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{{About|the English language word}}
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'''''Fuck''''' is an [[English-language]] word, a [[profanity]] which refers to the act of [[sexual intercourse]] and is also often used to denote disdain or as an intensifier.
 
 
The origin of the word is obscure. It is usually considered to be first attested to around 1475, but it may be considerably older. In modern usage, ''fuck'' and its derivatives (such as ''fucker'' and ''fucking'') can be used in the position of a [[noun]], a [[verb]], an [[adjective]] or an [[adverb]]. There are many common phrases which make use of the word, as well as a number of [[Compound (linguistics)|compounds]] incorporating it, such as ''[[motherfucker]]''.
 
 
==Offensiveness==
 
The word's use is considered obscene in social contexts, but may be common in informal and familiar situations. It is unclear whether the word has always been considered vulgar, and if not, when it first came to be used to describe (often in an extremely angry, hostile or belligerent manner) unpleasant circumstances or people in an intentionally offensive way, such as in the term ''[[motherfucker]]'', one of its more common usages in some parts of the [[List of countries where English is an official language|English-speaking world]]. In the modern [[English language|English]]-speaking world, the word ''fuck'' is often considered highly offensive. Most English-speaking countries censor it on television and radio. Andrea Millwood Hargrave's 2000 study of the attitudes of the British public found that ''fuck'' was considered the third most severe profanity and its derivative ''motherfucker'' second. ''[[Cunt]]'' was considered the most severe.<ref name="Hargrave">{{cite journal |last = Millwood Hargrave |first = Andrea |title = Delete Expletives?: Research Undertaken Jointly by the Advertising Standards Authority, British Broadcasting Corporation, Broadcasting Standards Commission and the Independent Television Commission |publisher = Advertising Standards Authority |year = 2000 |accessdate = 1 June 2013 |url = http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:Km1AR8MNrjUJ:scholar.google.com/+delete+expletives+hargrave&hl=en&as_sdt=0,14}}</ref> ''Fuck'' has become increasingly less vulgar and more publicly acceptable, an example of the "[[Dysphemism|dysphemism treadmill]]", wherein vulgarities become inoffensive and commonplace.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://journalism.uoregon.edu/~tbivins/J496/readings/LANGUAGE/euphemism_defandlist.pdf |title = Euphemism definitions and list |publisher = University of Oregon |accessdate = 1 June 2013 |work = Persuasion and Ethics |last = Bivins |first = Tom}}</ref><ref name="Christian">{{cite book |first = Brian |last = Christian |page = 208 |title = The Most Human Human: What Artificial Intelligence Teaches Us About Being Alive |publisher = Random House Digital |year = 2012}}</ref> ''Fuck'' was included for the first time as one of three vulgarities in the [[Canadian Press]]'s ''Canadian Press Caps and Spelling'' guide in 2005 because of its increasing usage in the public forum. Journalists were advised to refrain from censoring the word but use it sparingly and only when its inclusion was essential to the story.<ref name="CPmanual">{{Cite news | url = http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2005/08/14/CP_manual_adds_four-letter_expletive20050815.html | title = New edition of Canadian Press handbook includes infamous four-letter word | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080430213520/http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2005/08/14/CP_manual_adds_four-letter_expletive20050815.html | archivedate = 2008-04-30 | publisher = [[CBC News]] | date = 14 August 2005 | accessdate = 1 June 2013}}</ref>
 
 
The term remains a [[taboo]] word to many people in English-speaking countries.
 
 
==Etymology==
 
The ''[[Oxford English Dictionary]]'' states that the ultimate etymology is uncertain, but that the word is "probably cognate" with a number of native [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] words with meanings involving striking, rubbing, and having sex.<ref name=oed>"Fuck." ''[[OED Online]]''. Draft Revision, June 2008. [[Oxford University Press]]. Accessed 26 August 2008 [http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50090566 OED.com]</ref>
 
 
==="Flen, flyys and freris"===
 
The usually accepted first known occurrence is in [[Code (cryptography)|code]] in a poem in a mixture of [[Latin]] and English composed in the 15th century.<ref name="Sheidlower1998">{{cite journal |title = Revising the F-Word |last = Sheidlower |first = Jesse |journal = Verbatim: the Language Quarterly |volume = 23 |issue = 4 |pages = 18–21 |date = Autumn 1998}}</ref> The poem, which satirizes the [[Carmelite]] friars of [[Cambridge, England|Cambridge]], England, takes its title, "[[Flen flyys]]", from the first words of its opening line, ''Flen, flyys, and freris'' (= "[[Flea]]s, [[flies]], and [[friars]]"). The line that contains ''fuck'' reads ''Non sunt in coeli, quia gxddbov xxkxzt pg ifmk''. [[Substitution cipher|Deciphering]] the phrase "''gxddbov xxkxzt pg ifmk''", here by replacing each letter by the previous letter in [[alphabetical order]], as the English alphabet was then, yields ''non sunt in coeli, quia fvccant vvivys of heli'', which translated means, "They are not in heaven because they fuck wives of [[Ely, Cambridgeshire|Ely]]".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=fuck |title=American Heritage Dictionary definition of '&#39;fuck'&#39; |publisher=Dictionary.reference.com |date= |accessdate=2011-11-11}}</ref> The phrase was coded likely because it accused monks of breaking their vows of celibacy;<ref name="Sheidlower1998"/> it is uncertain to what extent the word ''fuck'' was considered acceptable at the time. (The stem of ''fvccant'' is an English word used as Latin: English [[medieval Latin]] has many examples of writers using English words when they did not know the Latin word: "''workmannus''" is an example.) (In the [[Middle English]] of this poem, the term ''[[wife]]'' was still used generically for "[[woman]].")
 
 
===Older etymology===
 
 
====Via Germanic====
 
The word has probable [[cognate]]s in other Germanic languages, such as [[German language|German]] ''ficken'' (to fuck); [[Dutch language|Dutch]] ''fokken'' (to breed, to beget); dialectal [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] ''fukka'' (to copulate), and dialectal [[Swedish language|Swedish]] ''focka'' (to strike, to copulate) and ''fock'' ([[penis]]).<ref name=oed /> This points to a possible etymology where [[Common Germanic]] ''fuk–'' comes from an [[Indo-European language|Indo-European]] root meaning "to strike", cognate with non-Germanic words such as Latin ''pugno'' "I fight" or ''pugnus'' "fist".<ref name=oed /> By application of [[Grimm's law]], this hypothetical root has the form *''pug–''.
 
 
Yet another possible etymology is from the [[Old High German]] word ''pfluog'', meaning "to plow, as in a field." This is supported in part by a book by [[Carl Jung]], ''[[Carl Jung publications|Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido]]'', in which he discusses the "primitive play of words" and the [[phallic]] representation of the plough, including its appearance on a vase found in an [[archaeological]] dig near [[Florence, Italy|Florence]], Italy, which depicts six erect-penised men carrying a plow.
 
 
The original [[Proto-Indo-European language|Indo-European]] [[root (linguistics)|root]] for ''to copulate'' is likely to be * ''h<sub>3</sub>yeb<sup>h</sup>–'' or *''h<sub>3</sub>eyb<sup>h</sup>–'',{{citation needed|date=March 2013}} which is attested in [[Sanskrit]] [[wikt:यभति|यभति]] (''yabhati''), [[Russian language|Russian]] [[wikt:ебать|ебать]] (''yebat' ''), [[Polish language|Polish]] ''[[wikt:jebać|jebać]]'', and [[Serbian language|Serbian]] [[wikt:jebati#Serbian|јебати]] (''jebati''), among others: compare the Greek verb [[wikt:οἴφω|οἴφω]] (''oíphō'') = "I have sex with", and the Greek noun [[wikt:Ζέφυρος|Ζέφυρος]] (Zéphyros) (which references a Greek belief that the west wind [[Zephirus|Zephyrus]] caused pregnancy).
 
 
There is a theory that ''fuck'' is most likely derived from Flemish, German, or Dutch roots, and is probably not from Old English roots.<ref name="Sheidlower1998"/>
 
 
====Via Latin or Greek====
 
There may be a kinship with the Latin ''[[wikt:futuo#Latin|futuere]]'' (''futuo''), a verb with almost exactly the same meaning as the English verb "to fuck". From ''fūtuere'' came [[French language|French]] ''foutre'', [[Catalan language|Catalan]] ''fotre'', [[Italian language|Italian]] ''fottere'', [[Romanian language|Romanian]] ''futere'', vulgar peninsular [[Spanish language|Spanish]] ''follar'' and ''joder'', [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]] ''foder'', and the obscure English equivalent ''to [[wikt:futter|futter]]'', coined by [[Richard Francis Burton]]. However, there is no clear past lineage or derivation for the Latin word. These roots, even if cognates, are not the original Indo-European word for ''to copulate'', but [[Wayland Young]] argues that they derive from the Indo-European *''b<sup>h</sup>u–'' or *''b<sup>h</sup>ug–'' ("be", "become"), or as causative "create" [see Young, 1964]. A possible intermediate might be a Latin 4th-[[declension]] [[verbal noun]] *''fūtus'', with possible meanings including "act of (pro)creating".
 
 
However, the connection to ''futuere'' has been disputed - [[Anatoly Liberman]] calls it a "coincidence" and writes that it is not likely to have been borrowed from the Low Germanic precursors to ''fuck''.<ref name="Liberman">{{cite book |first = Anatoly |last = Liberman |title = An Analytic Dictionary of the English Etymology |year = 2008 |publisher = University of Minnesota Press |isbn = 9781452913216}}</ref>
 
 
Greek ''phyō'' (φύω) has various meanings, including (of a man) "to beget", or (of a woman), "to give birth to".<ref name="ReferenceA">Liddell, Henry George, & Scott, Robert. ''Greek-English Lexikon''; 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1857; p. 1638a, b.</ref> Its [[perfect (grammar)|perfect]] ''pephyka'' (πέφυκα) can be likened{{citation needed|date=January 2011}} to "fuck" and its equivalents in other Germanic languages.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
 
 
===False etymologies===
 
One reason that the word ''fuck'' is so hard to trace etymologically is that it was used far more extensively in common speech than in easily traceable written forms. There are several [[urban legend|urban-legend]] [[false etymology|false etymologies]] postulating an [[acronym]]ic origin for the word. None of these acronyms was ever recorded before the 1960s, according to the authoritative [[lexicographer|lexicographical]] work ''[[The F-Word (book)|The F-Word]]'', and thus are [[backronym]]s. In any event, the word ''fuck'' has been in use far too long for some of these supposed origins to be possible. Some of these urban legends are that the word ''fuck'' came from [[Ireland|Irish]] law. If a couple were caught committing [[adultery]], they would be punished "For Unlawful [[carnal knowledge|Carnal Knowledge]] In the Nude," with "FUCKIN" written on the [[stocks]] above them to denote the crime. A similar variant on this theory involves the recording by church clerks of the crime of "Forbidden Use of Carnal Knowledge." Another theory is that of a royal permission. During the [[Black Death]] in the [[Middle Ages]], towns were trying to control populations and their interactions. Since uncontaminated resources were scarce, supposedly many towns required permission to have children. Hence, the legend goes, that couples that were having children were required to first obtain royal permission (usually from a local magistrate or lord) and then place a sign somewhere visible from the road in their home that said "[[fornicate|Fornicating]] Under Consent of King," which was later shortened to "FUCK." This story is hard to document, but has persisted in oral and literary traditions for many years; however, it has been demonstrated to be an urban legend.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.snopes.com/language/acronyms/fuck.asp |title=snopes.com: Etymology of Fuck |author= |date=8 July 2007 |work=Snopes.com |publisher= |accessdate=2013-12-09 }}</ref>
 
 
A different false etymology, first made popular on the radio show ''[[Car Talk]]'', states that the phrase "fuck you" comes from the phrase "pluck yew" and relates the origins of ''fuck'' to the myth surrounding the [[V sign]]. This myth states that French archers at the [[Battle of Agincourt]] insulted the English troops' ability to shoot their weapons by waving their fingers in a V shape; after the English secured a landslide victory, they returned the gesture. The addition of the phrase "fuck you" to the myth came when it was claimed that the English yelled that they could still "pluck yew" ([[Taxus baccata|yew]] wood being the preferred material for longbows at the time), a phrase that evolved into the modern "fuck you".<ref name="Sheidlower1998"/>
 
 
== Grammar ==
 
''Fuck'' has a very flexible role in English grammar, which stems from its vulgarity{{snd}} the more vulgar a word is, the greater its linguistic flexibility. Linguist Geoffrey Hughes found eight distinct usages for English curse words, and ''fuck'' can apply to each. For example, it fits in the "curse" sense ("fuck you!") as well as the "personal" sense ("You fucker"). Its vulgarity also contributes to its mostly figurative sense, though ''fuck'' is used in its literal sense to refer to sexual intercourse, its most common usage is figurative- to indicate the speaker's strong sentiment and to offend or shock the listener.<ref name="Salon">{{cite journal |url = http://www.salon.com/2013/05/11/the_modern_history_of_swearing_where_all_the_dirtiest_words_come_from/ | date = 11 May 2013 |last = Mohr |first = Melissa |title = The modern history of swearing: Where all the dirtiest words come from |accessdate = 3 June 2013 |journal = Salon}}</ref>
 
 
==Early usage==
 
Its first known use as a verb meaning to have sexual intercourse is in "Flen flyys," written around [[15th century in literature|1475]].
 
 
[[William Dunbar (poet)|William Dunbar]]'s 1503 poem "Brash of Wowing" includes the lines: "Yit be his feiris he wald haue fukkit: / Ye brek my hairt, my bony ane" (ll. 13–14).
 
 
[[John Florio]]'s 1598 Italian-English dictionary, ''A Worlde of Wordes'', included the term, along with several now-archaic, but then-vulgar synonyms, in this definition:
 
*Fottere: ''To jape, to sard, to fucke, to swive, to occupy.''
 
Of these, "occupy" and "jape" still survive as verbs, though with less profane meanings, while "sard" was a descendant of the Anglo-Saxon verb ''seordan'' (or ''seorðan'', <[[Old Norse|ON]] ''serða''), to copulate; and "swive" had derived from earlier ''swīfan'', to revolve i.e. to swivel (compare modern-day "screw").
 
 
While [[William Shakespeare|Shakespeare]] never used the term explicitly; he hinted at it in comic scenes in a few plays. ''[[The Merry Wives of Windsor]]'' (IV.i) contains the expression ''focative case'' (see [[vocative case]]). In ''[[Henry V (play)|Henry V]]'' (IV.iv), Pistol threatens to ''firk'' (strike) a soldier, a [[euphemism]] for ''fuck'', while ''[[Othello]]'' (I.i) uses an even stronger euphemism, "making the [[beast with two backs]]."
 
 
A 1790 poem by [[George Tucker (politician)|George Tucker]] has a father upset with his bookish son say "I'd not give [a fuck] for all you've read". Originally printed as "I'd not give ------ for all you've read", scholars agree that the words "a fuck" were removed, making the poem the first recorded instance of the now-common phrase "I don't give a fuck". In 1837, the first instance of the phrase "go fuck yourself" or its variants was recorded when a woman who told a group to "go fuck themselves" was charged with the crime of obscenity. Another common figurative use of ''fuck'' ("to cheat, victimize, or betray") was first recorded in 1866, when an unnamed court witness swore to hearing another man saying he would be "fucked out of his money" by another man. Farmer and Henley's 1893 dictionary of slang notes both the adverbial and adjectival forms of ''fuck'' as similar to but "more violent" than ''bloody'' and indicating extreme insult, respectively.<ref name="Salon"/>
 
 
==Rise of modern usage==
 
Though it appeared in English lexicographer [[John Ash (divine)|John Ash]]'s 1775 ''A New and Complete Dictionary'', listed as "low" and "vulgar," and appearing with several definitions,<ref>"Expletive Deleted – A good look at bad language" by Ruth Wajnryb, Copyright 2005</ref> ''fuck'' did not appear in any widely-consulted dictionary of the English language from 1795 to 1965. Its first appearance in the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (along with the word ''cunt'') was in 1972.
 
 
==Modern usage==
 
The modern usage and flexibility of ''fuck'' was established by the mid to late 19th century, and has been fairly stable since.<ref name="Salon"/> Most literally, to ''fuck'' is to [[Sexual intercourse|copulate]], but it is also used as a more general [[Expletive attributive|expletive]] or intensifier. Some instances of the word can be taken at face value, such as "Let's fuck," "I would fuck her/him," or "He/she fucks." Other uses are dysphemistic: The sexual connotation, usually connected to [[masturbation]] (in the case of "go fuck yourself" or "go fuck yourself in the ass"), is invoked to incite additional disgust, or express anger or outrage. For example, "Fuck that!", "Fuck no!", "Fuck off!", or "Fuck you!" By itself, ''fuck'' is usually used as an exclamation, indicating surprise, pain, fear, disgust, disappointment, anger, or a sense of extreme elation. In this usage, there is no connection to the sexual meaning of the word implied, and is used purely for its "strength" as a vulgarity. Additionally, other uses are similarly vacuous; ''fuck'' (or variations such as ''the fuck'' or ''fucking'') could be removed and leave a sentence of identical [[syntax|syntactical]] meaning. For example, rap music often uses the word ''fucking'' as an emphatic adjective ("I'm the fucking man") for the word's rhythmic properties. The word ''fuck'' can also be used to express surprise and/or disbelief towards a given statement or a question, most often in the form of "does/is it fuck", however this usage is more common in [[British English]].
 
 
Insertion of the [[trochaic]] word ''fucking'' can also be used as an exercise for diagnosing the [[wikt:cadence|cadence]] of an English-language word. This is the use of ''fuck'' or more specifically ''fucking'' as an [[infix]], or more properly, a [[tmesis]] (see [[expletive infixation]]). For example, the word ''in-fucking-credible'' sounds acceptable to the English ear, and is in fairly common use, while ''incred-fucking-ible'' would sound very clumsy (though, depending on the context, this might be perceived as a humorous [[improvisation]] of the word). ''Abso-fucking-lutely'' and ''motherfucking'' are also common uses of ''fuck'' as an [[affix]]. While neither dysphemistic nor connected to the sexual connotations of the word, even the vacuous usages are considered offensive and gratuitous, and censored in some media; for example, "None of your fucking business!" or "Shut the fuck up!" A common insult is "Get fucked", which in a non-offensive context would translate as "get stuffed." The word is one of the few that has legitimate colloquial usage as a [[verb]], [[adverb]], [[adjective]], command, [[Grammatical conjunction|conjunction]], [[Interjection|exclamatory]], [[noun]] and [[pronoun]].
 
 
In another usage, the word ''fucker'' is used as a term of endearment rather than antipathy. This usage is not uncommon; to say "you're one smart fucker" is often a term of affection. However, because of its ambiguity and vulgarity, the word ''fucker'' in reference to another person can easily be misinterpreted. Though ''fuck'' can serve as a noun, the ''fucker'' form is used in a context that refers to an individual. Normally in these cases, if ''fuck'' is used instead of ''fucker,'' the sentence refers to the sexual ability of the subject (for example, "He's a great fuck!"), although confusingly in a minority of occasions the word "fuck" can hold exactly the same meaning as ''fucker'' (e.g., when preceded by an adjective: "You're a pretty clever fuck.").
 
 
Related to ''fucker'' is the word ''motherfucker.'' Sometimes used as an extreme insult—an accusation of [[incest]]—this term is also occasionally used to connote respectful awe. For example, "He's a mean motherfucker" does not mean "He's abusive, filthy and copulates with his mother," but "He's someone to be afraid of." In this context, some people (particularly young men) might even describe themselves as "motherfuckers." The word ''fuck'' is used in many forms of music, with ''motherfucker'' being used as a [[rhythm]]ic filler in [[hip hop music|hip hop]], [[urban music]] and some rock genres; examples include [[The Crystal Method]]'s song "Name of the Game" and [[Turbonegro]]'s "Don't Say Motherfucker Motherfucker". Perhaps ''motherfucker's'' rhythmic compatibility is due to its [[syllable|quadrisyllabic]] [[pronunciation]], making it a natural fit for popular music that is written in 4/4 [[Meter (music)|metre]]. Also contributing to its use in aggressive, high-energy music is the fact that it includes a hard "k" sound in its third syllable, making it easy to exclaim, particularly when pronounced as "mutha fucka". Despite these rhythmic qualities, ''motherfucker'' has not become as accepted in English usage as its root ''fuck''.
 
 
A more succinct example of the flexibility of the word is its use as almost every word in a sentence. In his book, ''Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War'', [[Paul Fussell]], literary [[historian]] and professor emeritus of [[English literature]] at the [[University of Pennsylvania]], recounted<blockquote>Once, on a misty Scottish airfield, an [[airman]] was changing the [[ignition magneto|magneto]] on the engine of a [[Wellington bomber]]. Suddenly his wrench slipped and he flung it on the grass and snarled, "Fuck! The fucking fucker's fucked." The bystanders were all quite well aware that he had stripped a bolt and skinned his knuckles.<ref>Fussell P: ''Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War'', Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1990</ref></blockquote>The phrase "Fuck you, you fucking fuck!" is a memorable quote from the movie ''[[Blue Velvet (film)|Blue Velvet]]'' from 1986, and is still used today as heard in Strapping Young Lad's "You Suck" from their 2006 album ''The New Black''. Another example is "Fuck the fucking fuckers!" Because of its vulgar status, the word ''fuck'' is usually restricted in mass media and barred from titles in the [[United States]]. In 2002, when the controversial [[Cinema of France|French film]] ''[[Baise-moi]]'' ([[2000 in film|2000]]) was released in the US, its title was changed to ''Rape Me'', rather than the literal ''Fuck Me'', though this may have been for effect. Similarly, the [[Sweden|Swedish]] film ''[[Fucking Åmål]]'' was retitled ''Show Me Love''.
 
 
Online forums and public [[blog]]s may censor the word by use of [[wordfilter|automatic filters]]. For example, [[Fark.com]] replaces the word ''fuck'' with ''fark''. Others replace the word with [[asterisk]]s (''****'') to censor it (and other profanities) entirely. To avert these filters, many online posters will use the word ''fvck''. This particular alteration is in common usage at the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], where students use it in reference to the inscriptions on MIT's [[neoclassicism|neoclassical]] buildings, in which the letter ''[[U]]'' is replaced by ''[[V]].'' A typical coinage in this idiom would be "I'm fvcked by the Institvte." (Other less common spellings to cheat a censor are "fück" and "phuck".) Another way to bypass a word filter is to use [[leet]]: fuck becomes F(_) c|< or |=(_)Ck, for example.
 
 
{{anchor|WTF}}The word ''fuck'' is a component of many acronyms, some of which—like ''SNAFU'' and ''[[FUBAR]]''—date as far back as [[World War II]]. Many more recent coinages, such as the shorthand "[[wikt:WTF|WTF]]?" for "what the fuck?," "[[Shut up|STFU]]" for "shut the fuck up," or "FML" for "fuck my life," have been widely extant on the [[Internet]], and may count as examples of [[meme]]s. Many acronyms will also have an "F" or "MF" added to increase emphasis; for example, "OMG" ("[[wikt:oh my God|oh my God]]") becomes "OMFG" ("oh my fucking God"). Abbreviated versions of the word tend not to be considered as offensive. Despite the proclaimed vulgarity of the word, several comedians rely on ''fuck'' for comedic routines. [[George Carlin]] created several literary works based upon the word. Other comedians who use or used the word consistently in their routines include [[Billy Connolly]], [[Denis Leary]], [[Lewis Black]], [[Andrew Dice Clay]], [[Chris Rock]], [[Richard Pryor]], [[Eddie Murphy]], and [[Sam Kinison]].
 
 
===Examples of more recent usage===
 
In 1928, English writer [[D. H. Lawrence]]'s novel ''[[Lady Chatterley's Lover]]'' gained notoriety for its frequent use of the words ''fuck'', ''fucked'', and ''fucking''.<ref>[http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/oct/22/dh-lawrence-lady-chatterley-trial "The trial of Lady Chatterley's Lover"]. The Guardian. Retrieved 1-25-2014</ref>
 
 
Perhaps the earliest usage of the word in popular music was the 1938 [[Eddy Duchin]] release of the [[Louis Armstrong]] song "Ol' Man Mose." <ref>{{cite web |url=http://digitalcitizen.ca/2011/12/26/ol-man-mose-for-those-who-like-1930s-music-with-f-bombs/ |title=Ol' Man Mose – For Those Who Like 1930s Music with F-Bombs |date=26 December 2011 |website=Digital Citizen |accessdate=10 February 2014}}</ref>
 
 
The liberal usage of the word (and other vulgarisms) by certain artists (such as [[James Joyce]], [[Henry Miller]], [[Lenny Bruce]], [[Peter Cook]] and [[Dudley Moore]], in their [[Derek and Clive]] personas) has led to the banning of their works and criminal charges of [[obscenity]].{{citation needed|date=May 2012}}
 
 
''[[The Catcher in the Rye]]'' by [[J. D. Salinger]] featured the use of ''fuck you'' in print. First published in the United States in 1951, the novel remains controversial to this day due in part to its use of the word, standing at number 13 for the most banned books from 1990–2000 according to the American Library Association.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=bbwlinks&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=85714 |title=ALA 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000 |publisher=Ala.org |date=2009-07-20 |accessdate=2014-01-13}}</ref>
 
 
The first documented use of the word ''fuck'' on live British television (and probably on any television system) has been attributed to theatre critic [[Kenneth Tynan]] in 1965, though it has been claimed Irish playwright [[Brendan Behan]] used the word on ''[[Panorama]]'' in 1956 (although no one could understand him because he was drunk) or the man who painted the railings on Stranmillis Embankment alongside the river Lagan in Belfast, who in 1959 told Ulster TV's teatime magazine programme, Roundabout, that his job was "fucking boring".<ref>[http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/aug/16/tvs-five-magic-moments?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487 Television's magic moments] ''[[The Guardian]]'', 16 August 2013. Retrieved September 27 2013.</ref> Controversy also ensued in 1976 when ''Today'' host [[Bill Grundy]] interviewed the [[Sex Pistols]], after guitarist [[Steve Jones (musician)|Steve Jones]] called Grundy a "dirty fucker" and a "fucking rotter"<ref>{{cite news|author=Mark Lawson |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2004/feb/05/broadcasting.britishidentityandsociety |title=Has swearing lost its power to shock? &#124; UK news |publisher=The Guardian |date= 2004-02-05|accessdate=2011-11-11 |location=London}}</ref> (see [[Sex Pistols#EMI and the Grundy incident|EMI and the Grundy incident]]).
 
 
===Use in politics===
 
''Fuck'' is not widely used in politics, and any use by notable politicians tends to produce controversy. Some events of this nature include:
 
*In 1965, [[President of the United States|U.S. President]] [[Lyndon B. Johnson]] said to the Greek ambassador [[Alexandros Matsas]] when he objected to American plans in [[Cyprus]], "Fuck your parliament and your constitution. America is an elephant. Cyprus is a flea. Greece is a flea. If these two fellows continue itching the elephant they may just get whacked by the elephant's trunk, whacked good."<ref>Deane, Philip. I Should Have Died. pp. 113–114 ISBN 0-241-89038-1. ISBN 978-0-241-89038-7 ASIN: B000XYDADM</ref><ref>Blum, William. Killing hope: [[US military]] and [[Central Intelligence Agency|CIA]] interventions since [[World War II]]: Publisher: Zed Books Ltd; 2nd edition (July 9, 2003); ISBN 1-84277-369-0; ISBN 978-1-84277-369-7 [http://books.google.com/books?id=-IbQvd13uToC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=fuck+your+parliament+and+your&source=bl&ots=cGw5EeDk9J&sig=2HNG-H0bsSQrnTyrmE4niqse83Q&hl=en&ei=R3Q5S-GVL8O1lAeh-bSbBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=fuck%20your%20parliament%20and%20your&f=false Google Books]</ref>
 
* During the [[1968 Democratic National Convention]], [[Chicago, Illinois|Chicago]] mayor [[Richard J. Daley|Richard Daley]] became so enraged by a speech from [[Abraham A. Ribicoff]] that he shouted "Fuck you!"<ref>Kaiser, Charles. [http://books.google.com/books?id=9o2vWzx0IT0C&pg=PA241&lpg=PA241&dq=richard+daley+fuck+nytimes&source=web&ots=9mdY2cQ3Tl&sig=tzOTMbo22zephP7sP08nIq0aF6U 1968 in America], p241. Grove Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8021-3530-7</ref> Daley would later claim that he was shouting "you fink, you" and calling Ribicoff a "faker".<ref>Taylor, Elizabeth. [http://books.google.com/books?id=zcTXikCFIgwC&pg=PA478&lpg=PA478&dq=richard+daley+ribicoff+faker&source=web&ots=ZEXx7ZSWxr&sig=mGlP_TCqS2r8CpSv9gzRQyRYgQY American Pharaoh: Richard J Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation], p478. Back Bay, 2000. ISBN 0-316-83489-0.</ref> On the first night of this same convention, which was President Johnson's birthday, a huge crowd of thousands of [[yippies]], [[hippies]] and anti Vietnam war protesters was famously filmed while simultaneously roaring "Fuck you, Lyndon Johnson!"<ref>''Battleground Chicago: The Police and the 1968 Democratic National Convention'', Frank Kusch, 2008, p. 88</ref><ref>''Chicago Eyewitness'', Mark Lane, 1968, p.30</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uic.edu/depts/pols/ChicagoPolitics/ConventionsIntroductionAndStudyGuide9-08.pdf |title='&#39;Introduction to the Movie "Conventions: The Land Around Us" |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2014-01-13}}</ref>
 
* During debate in February 1971 in the [[Canadian House of Commons]], Canadian [[Prime Minister of Canada|Prime Minister]] [[Pierre Trudeau]] mouthed the words "fuck off" under his breath (perhaps almost silently) at [[Progressive Conservative Party of Canada|Conservative]] [[Member of Parliament (Canada)|MP]] [[John Lundrigan]], while Lundrigan made some comments about unemployment. Afterward, when asked by a television reporter what he had been thinking, Trudeau famously replied "What is the nature of your thoughts, gentlemen, when you say '[[fuddle duddle]]' or something like that?". "Fuddle duddle" consequently became a [[catchphrase]] in Canadian media associated with Trudeau.<ref>Montcombreaux, Charles. [http://www.themanitoban.com/2004-2005/1117/article.php?section=culture&article=01 "Flip the Bird: How Fuck and "The Finger" Came to Be"] {{cite news|url=http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-73-571-2955-20/that_was_then/politics_economy/trudeau_fuddle_duddle |title=? |author= |date= November 17, 2004|work=Vol 92, Issue 13 |publisher=[[The Manitoban]] |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
* The first accepted modern use in the [[British House of Commons]] came in 1982 when [[Reg Race]], [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] MP for [[Wood Green (UK Parliament constituency)|Wood Green]], referred to adverts placed in local newsagents by [[prostitution|prostitutes]] which read "Phone them and fuck them." ''[[Hansard]]'', the full record of debates, printed "F*** them", but even this euphemism was deprecated by the [[Speaker of the British House of Commons|Speaker]], [[George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy|George Thomas]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1982/feb/03/licensing-of-sex-establishments#S6CV0017P0_19820203_HOC_296 |title=Licensing of sex establishments |author=[[Hansard]] |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=}} HC Deb 03 February 1982 vol 17 cc321-66: "''[[David Sullivan (publisher)|Conegate]] Ltd. provides opportunities for [[prostitute]]s to operate. The shop in [[Lewisham]] was recently raided by the police and was the subject of a court case. When two women who had been accused of daubing the shop with paint were acquitted by the [[Magistrates' Court (England and Wales)|magistrates court]] it was revealed in the national newspapers that Conegate had been operating a list of sexual contacts in the shop, the heading of which was "Phone them and … them"."''"</ref>
 
* Shortly after [[Tony Blair]] was elected Leader of the [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour Party]], the then Labour MP [[George Galloway]] told a public meeting "I don't give a fuck what Tony Blair thinks" when questioned about the party's move to the right.<ref name="fnalmanac">''The [[Almanac of British Politics]]'' by [[Robert Waller (pundit)|Robert Waller]] and Byron Criddle (Routledge, London, Fourth Edition 1991 and Fifth Edition 1996) ISBN 0-415-00508-6 and ISBN 0-415-11805-0</ref>
 
* In late 2003, US presidential candidate [[United States Senate|Senator]] [[John Kerry]] used the word ''fuck'' in an interview with ''[[Rolling Stone]]''. Referring to his vote in favor of the resolution authorizing [[President of the United States|President]] [[George W. Bush]] to use military force in Iraq, Senator [[John Kerry]] stated, "I voted for what I thought was best for the country. Did I expect [[Howard Dean]] to go off to the left and say, 'I'm against everything'? Sure. Did I expect George Bush to fuck it up as badly as he did? I don't think anybody did."<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20031208081632/http://www.nypost.com/news/nationalnews/43544.htm Cursing Kerry Unleashes Foulmouthed Attack On Bush], ''[[New York Post]] On-line Edition'' ([[Waybacked]]).</ref>
 
*In June 2004, during a heated exchange on the [[U.S. Senate]] floor about [[Halliburton]]'s role in the reconstruction of Iraq, [[Vice President]] [[Dick Cheney]] told [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] senator [[Patrick Leahy]], "Go fuck yourself." Coincidentally, Cheney's outburst occurred on the same day that the Defense of Decency Act was passed in the Senate.<ref>Dewar, Helen & Dana Milbank. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp%2Ddyn/articles/A3699%2D2004Jun24.html "Cheney Dismisses Critic With Obscenity"], ''[[Washington Post]]'', 25 June 2004</ref>
 
*In February 2006 (Australia), [[New South Wales]] [[Premiers of New South Wales|Premier]] [[Morris Iemma]], while awaiting the start of a [[Council of Australian Governments]] media conference in [[Canberra]], was chatting to [[Victoria (Australia)|Victorian]] [[Premiers of Victoria|Premier]] [[Steve Bracks]]. Not realizing cameras were operating he was recorded as saying "Today? This fuckwit who's the new CEO of the [[Cross City Tunnel]] has ... been saying what controversy? There is no controversy."<ref>AAP. [http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/anger-good-swearing-bad-iemma/2006/02/11/.html "Anger good, swearing bad: Iemma"], ''[[The Age]]'', 11 February 2006</ref> The exchange referred to the newly appointed CEO of a recently opened toll road within [[Sydney]].
 
* On January 31, 2007, New York Governor [[Eliot Spitzer]] angrily retorted to Assembly Minority Leader [[James Tedisco]], "Listen, I'm a fucking steamroller, and I'll roll over you and anybody else." According to ''The New York Post'', Spitzer confirmed the exchange the following day.<ref>Dicker, Fredric. [http://www.nypost.com/seven/02012007/news/regionalnews/full_steam_ahead_for_spunky_spitz_regionalnews_fredric_u__dicker_________state_editor.htm Full Steam Ahead for Spunky Spitz], ''[[New York Post]]'', February 1, 2007. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.</ref>
 
* In 2007, [[U.S. Senator]] [[John Cornyn]] objected to [[John McCain]]'s perceived intrusion upon a Senate meeting on [[immigration]], saying, "Wait a second here. I've been sitting in here for all of these negotiations and you just parachute in here on the last day. You're out of line." McCain, known for his short temper,<ref name="nyt030400">{{Cite news|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A01EFD81738F937A35750C0A9669C8B63 |title=For McCain, Concerns In the Senate Are Subtle |author=[[Adam Clymer]] |publisher=The New York Times |date=2000-03-04 |accessdate=2008-01-06}}</ref> replied, "Fuck you! I know more about this than anyone else in the room."<ref name="mccainvscornyn">{{Cite news| url=http://blog.washingtonpost.com/capitol-briefing/2007/05/mccain_cornyn_cursing_showdown.html | title=McCain, Cornyn Engage in Heated Exchange | publisher=''[[The Washington Post]]'' | date=2007-05-18 | accessdate=2007-06-21}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2007/05/23/immigration/ |title=Is Rush Limbaugh right? |publisher=''[[Salon (magazine)|Salon]]'' |date=2007-05-23 |accessdate=2007-05-23}}</ref>
 
* In April 2007, [[New Zealand]] Education Minister [[Steve Maharey]] said "fuck you" to [[Jonathan Coleman (politician)|a fellow MP]] during parliamentary question time.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10432760|title=A couple of quick words from the Minister ... whoops|publisher=[[New Zealand Herald]]|author=Audrey Young|date=5 April 2007|accessdate=2007-10-19}}</ref> He apologized shortly afterwards.
 
*In December 2008, recorded telephone conversations revealed Illinois Governor [[Rod Blagojevich]] trying to "sell" an appointment to the Senate seat that [[Barack Obama]] resigned after being elected [[President of the United States|President]]. In the phone conversation, Blagojevich said in reference to his power to appoint a new senator, "I've got this thing and it's fucking golden and I'm just not giving it up for fuckin' nothing." In the recorded conversations, Blagojevich also referred to Obama as a "motherfucker" and repeatedly said "fuck him." When speaking of the Obama administration's request that [[Valerie Jarrett]] be appointed as Obama's replacement, Blagojevich complained, "They're not willing to give me anything except appreciation. Fuck them." Blagojevich also said [[Tribune Company]] ownership should be told to "fire those fuckers" in reference to ''[[Chicago Tribune]]'' editors critical of him.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://cbs2chicago.com/local/rod.blagojevich.wiretaps.2.883438.html|title=Governor Blagojevich: In His Own Words|publisher=[[WBBM-TV|CBS 2 Chicago]]|date=9 December 2008|accessdate=2009-02-07|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20081211104456/http://cbs2chicago.com/local/rod.blagojevich.wiretaps.2.883438.html|archivedate=2008-12-11}}</ref>
 
* In December 2009 in [[Dáil Éireann]], [[Paul Gogarty]] responded to heckles from [[Emmet Stagg]] with the outburst, "With all due respect, in the most [[unparliamentary language]], fuck you, Deputy Stagg. Fuck you."<ref name="cppgogarty"/><ref name="rtegogarty"/> Gogarty immediately withdrew the remarks and later made a personal statement of apology.<ref name="cppgogarty"/> Reportage of the outburst quickly spread by media and the Internet.<ref name="rtegogarty">{{Cite news|url=http://www.rte.ie/news/2009/1211/politics.html|title=Gogarty sorry for 'unparliamentary language'|publisher=[[RTÉ.ie|RTÉ News, Ireland]]|author=RTÉ|date=11 December 2009|accessdate=2010-01-08}}</ref> A subcommittee of the Dáil's [[standing committee]] on procedure and privilege produced a 28-page report on the incident.<ref name="cppgogarty">{{cite web|url=http://www.oireachtas.ie/documents/committees30thdail/standingprocedureandprivilegesd/reports/20100525.pdf|format=PDF |title=Report on Parliamentary Standards|author=Committee on Procedure and Privileges|date=12 May 2010|publisher=Oireachtas|accessdate=23 October 2010|location=Dublin}}</ref>
 
* On March 23, 2010, U.S. vice president [[Joe Biden]] whispered into President [[Barack Obama]]'s ear, "This is a big fucking deal" when referring to the U.S. health care reform bill. His words were picked up by microphones and video.<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/23/barack-obama-healthcare-biden-gaffe U.K. newspaper article on Biden gaffe] Accessed March 25, 2010</ref>
 
* On May 3, 2010, Canadian senator [[Nancy Ruth]] advised representatives of women's groups to "shut the fuck up on" access to abortion, in the run-up to the [[36th G8 summit]].<ref>[http://www.thestar.com/opinion/editorials/article/804529--what-s-behind-shut-the-f-up "What’s behind ‘shut the f--- up’ – thestar.com"]. www.thestar.com. Retrieved 2010-05-05.</ref>
 
 
===Use in marketing===
 
In April 1997, clothing retailer [[French Connection (clothing)|French Connection]] began branding their clothes "'''fcuk'''" (usually written in lowercase). Though they insisted it was an [[acronym]] for French Connection United Kingdom, its similarity to the word "fuck" caused controversy.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1258961.stm "Time called on FCUK posters"], ''BBC News'', 4 April 2001</ref> French Connection fully exploited this and produced an extremely popular range of t-shirts with messages such as "fcuk this", "hot as fcuk", "mile high fcuk", "fcuk me", "fcuk her", "too busy to fcuk", "fcuk football", "fcuk fashion", "fcuk fear", "fcuk on the beach", "the joy of fcuk", etc.
 
 
In 2009, the European Union's [[OHIM]] trade marks agency disallowed a German brewery to market a [[beer]] called "Fucking Hell". They sued, and on 26 March 2010 got permission to market the beer. They claim that it is actually named after the [[Austria]]n village [[Fucking, Austria|Fucking]] and the German term for light beer, hell.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rnw.nl/english/article/german-beer-can-call-itself-fking-hell |title=German beer can call itself fking hell |author= |date= |work= |publisher=RNW.nl |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
 
===Band names===
 
The word "fuck" has been used in a number of band names, generally based on common compounds. Although most of these bands are in the aggressive, non-mainstream genres of [[Punk rock|punk]] and [[Heavy metal music|metal]], others fall into the categories of more accessible forms of [[electronic rock]] and [[Pop music|pop]].{{Where|date=July 2011}}<ref name="exclaimmag">{{cite web| author= Sutherland, Sam | title= What the Fuck? Curse Word Band Names Challenge The Music Industry | url= http://www.exclaim.ca/articles/research.aspx?csid1=116| work = Exclaim! Magazine | year=2007| accessdate=2007-10-30}}</ref>
 
 
===Holy fuck===
 
"'''Holy fuck'''" is a widely used example of 'liturgical profanity' used interjectionally to express anger, contempt, disgust, or amazement. Usually vulgar.<ref name=0xford_slang>{{Cite book
 
| author = Ayto, J.
 
| coauthors = Simpson, J.
 
| year = 1992
 
| title = The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang
 
| publisher = Oxford University Press, USA
 
| isbn = 0-19-861052-1
 
}}</ref> Noted by academics<ref name=Impertinent_Gallop>{{Cite journal
 
| author = Gallop, J.
 
| year = 1980
 
| title = Impertinent Questions: Irigaray, Sade, Lacan
 
| jstor = 3683929
 
| journal = SubStance
 
| volume = 9
 
| issue = 1
 
| pages = 57–67
 
| doi = 10.2307/3683929
 
}}</ref><ref name=Fat_Rice>{{Cite journal
 
| author = Rice, C.
 
| year =
 
| title = Becoming the fat girl
 
| journal = Women, Health, AND Education: CASWE 6 THBi-Annual International Institute Proceedings
 
| url = http://www.med.mun.ca/comhealth/CASWE/pdf_docs/Proceedings_july22-06_diana.pdf#page=241
 
| accessdate = 2008-02-21
 
| quote =Sharon: I didn’t feel like a girl. Do girl things. I was not a girl, not a boy, just someone existing. Then compound that with being a black female. It's even worse ‘cause you feel, Jesus, I’m nowhere. ‘Cause it's bad enough being a white little girl and you’re fat. But when you’re fat and you’re black, it's like holy fuck. That's like the lowest. The worst thing you could ever be.
 
| page =249
 
}}</ref> and used in literature,<ref name=Crobsie>{{Cite book
 
| author = Crobsie, L.
 
| year = 1997
 
| title = Paul's Case: The Kingston Letters
 
| publisher = Insomniac Press
 
| isbn = 1-895837-09-X
 
}}</ref><ref name=Tested_Faith>{{Cite book
 
| author = Goodell, J.
 
| year = 2002
 
| title = Our Story: 77 Hours That Tested Our Friendship And Our Faith
 
| publisher = Hyperion
 
| quote = "... holyfuck, what is it? I yelled at Harpo, "Get the fuck out o here now! ..."
 
| isbn = 1-4013-0055-3
 
}}</ref><ref name=Shadow_worlds>{{Cite book
 
| author = Steffensmeier, D.J.
 
| year = 1986
 
| title = The Fence: In the Shadow of Two Worlds
 
| publisher = Rowman and Littlefield Publishers
 
| page = 60
 
| isbn =
 
}}</ref> deriving its power from a combination of the sacred, [[holy]], and the profane, fuck. An exclamation, similar to "[[shit|holy shit]]!", but more offensive, also used informally for sex within a religious context.{{Dubious|date=March 2008}}<ref name=Male_lust>{{Cite book
 
| author = Kay, K.
 
| coauthors = Nagle, J.; Gould, B.
 
| year = 2000
 
| title = Male Lust: Pleasure, Power, and Transformation
 
| publisher = Haworth Press
 
| isbn = 1-56023-982-4
 
| page =103
 
}}</ref>
 
 
===Machine mistranslation===
 
The word ''fuck'' occurs sometimes in Chinese/English bilingual public notices in China as a machine translation of the [[Simplified Chinese]] character [[干]] (干), which replaced the three [[Traditional Chinese]] characters 干 meaning "a pole", 幹 meaning "to do" or "to work", and 乾 meaning "dried". (Traditional Chinese 乾 can also be pronounced ''qian'', which is a [[Taoist]] stem word meaning "sky".) Some examples are "spread to fuck the fruit" for "loose dried fruit", "fuck to adjust the area" for "dry seasonings section", and "fuck the certain price of goods" for "dry foods price counter". The fault occurred in some versions of commonly-used Chinese to English [[machine translators]], for example Jinshan (金山 = "Gold Mountain") by [[Kingsoft]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/005195.html |title = Language Log: The Etiology and Elaboration of a Flagrant Mistranslation |accessdate = 2008-08-16 |date = December 9, 2007}}</ref>
 
 
===F-bomb===
 
The term "F-bomb" surfaced in newspapers more than 20 years ago{{when|date=September 2012}} and in 2012 was listed, for the first time, in the mainstream ''[[Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary]]''.<ref>{{cite web|last=Italie|first=Leanne|title=F-bomb makes it into mainstream dictionary|url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/aug/13/f-bomb-makes-it-mainstream-dictionary/|publisher=The Washington Times|accessdate=15 August 2012}}</ref>
 
 
==Censorship==
 
The films ''[[Ulysses (1967 film)|Ulysses]]'' and ''[[I'll Never Forget What's'isname]]'' (both [[1967 in film|1967]]) are contenders for being the first film to use the word 'fuck,' although the word 'fucking' is clearly mouthed silently in the film ''[[Sink the Bismarck!]]'' ([[1960 in film|1960]]), and the title character says it in the cartoon ''[[Bosko's Picture Show]]'' (1933). Since the U.S. adoption of the [[MPAA film rating system]], use of the word has been accepted in R-rated movies, and under the older rules, use of the word in a sexual way would automatically cause the film to be given an R rating. Later changes could allow for a maximum of three non-sexual and strictly exclamatory uses of the word in [[Motion Picture Association of America film rating system#The PG-13 rating is adopted|PG-13 movies]].{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}
 
 
On August 19, 1969 the [[acid rock]] band [[Jefferson Airplane]] played their song ''[[We Can Be Together]]'' uncensored on ''[[The Dick Cavett Show]]'', including the 60's countercultural slogan "Up against the wall, motherfucker!" (which was also [[Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers|the name of an anarchist group]] at that time). This was the first appearance of the word on U.S. television.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=1678 |title=We Can Be Together |publisher=Song Facts |date=1969-08-19 |accessdate=2014-01-13}}</ref>
 
 
In 1970, [[John Lennon]] successfully got the word past the censors on his song "[[Working Class Hero]]" with the lines "They hate you if you're clever and they despise a fool, till you're so fucking crazy you can't follow their rules" and "You think you're so clever and classless and free, but you're still fucking peasants as far as I can see."
 
 
Since the 1970s, the use of the word "fuck" in R-rated movies has become so commonplace in mainstream American movies that it is rarely noticed by most audiences. Nonetheless, a few movies have made exceptional use of the word, to the point where such films as [[Fuck (film)|''Fuck'']], ''[[Good Will Hunting]]'', ''[[Casino (film)|Casino]]'', ''[[The Last Detail]]'', ''[[Menace II Society]]'', ''[[The Big Lebowski]]'', ''[[The Departed]]'', ''[[Scarface (1983 movie)|Scarface]]'' ([[1983 in film|1983]]), ''[[Pulp Fiction (film)|Pulp Fiction]]'', ''Blue Velvet'', ''[[South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut]]'', ''[[Goodfellas]]'', and ''[[The Wolf of Wall Street (2013 film)|The Wolf of Wall Street]]'', as well as the [[HBO]] TV series ''[[The Sopranos]]'' are known for its extensive use. In the movie ''[[Meet the Parents]]'', and its sequels ''[[Meet the Fockers]]'' and ''[[Little Fockers]]'', the main character's last name of "Focker" is a running joke. In the popular comedy ''[[Four Weddings and a Funeral]]'', it is the chief word, repeatedly uttered, during the opening five minutes. In HBO's TV series ''[[The Wire]]'', Season 1, Episode 4, entitled "[[Old Cases]]," there is a long segment in which two homicide detectives, visiting a crime scene, communicate using only variations of the word "fuck". To many, one of the most humorous tirades demonstrating various usages of the word appears in the comedy, ''[[Planes, Trains & Automobiles]]'' ([[1987 in film|1987]]), where [[Steve Martin]] expresses his dissatisfaction in his treatment by a rental car agency. The movie ''[[Student Bodies]]'' inserted a scene in the middle of the film to explain to audiences that movies with an R rating are more popular than those carrying a PG rating, which the movie could easily have had. He ends his address with, " ... the producers of this motion picture have asked me to take this opportunity to say 'Fuck you'", at which time the MPAA R-rating banner appeared.
 
 
In several PG-rated movies, however, the word is used, mainly because at the time there was no PG-13 rating and the MPAA did not want to give the films R ratings; for instance, ''[[All the President's Men (film)|All the President's Men]]'' ([[1976 in film|1976]]), where it is used seven times; ''[[The Kids Are Alright (film)|The Kids Are Alright]]'' ([[1979 in film|1979]]), where it is used twice; and ''[[The Right Stuff (film)|The Right Stuff]]'' ([[1983 in film|1983]]), where it is used five times. ''[[Spaceballs]]'' ([[1987 in film|1987]]) is one of at least four anomalies in that it was rated PG after the 1984 introduction of the PG-13 rating, yet it includes [[Dark Helmet]]'s line, "'Out of order'?! Fuck! Even in the future nothing works!" The second is ''[[Big (film)|Big]]'' ([[1988 in film|1988]]) which has the character of Billy asking Tom Hanks' character, "Who the fuck do you think you are?" The third is ''[[Beetlejuice]]'' ([[1988 in film|1988]]) which has the character Betelgeuse kick over a fake tree and scream, "nice fucking model!"<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0094721/quotes |title=? |author= |date= |work= |publisher=[[IMDb.com]] |accessdate=11 August 2010}}</ref> The fourth is 1988's [[Caddyshack II]] where [[Randy Quaid]]'s character shouts out he is going to break down a door with a "fucking baseball bat."
 
 
In the [[1999 in film|1999]] film "[[Galaxy Quest]]," [[Sigourney Weaver]]'s character Gwen DeMarco is edited from the line "Well, fuck that!" to "Well, screw that!" The change was made to avoid a PG-13 rating, and the original line is obvious when reading her lips.
 
 
Films edited for broadcast use matching [[euphemism]]s so that [[lip synch]]ing will not be thrown off. One televised version of [[Quentin Tarantino]]'s ''[[Jackie Brown (movie)|Jackie Brown]]'', for instance, had the actors dub in the words ''frick'', ''Nubian'', and ''melon farmer'' for ''fuck'', ''[[nigger]]'', and ''[[motherfucker]]'', respectively. In similarly dubbed versions of ''[[Die Hard]]'' and ''[[Die Hard 2: Die Harder|Die Hard 2]],'' [[Bruce Willis]]' catchphrase "Yippee-ki-yay, [[motherfucker]]" is replaced by "Yippee-ki-yay, Mister Falcon" or "Yippee-ki-yay, [[Kemo Sabe]]." Similarly, the TV broadcast edit of ''[[Snakes on a Plane]]'' has [[Samuel L. Jackson]] saying "I have had it with these monkey-fighting snakes on this Monday-to-Friday plane," emending two occurrences of ''motherfucking''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stltoday.com/blogzone/joes-movie-lounge/joes-movie-lounge/2009/07/the-jonas-brothers-to-star-ina-movie-about-a-flatulent-canine/ |title=The Jonas Brothers to star in a movie about a flatulent canine |author= |date= |work= |publisher= |accessdate=}}</ref> In the film ''[[The Big Lebowski]]'', [[John Goodman]]'s character repeatedly yells, "This is what happens when you fuck a stranger in the ass" while trashing a car. It was infamously censored on television as "This is what happens when you find a stranger in the Alps."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/22717626/lebowski_on_the_web |title=Lebowski on the web |author= |date= |work= |publisher=Rolling Stone |accessdate=}}</ref> His character also repeatedly says to [[Steve Buscemi]]'s character, "Shut the fuck up, Donny," or "Donny, shut the fuck up." In the television version, ''fuck'' is censored with ''hell.''
 
 
Many [[stand-up comedy|stand-up comedians]] who perform for adult audiences make liberal use of the word ''fuck''. While [[George Carlin]]'s use of the word was an important part of his stage persona, other comedians (such as [[Andrew Dice Clay]]) have been accused of substituting vulgarity and offensiveness for genuine creativity through overuse of the word. [[Billy Connolly]] and [[Lenny Bruce]] were pioneers of the use of the word in their shows for general audiences.
 
 
Recently, the hip-hop group [[Black Eyed Peas]]' hit song "[[Don't Phunk With My Heart]]" was only played on many radio stations in an edited version, "Don't Mess With My Heart." [[James Blunt]]'s first major song, ''[[You're Beautiful]]'', featured the line "she could see from my face that I was fucking high" – this was censored to "flying high" for broadcasting purposes.
 
 
===Freedom of expression===
 
In 1971, the [[United States Supreme Court|U.S. Supreme Court]] decided that the mere public display of ''fuck'' is protected under the [[First Amendment to the United States Constitution|First]] and [[Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Fourteenth Amendments]] and cannot be made a criminal offense. In 1968, Paul Robert Cohen had been convicted of "disturbing the peace" for wearing a jacket with "FUCK THE DRAFT" on it (in reference to conscription in the [[Vietnam War]]). The conviction was upheld by the Court of Appeals and overturned by the Supreme Court. ''[[Cohen v. California]]'', ''403 U.S. 15'' (1971).
 
 
In 1983, pornographer [[Larry Flynt]], representing himself before the U.S. Supreme Court in a [[libel]] case, shouted, "Fuck this court!" during the proceedings, and then called the justices "nothing but eight [[asshole]]s (referring to Justices [[Warren E. Burger]], [[William J. Brennan, Jr.]], [[Byron White]], [[Thurgood Marshall]], [[Harry Blackmun]], [[Lewis F. Powell, Jr.]], [[William Rehnquist]], and [[John Paul Stevens]]) and a token [[cunt]]" (referring to Justice [[Sandra Day O'Connor]]). Chief Justice Warren E. Burger had him arrested for [[contempt of court]], but the charge was later dismissed on a technicality.<ref>David Bowman, "[http://dir.salon.com/story/books/int/2004/07/08/flynt/index.html Citizen Flynt]", Salon.com, 8 July 2004.</ref>
 
 
==Common alternatives==
 
{{Main|Minced oath}}
 
 
In conversation or writing, reference to or use of the word ''fuck'' may be replaced by any of many alternative words or phrases, including "the F-word" or "the F-bomb" (a play on "[[atomic bomb|A-bomb]]" and "[[hydrogen bomb|H-bomb]]"), or simply, ''eff'' (as in "What the eff!" or "You effing fool!"). Also, there are many commonly used substitutes, such as ''flipping'', ''frigging'', ''fricking'', ''freaking'', ''[[feck]]'', ''fudge'' or any of a number of similar sounding nonsense words. In print, there are alternatives such as, "F***", "F––k", etc.; or a string of non-[[alphanumeric]] characters, for example, "@$#*%!" and similar (especially favored in [[comic book]]s).{{citation needed|date=June 2012}}
 
 
A common replacement word used mainly on the Internet is "[[fsck]]", derived from the name of the Unix '''f'''ile '''s'''ystem '''c'''hec'''k'''ing utility.<ref>*'''2002''', David D. Huff Jr., ''Re: Mandrake 8.2 Musings'', <tt>alt.os.linux.mandrake</tt>, [http://groups.google.com/group/alt.os.linux.mandrake/msg/3641a310fcc6ed93?dmode=source Google Groups] "At some point in your Linux career you should ask yourself: 'If there are 3.4&nbsp;million successful, happy Mandrake users...what the '''fsck''' is wrong with me?'"</ref> In ''[[Battlestar Galactica]]'' the bowdlerized form '[[Frak (expletive)|Frack]]' (spelt '[[Frak (expletive)|Frak]]' in the [[Battlestar Galactica (reimagining)|reimagined 2003 version]]) was used as a substitute for fuck. The word is sometimes jokingly used as a curse by fans, but its use in unrelated media is growing.<ref>{{Cite news|work=Associated Press|title=What the `frak'? Faux curse seeping into language |first=Chris |last=Talbott |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/09/02/entertainment/e084605D27.DTL |date=2008-10-20}}</ref> Similarly, the word "frell" is used as a substitute on the TV show [[Farscape]], and Dr. [[Elliot Reid]] (played by [[Sarah Chalke]]) has frequently used the substitute "frick" on the TV show ''[[Scrubs (TV series)|Scrubs]]''.
 
 
The phrase ''[[feck]]'' is a common substitute for ''fuck'' in Ireland, where it is considered to be less rude, though still not acceptable in many contexts. It has come into occasional use across the UK in the last 15 years as a result of its frequent use in the ''[[Father Ted]]'' comedy series. Although the word is considered to be equally as rude as ''fuck'', its appearance in ''Father Ted'' and in a [[Magner's Cider]] advert suggest the opposite.
 
 
The word ''[[firetruck]]'' is also used as an alternative, starting with "f" and ending with "-uck".
 
 
Using the [[phonetic alphabet (military)|phonetic alphabet]], "foxtrot uniform charlie kilo" is sometimes used.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}
 
 
==See also==
 
{{div col|2}}
 
* [[Bleep censor]]
 
* [[Censorship]]
 
* [[Finger (gesture)]], a related hand gesture
 
* [[For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge]], also known as F.U.C.K., 1991 album by American rock band Van Halen
 
* [[Four-letter word]]
 
* [[Fuck (film)|Fuck]], documentary film about the word
 
* [[Fuck: Word Taboo and Protecting Our First Amendment Liberties]]
 
* [[Fucking, Austria]] (name of a village)
 
* [[Harcourt interpolation]]
 
* [[John le Fucker]]
 
* [[List of films that most frequently use the word "fuck"]]
 
* [[Madonna on Late Show with David Letterman|Madonna on ''Late Show with David Letterman'']]
 
* [[Profanity]]
 
** [[:Category:Profanity by language|Profanity by language]]
 
** [[Profanity in American Sign Language]]
 
** [[:Category:Profanity|Profanity in English language]]
 
** [[Profanity in science fiction]]
 
* [[Seven dirty words]]
 
* [[Sexual slang]]
 
{{div col end}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*{{cite book|first=Christopher M.|last=Fairman|authorlink=Christopher M. Fairman|title=[[Fuck: Word Taboo and Protecting Our First Amendment Liberties]]|publisher=Sphinx Publishing|year=2009|isbn=1572487119}}
 
*Hargrave, Andrea Millwood (2000). [http://scholar.googleusercontent.com/scholar?q=cache:Km1AR8MNrjUJ:scholar.google.com/+delete+expletives+hargrave&hl=en&as_sdt=0,14 Delete Expletives?] London: Advertising Standards Authority, British Broadcasting Corporation, Broadcasting Standards Commission, Independent Television Commission.
 
*[[Jesse Sheidlower]], ''The F Word'' (1999) ISBN 0-375-70634-8. Presents hundreds of uses of ''fuck'' and related words.
 
*[[Michael Swan (writer)|Michael Swan]], ''Practical English Usage'', [[Oxford University Press]], 1995, ISBN 0-19-431198-8.
 
*[[Wayland Young]], ''Eros Denied: Sex in Western Society''. Grove Press/Zebra Books, New York 1964.
 
*[[Carl Jung]], ''Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido''. Moffat, Yard and Company, New York 1916. Translated by [[Beatrice M. Hinkle]], M.D., Neurological Dept. of [[Cornell University Medical School]] and of the New York Post Graduate Medical School.
 
*[[Richard Dooling]], ''Blue Streak: Swearing, Free Speech & Sexual Harassment,'' (1996) ISBN 0-679-44471-8. Chapters on famous swear words, including the f-word, and the laws pertaining to their use.
 
*[[FUCK (film)|Fuck]] – documentary film by Steve Anderson ([[THINKFilm]] 2005)
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Spoken Wikipedia|Fuck wiki audio.ogg |2006-08-04}}
 
{{Wiktionary|fuck}}
 
{{commons category|Fuck}}
 
* [http://slate.msn.com/id// Re: the Cheney-Leahy incident, slate.com] discusses how American newspapers decide whether or not to print ''fuck''.
 
* [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=fuck&searchmode=none "Online Etymology Dictionary."] Some etymological research on the word ''fuck''.
 
* [http://ssrn.com/abstract=896790 Fuck], academic paper exploring the legal implications of the word, by [[Christopher M. Fairman]], [[Ohio State University]] – [[Moritz College of Law|Michael E. Moritz College of Law]] March 2006. Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No. 59.
 
* [http://www.archive.org/details/JackWagnerattr.MontyPythontheWordFuck Archive.org] – [[Jack Wagner (announcer)|Jack Wagner]], "The Word Fuck".
 
 
{{Sexual slang}}
 
 
[[Category:Interjections]]
 
[[Category:Profanity]]
 
[[Category:Sex]]
 
[[Category:Sexual slang]]
 
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