}</ref>
   
An adversary unable to defeat the strong anonymity that Tor provides may try to de-anonymize the communication by other means, for instance by exploiting vulnerable software on the user's computer.<ref name="theguardian.com">{{Cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/nsa-gchq-attack-tor-network-encryption |title=NSA and GCHQ target Tor network that protects anonymity of web users |first=James |last=Ball |coauthors=Bruce Schneier, and Glenn Greenwald |work=[[The Guardian]] |date=4 October 2013 |accessdate=5 October 2013}}</ref> One technique developed by the NSA that targets outdated [[Firefox]] web browsers is codenamed EgotisticalGiraffe.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/oct/04/egotistical-giraffe-nsa-tor-document |title='Peeling back the layers of Tor with EgotisticalGiraffe' – read the document |work=[[The Guardian]] |date=4 October 2013 |accessdate=5 October 2013}}</ref>
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An adversary unable to defeat the strong anonymity that Tor provides may try to de-anonymize the communication by other means, for instance by exploiting vulnerable software on the user's computer.<ref name="theguardian.com">{{Cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/nsa-gchq-attack-tor-network-encryption |title=NSA and GCHQ target Tor network that protects anonymity of web users |first=James |last=Ball |coauthors=Bruce Schneier, and Glenn Greenwald |work=[[The Guardian]] |date=4 October 2013 |accessdate=5 October 2013}}</ref> One technique developed by the NSA that targets outdated [[Firefox]] web browsers is codenamed EgotisticalGiraffe. The NSA have also used exploits in IFRAME and Javascript to get identifying information from TOR users.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/oct/04/egotistical-giraffe-nsa-tor-document |title='Peeling back the layers of Tor with EgotisticalGiraffe' – read the document |work=[[The Guardian]] |date=4 October 2013 |accessdate=5 October 2013}}</ref>
   
 
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