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User:121.45.25.46
Article:Porcelain
Diff:
(Chinese porcelain)
(Tag: section blanking)
(Types)
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[[William Cookworthy]] discovered deposits of kaolin clay in [[Cornwall]], making a considerable contribution to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom. Cookworthy's [[Plymouth Porcelain|factory at Plymouth]], established in 1768, used kaolin clay and [[china stone]] to make porcelain with a body composition similar to that of the Chinese porcelains of the early eighteenth century.
 
[[William Cookworthy]] discovered deposits of kaolin clay in [[Cornwall]], making a considerable contribution to the development of porcelain and other whiteware ceramics in the United Kingdom. Cookworthy's [[Plymouth Porcelain|factory at Plymouth]], established in 1768, used kaolin clay and [[china stone]] to make porcelain with a body composition similar to that of the Chinese porcelains of the early eighteenth century.
   
== Types ==
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[[File:Ming Dynasty porcelain vase, Wanli Reign Period (2).JPG|thumb|175px|[[Ming Dynasty]] porcelain vase from the Wanli Emperor reign (1572-1620)]]
 
[[File:Transparent porcelain.jpg|thumb|175px|Demonstration of the translucent quality of porcelain]]
 
Porcelain can be divided into the three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china depending on the composition of the paste, the material used to form the body of a porcelain object and the firing conditions.
 
 
=== Hard paste ===
 
{{main|Hard-paste porcelain}}
 
 
These porcelains that came from East Asia, especially China, were some of the finest quality porcelain wares. The earliest European porcelains were produced at the [[Meissen porcelain|Meissen factory]] in the early 18th century; they were formed from a paste composed of [[kaolin]] and [[alabaster]] and fired at temperatures up to {{convert|1400|°C|°F|0}} in a wood-fired kiln, producing a porcelain of great hardness, translucency, and strength.<ref name=richards/> Later, the composition of the Meissen hard paste was changed and the alabaster was replaced by [[feldspar]] and [[quartz]], allowing the pieces to be fired at lower temperatures. Kaolinite, feldspar and quartz (or other forms of [[silica]]) continue to provide the basic ingredients for most continental European hard-paste porcelains.
 
 
=== Soft paste ===
 
{{main|Soft-paste porcelain}}
 
Soft-paste porcelains date back from the early attempts by European potters to replicate Chinese porcelain by using mixtures of clay and ground-up glass (frit) to produce soft-paste porcelain. Soapstone and lime were known to have been included in these compositions. These wares were not yet actual porcelain wares as they were not hard and vitrified by firing [[kaolin]] clay at high temperatures. As these early formulations suffered from high pyroplastic deformation, or slumping in the kiln at raised temperature, they were uneconomic to produce and of low quality. Formulations were later developed based on kaolin clay with quartz, feldspars, nepheline syenite or other feldspathic rocks. These were technically superior and continue in production. Soft-paste porcelains are fired at lower temperatures than hard-paste porcelain, therefore these are in general less hard than hard-paste porcelains.<ref name=reed/><ref>{{cite book|title=The Old China Book|year=1903|isbn=978-1-4344-7727-9|page=7|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1W96CstNfEgC|author=N. Hudson Moore}}</ref>
 
 
=== Bone china ===
 
{{main|Bone China}}
 
Although originally developed in England since 1748<ref name=strumpf>{{cite book|last=Strumpf|first=Faye|title=Limoges boxes: A complete guide|year=2000|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=RKaRJHFUK-wC|publisher=Krause Publications|location=Iola, WI|isbn=978-0-87341-837-9|page=125}}</ref> to compete with imported porcelain, [[bone china]] is now made worldwide. The English{{clarify|date=December 2013}} had read the letters of [[Jesuit]] missionary [[Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles]], which described Chinese porcelain manufacturing secrets in detail.<ref name=burton/> One writer has speculated that a misunderstanding of the text could possibly have been responsible for the first attempts to use bone-ash as an ingredient of English porcelain,<ref name=burton/> although this is not supported by researchers and historians.<ref>''Science Of Early English Porcelain''. Freestone I C. Sixth Conference and Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society. Extended Abstracts. Vol.1 Brighton, 20–24 June 1999, pg.11-17</ref><ref>''The Special Appeal Of Bone China''. Cubbon R C P.Tableware Int. 11, (9), 30, 1981</ref><ref>''All About Bone China''. Cubbon R C P. Tableware Int. 10, (9), 34, 1980</ref><ref>''Spode's Bone China - Progress In Processing Without Compromise In Quality''. George R T; Forbes D; Plant P. Ceram. Ind. 115, (6), 32, 1980</ref><ref>''An Introduction To The Technology Of Pottery''. Paul Rado. Institute of Ceramics & Pergamon Press, 1988</ref> In China, kaolin clay was sometimes described as forming the ''bones'' of the paste, while the ''flesh'' was provided by the refined rocks suitable for the porcelain body.<ref name=reed>{{cite book|last=Reed|first=Cleota|title=Syracuse China|year=1997|publisher=Syracuse University Press|location=Syracuse, N.Y.|isbn=978-0-8156-0474-7|pages=51–52|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=O4DcYxsoKjwC|coauthors=Skoczen; Stan}}</ref><ref name=burton>{{cite book|last=Burton|first=William|pages=18–19|title=Porcelain, Its Nature, Art and Manufacture|location=London|url=http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924089530079#page/n31/mode/2up}}</ref> Traditionally English bone china was made from two parts of bone-ash, one part of [[kaolin]] clay and one part [[china stone]], although this has largely been replaced by feldspars from non-UK sources.<ref>Changes & Developments Of Non-plastic Raw Materials. Sugden A. International Ceramics Issue 2 2001.</ref>
 
   
 
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