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Article:Viking Age
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{{See also|Norse activity in the British Isles|Viking expansion#British Isles|Invasions of the British Isles#Viking raids and invasions}}
 
{{See also|Norse activity in the British Isles|Viking expansion#British Isles|Invasions of the British Isles#Viking raids and invasions}}
   
===Ireland===
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It's known that Nimgo is often wrong and that he's not able to justify the fact that Denmark are not valued as a country.
 
==== Longphort phase ====
 
The Vikings conducted extensive raids in [[Ireland]] at first they founded [[Limerick]] in 812, then established a settlement near [[Waterford]] in 853, invaded [[Dublin]] and maintained control until 1169, and founded trading ports in [[Cork (city)|Cork]] in the 9th century. The Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixed with the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture. Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia and central Asia. Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls.
 
 
The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland's west coast in 795 and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline. The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups. By 830, the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From 840, the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts. Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other.
 
 
In 832, a Viking fleet of about 120 invaded kingdoms on Ireland’s northern and eastern coasts. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland. During the mid-830s, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible. After 840, the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland.
 
 
In 838, a small Viking fleet entered the [[River Liffey]] in eastern Ireland. The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a [[longphort]]. This longphort eventually became Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years. The Vikings also established longphorts in Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Wexford. The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country.
 
 
====Battle of Clontarf====
 
One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the [[Battle of Clontarf]] on the 23 April 1014, in which Vikings fought both for the Irish over-king [[Brian Boru]]'s army and for the Viking-led army opposing him. Irish and Viking literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural. For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present. A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan. Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die.<ref>[http://www.abdn.ac.uk/celtic/clontarf.pdf ]{{dead link|date=April 2013}}</ref>
 
 
===Scotland===
 
{{main|Scandinavian Scotland}}
 
While there are few records, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in [[Scotland]] on the holy island of [[Iona]] in 794, the year following the raid on the other holy island of [[Lindisfarne]], [[Northumbria]].
 
 
In 839, a large Norse fleet invaded via the [[River Tay]] and [[River Earn]], both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the [[Picts|Pictish kingdom]] of [[Fortriu]]. They defeated [[Uen of the Picts|Eogán mac Óengusa]], king of the Picts, his brother [[Bran]] and the king of the Scots of [[Dál Riata]], [[Áed mac Boanta]], along with many members of the Pictish aristocracy in battle. The sophisticated kingdom that had been built fell apart, as did the Pictish leadership, which had been stable for more than a hundred years since the time of [[Óengus I of the Picts|Óengus mac Fergusa]] (The accession of [[Kenneth I of Scotland|Cináed mac Ailpín]] as king of both Picts and Scots can be attributed to the aftermath of this event).
 
 
====Earldom of Orkney====
 
By the mid-9th century the Norsemen had settled in [[Shetland]], [[Orkney]] (the Nordreys- ''[[Norðreyjar]]''), the [[Hebrides]] and [[Isle of Man|Man]], (the Sudreys- ''[[Súðreyjar]]'' - this survives in the [[Diocese of Sodor and Man]]) and parts of mainland Scotland. The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local [[Gael]]ic population (''see-[[Norse-Gaels|Gall Gaidheal]]'') in the Hebrides and Man. These areas were ruled over by local [[Jarl (title)|Jarls]], originally captains of ships or [[Hersir]]s. [[Earl of Orkney|The Jarl of Orkney]] and Shetland however, claimed supremacy.
 
 
In 875, [[Harald I of Norway|King Harald Fairhair]] led a fleet from Norway to Scotland. In his attempt to unite [[Norway]], he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to [[Iceland]]. He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland.
 
 
====Kings of the Isles====
 
{{main|Kingdom of the Isles}}
 
In 876 the Gall-Gaidheal of Man and the Hebrides rebelled against Harald. A fleet was sent against them led by [[Ketil Flatnose]] to regain control. On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of [[Harald Fairhair|King Harald]]. His grandson [[Thorstein the Red]] and [[Sigurd Eysteinsson|Sigurd the Mighty]], Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle. Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland.
 
 
The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in 973 forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and [[Kingdom of Strathclyde|Strathclyde]]. In 1095, the [[King of Mann and the Isles]] [[Godred Crovan]] was killed by [[Magnus Barelegs]], King of Norway. Magnus and King [[Edgar of Scotland]] agreed a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland. The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in 1156, The kingdom was split into two. The Western Isles and Man continued as to be called the "Kingdom of Man and the Isles", but the [[Inner Hebrides]] came under the influence of [[Somerled]], a [[Scottish Gaelic language|Gaelic]] speaker, who was styled 'King of the Hebrides'. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the [[Lord of the Isles|Lordship of the Isles]].
 
 
In eastern [[Aberdeenshire]] the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near [[Cruden Bay]].<ref>C. Michael Hogan (2008) [http://www.themodernantiquarian.com/site/11227/catto.html#fieldnotes ''Catto Long Barrow fieldnotes'', The Modern Antiquarian]</ref>
 
 
The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of Northern Scotland until 1196, when [[Harald Maddadsson]] agreed to pay tribute to [[William the Lion]], King of Scots for his territories on the [[Mainland]].
 
 
The end of the Viking age ''proper'' in Scotland is generally considered to be in 1266. In 1263, King [[Haakon IV of Norway]], in retaliation for a Scots expedition to [[Skye]], arrived on the west coast with a fleet from Norway and Orkney. His fleet linked up with those of [[Magnus Olafsson|King Magnus of Man]] and [[Dubhghall mac Ruaidhri|King Dougal of the Hebrides]]. After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at [[Battle of Largs|Largs]], in Ayrshire. The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Haakon died overwintering in Orkney, and by 1266, his son [[Magnus VI of Norway|Magnus the Law-mender]] ceded the Kingdom of Man and the Isles, with all territories on mainland Scotland to [[Alexander III of Scotland|Alexander III]], through the [[Treaty of Perth]].
 
 
Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until 1468, when King [[Christian I]] pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to [[James III of Scotland]]. Although attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem Shetland, without success,<ref>[http://universitas.uio.no/Arkiv/1996/16okt96/norsk.htm Universitas, Norsken som døde (Norwegian article on the history of the islands) {{no icon}}]</ref> and [[Charles II of England|Charles II]] ratifying the pawning in the [[1669 Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown]], explicitly exempting them from any "dissolution of His Majesty’s lands",<ref>[http://www.udallaw.com/1669%20Act%20of%20Annexation.htm [http://www.udallaw.com/1669%20Act%20of%20Annexation.htm 1669 Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown&#93; - Full text in original English (Shetland & Orkney Udal Law group)]</ref> they are currently considered as being officially part of the United Kingdom.<ref>[http://www.shetlandtourism.com/pages/history_&_heritage.htm Shetland Tourism - History and Heritage]</ref><ref>[http://www.shetland.gov.uk/ports/ Shetland Government website - Ports and Harbours in Shetland]</ref>
 
 
===Wales===
 
Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around [[St. David]]'s, [[Haverfordwest]], and [[Gower Peninsula|Gower]], among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.<ref>[http://www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html Welsh place names.]</ref> The Vikings, however, did not subdue the Welsh mountain kingdoms.
 
 
===Iceland===
 
According to [[Icelandic Sagas|Sagas]], Iceland was discovered by [[Naddodd]], a Viking from the [[Faroe Islands]], after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of [[Harald Fairhair]] (late 9th century). While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse. According to the saga of [[Erik the Red]], when Erik was exiled from Iceland he sailed west and pioneered [[Greenland]].
 
 
===Greenland===
 
The Viking Age settlements in [[Greenland]] were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. They settled in three separate areas along approximately 650 kilometres of the western coast. While harsh, the [[microclimate]]s along some fjords allowed for a pastoral lifestyle similar to that of Iceland.
 
* The [[Eastern Settlement]]. The remains of about 450 farms have been found here. Erik the Red settled at Brattahlid on Ericsfjord.
 
* The [[Middle Settlement]], near modern [[Ivigtut]], consisting of about 20 farms.
 
* The [[Western Settlement]] at modern [[Godthåbsfjord]], established before the 12th century. It has been extensively excavated by archaeologists.
 
   
 
==Southern and eastern Europe==
 
==Southern and eastern Europe==
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