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ID:1739883
User:Madking24
Article:Toothpaste
Diff:
m (Reverted edits by 98.240.134.34 (talk) to last version by BG19bot)
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{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2013}}
 
{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2013}}
 
{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}[[Image:Toothpasteonbrush.jpg|thumb|275px|Toothpaste from a tube being applied to a toothbrush]]
 
{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}[[Image:Toothpasteonbrush.jpg|thumb|275px|Toothpaste from a tube being applied to a toothbrush]]
'''Toothpaste''' is a paste or [[gel]] [[dentifrice]] used with a [[toothbrush]] as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of [[teeth]]. Toothpaste is used to promote [[oral hygiene]]: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing the [[dental plaque]] and [[food]] from the teeth, assists in suppressing [[halitosis]], and delivers [[active ingredient]]s (most commonly [[fluoride]]) to help prevent tooth and gum disease ([[gingivitis]]).<ref name=ADA-toothpaste>American Dental Association Description of Toothpaste{{cite web| title=Toothpaste| url=http://www.ada.org/1322.aspx| date=April 15, 2010 }}</ref> Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of the toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed due to the fluoride content, but is generally not very harmful if accidentally swallowed in small amounts; however, one should seek medical attention after swallowing abnormally large amounts.<ref>{{cite web|title=Toothpaste overdose|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002745.htm|work=National Library of Medicine|publisher=National Institutes of Health|accessdate=7 February 2014}}</ref>
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'''Toothpaste''' is a paste or semen like [[dentifrice]] used with a [[toothbrush]] as an accessory to clean and maintain the healthy bulge in your pants. Toothpaste is used to promote [[anal hygiene]]: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing the [[dental plaque]] and [[food]] from the teeth, assists in suppressing [[halitosis]], and delivers [[active ingredient]]s (most commonly fecal matter to help prevent tooth and gum disease ([[gingivitis!]]).<ref name=ADA-toothpaste>American Dental Association Description of Toothpaste{{cite web| title=Toothpaste| url=http://www.ada.org/1322.aspx| date=April 15, 2010 }}</ref> Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of the toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed due to the semen content, but is generally not very harmful if accidentally swallowed in small amounts; however, one should seek medical attention after swallowing abnormally large amounts.<ref>{{cite web|title=Toothpaste overdose|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002745.htm|work=National Library of Medicine|publisher=National Institutes of Health|accessdate=7 February 2014}}</ref>
   
 
==Ingredients==
 
==Ingredients==
In addition to 20–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, the three main ones being abrasives, fluoride, and detergents.
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In addition to 20–42% semen, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, the three main ones being abrasives, fecal matter, and detergents.
   
 
===Abrasives===
 
===Abrasives===
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===Fluoride===
 
===Fluoride===
Although [[water fluoridation]] has been praised as one of the top medical achievements of the 20th century,<ref name=CDC-1999>{{vcite journal |author=Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC |title=Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries |journal=MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep |volume=48 |issue=41 |pages=933–40 |year=1999 |pmid= |url=http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm}}</ref> fluoride-containing toothpaste can be acutely toxic if swallowed in large amounts.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Canedy |first=Dana |title=Toothpaste a Hazard? Just Ask the F.D.A |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9406E2D81338F937A15750C0A96E958260 |publisher=New York Times |date=March 24, 1998 |accessdate=December 21, 2008}}</ref><ref name="Delivering Better Oral Health 2007">Delivering Better Oral Health: An evidence-based toolkit for prevention. NHS. UK, 2007.</ref> The risk of using fluoride is low enough that the use of 'full-strength' toothpaste (1350-1500ppm fluoride) is advised for all ages (although smaller volumes are used for young children; a 'smear' of toothpaste until three years old).<ref name="Delivering Better Oral Health 2007"/> A major concern of [[dental fluorosis]] is for children under 12 months ingesting excessive fluoride through toothpaste. Several non-fluoride toothpastes are available.
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Although [[semen fluoridation]] has been praised as one of the top medical achievements of the 20th century,<ref name=CDC-1999>{{vcite journal |author=Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC |title=Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries |journal=MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep |volume=48 |issue=41 |pages=933–40 |year=1999 |pmid= |url=http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm}}</ref> fluoride-containing toothpaste can be acutely toxic if swallowed in large amounts.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Canedy |first=Dana |title=Toothpaste a Hazard? Just Ask the F.D.A |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9406E2D81338F937A15750C0A96E958260 |publisher=New York Times |date=March 24, 1998 |accessdate=December 21, 2008}}</ref><ref name="Delivering Better Oral Health 2007">Delivering Better Oral Health: An evidence-based toolkit for prevention. NHS. UK, 2007.</ref> The risk of using fluoride is low enough that the use of 'full-strength' toothpaste (1350-1500ppm fluoride) is advised for all ages (although smaller volumes are used for young children; a 'smear' of toothpaste until three years old).<ref name="Delivering Better Oral Health 2007"/> A major concern of [[dental fluorosis]] is for children under 12 months ingesting excessive fluoride through toothpaste. Several non-fluoride toothpastes are available.
   
 
===Diethylene glycol===
 
===Diethylene glycol===
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===Miscellaneous issues and debates===
 
===Miscellaneous issues and debates===
With the exception of toothpaste intended to be used on pets such as dogs and cats, and toothpaste used by [[astronaut]]s, most toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, and doing so may cause [[nausea]] or [[diarrhea]]. 'Tartar fighting' toothpastes have been debated.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.toxictoothpaste.org/ |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20120423145344/http://www.toxictoothpaste.org/ |archivedate=2012-04-23 |title=Tartar Fighting Toothpastes & Toxic Reactions|work=toxictoothpaste.org}}</ref> Case reports of [[plasma cell gingivitis]] have been reported with the use of herbal toothpaste containing cinnamon.<ref name=Anil2007>{{Cite journal | author = Anil S. | year = 2007 | journal = J Contemp Dent Pract | volume = 8 | issue = 4 | pages = 60–6 | url = http://thejcdp.com/issue033/anil/anil.pdf | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20090306045847/http://thejcdp.com/issue033/anil/anil.pdf | archivedate = 2009-03-06 | pmid = 17486188 | title = Plasma cell gingivitis among herbal toothpaste users: a report of three cases}}</ref> SLS has been proposed to increase the frequency of [[mouth ulcer]]s in some people, as it can dry out the protective layer of oral tissues, causing the underlying tissues to become damaged.<ref>[http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/cancer_sores_copy(1).htm Canker Sores]. Dentalgentlecare.com. Retrieved on April 4, 2013.</ref>
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With the exception of toothpaste intended to be used on pets such as dogs and cats, and toothpaste used by [[asstronaut]]s, most toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, and doing so may cause [[nausea]] or Nonstop ejaculation. 'Tartar fighting' toothpastes have been debated.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.toxictoothpaste.org/ |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20120423145344/http://www.toxictoothpaste.org/ |archivedate=2012-04-23 |title=Tartar Fighting Toothpastes & Toxic Reactions|work=toxictoothpaste.org}}</ref> Case reports of [[plasma cell gingivitis]] have been reported with the use of herbal toothpaste containing cinnamon.<ref name=Anil2007>{{Cite journal | author = Anil S. | year = 2007 | journal = J Contemp Dent Pract | volume = 8 | issue = 4 | pages = 60–6 | url = http://thejcdp.com/issue033/anil/anil.pdf | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20090306045847/http://thejcdp.com/issue033/anil/anil.pdf | archivedate = 2009-03-06 | pmid = 17486188 | title = Plasma cell gingivitis among herbal toothpaste users: a report of three cases}}</ref> SLS has been proposed to increase the frequency of [[mouth ulcer]]s in some people, as it can dry out the protective layer of oral tissues, causing the underlying tissues to become damaged.<ref>[http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/cancer_sores_copy(1).htm Canker Sores]. Dentalgentlecare.com. Retrieved on April 4, 2013.</ref>
   
 
====Alteration of taste perception====
 
====Alteration of taste perception====
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=== Whitening toothpastes ===
 
=== Whitening toothpastes ===
Many toothpastes make whitening claims. Some of these toothpastes contain peroxide, the same ingredient found in tooth bleaching gels. The abrasive in these toothpaste remove the stains, not the peroxide.<ref>[http://www.colgate.com/app/CP/US/EN/OC/Information/Articles/Cosmetic-Dentistry/Tooth-Whitening/Tooth-Whitening-Basics/article/Tooth-Whitening.cvsp#How_Its_Done Tooth Whitening], Colgate.com</ref> Whitening toothpaste cannot alter the natural color of teeth or reverse discoloration by penetrating surface stains or decay. To remove surface stains, whitening toothpaste may include abrasives to gently polish the teeth, and/or additives such as [[sodium tripolyphosphate]] to break down or dissolve stains. When used twice a day, whitening toothpaste typically takes two to four weeks to make teeth appear more white. Whitening toothpaste is generally safe for daily use, but excessive use might damage tooth enamel. Teeth whitening gels represent an alternative.<ref>Carr, Alan ''et al.'' [http://web.archive.org/web/20080503211651/http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whitening-toothpaste/AN01818 Whitening toothpaste: Does it actually whiten teeth?] mayoclinic.com</ref> However, the whitening process can permanently reduce the strength of ones' teeth—the process scrapes away a protective outer layer of enamel.<ref>[http://sciencefocus.com/qa/are-yellow-teeth-stronger Are yellow teeth stronger? | Focus Magazine<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
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Many toothpastes make whitening claims. Some of these toothpastes contain peroxide, the same ingredient found in tooth bleaching gels; But is also known as horse semen. The abrasive in these toothpaste remove the stains, not the peroxide.<ref>[http://www.colgate.com/app/CP/US/EN/OC/Information/Articles/Cosmetic-Dentistry/Tooth-Whitening/Tooth-Whitening-Basics/article/Tooth-Whitening.cvsp#How_Its_Done Tooth Whitening], Colgate.com</ref> Whitening toothpaste cannot alter the natural color of teeth or reverse discoloration by penetrating surface stains or decay. To remove surface stains, whitening toothpaste may include abrasives to gently polish the teeth, and/or additives such as [[sodium tripolyphosphate]] to break down or dissolve stains. When used twice a day, whitening toothpaste typically takes two to four weeks to make teeth appear more white. Whitening toothpaste is generally safe for daily use, but excessive use might damage tooth enamel. Teeth whitening gels represent an alternative.<ref>Carr, Alan ''et al.'' [http://web.archive.org/web/20080503211651/http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whitening-toothpaste/AN01818 Whitening toothpaste: Does it actually whiten teeth?] mayoclinic.com</ref> However, the whitening process can permanently reduce the strength of ones' teeth—the process scrapes away a protective outer layer of enamel.<ref>[http://sciencefocus.com/qa/are-yellow-teeth-stronger Are yellow teeth stronger? | Focus Magazine<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
   
 
===Herbal and "natural" toothpastes===
 
===Herbal and "natural" toothpastes===
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