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Article:Victorian era
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m (Reverted edits by 65.60.108.242 (talk) to last version by Keith D)
(Population in the Victorian era)
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During the early part of the era, the [[House of Commons of the United Kingdom|House of Commons]] was headed by the two parties, the [[Whig (British political faction)|Whigs]] and the [[British Tory party|Tories]]. From the late 1850s onwards, the Whigs became the [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberals]]; the Tories became the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservatives]]. These parties were led by many prominent statesmen including [[William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne|Lord Melbourne]], Sir [[Robert Peel]], [[Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby|Lord Derby]], [[Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston|Lord Palmerston]], [[William Ewart Gladstone]], [[Benjamin Disraeli]], and [[Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury|Lord Salisbury]]. The unsolved problems relating to [[Irish Home Rule bills|Irish Home Rule]] played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement. Southern Ireland achieved independence in 1922.
 
During the early part of the era, the [[House of Commons of the United Kingdom|House of Commons]] was headed by the two parties, the [[Whig (British political faction)|Whigs]] and the [[British Tory party|Tories]]. From the late 1850s onwards, the Whigs became the [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberals]]; the Tories became the [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservatives]]. These parties were led by many prominent statesmen including [[William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne|Lord Melbourne]], Sir [[Robert Peel]], [[Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby|Lord Derby]], [[Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston|Lord Palmerston]], [[William Ewart Gladstone]], [[Benjamin Disraeli]], and [[Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury|Lord Salisbury]]. The unsolved problems relating to [[Irish Home Rule bills|Irish Home Rule]] played a great part in politics in the later Victorian era, particularly in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement. Southern Ireland achieved independence in 1922.
   
==Population in the Victorian era==
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The Victorian era was a time of unprecedented demographic increase in England. The population rose from 13.9 million in 1831 to 32.5 million in 1901. Two major factors affecting population growth are fertility rates and mortality rates. England was the first country to undergo the [[Demographic transition]] and the [[British Agricultural Revolution|Agricultural]] and [[Industrial Revolution]]s.
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[[File:James Pollard - The Louth-London Royal Mail Travelling by Train from Peterborough East, Northamptonshire - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|230px|The Louth-London [[Royal Mail]] travelling by train from [[Peterborough East railway station|Peterborough East]], 1845]]
 
   
 
Britain had the lead in rapid economic and population growth. At the time, [[Thomas Robert Malthus|Thomas Malthus]] believed this lack of growth outside Britain was due to the '[[Malthusian trap]]'. That is, was the tendency of a population to expand geometrically while resources grew more slowly, reaching a crisis (such as famine, war, or epidemic) would reduce the population to a sustainable size. Britain escaped the 'Malthusian trap' because the Industrial Revolution had a positive impact on living standards.<ref name=EssayEL>"Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population: Library of Economics" (description), Liberty Fund, Inc., 2000, ''EconLib.org'' webpage: [http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Malthus/malPop.html EconLib-MalPop].</ref> People had more money and could improve their standards; therefore, a population increase was sustainable.
 
Britain had the lead in rapid economic and population growth. At the time, [[Thomas Robert Malthus|Thomas Malthus]] believed this lack of growth outside Britain was due to the '[[Malthusian trap]]'. That is, was the tendency of a population to expand geometrically while resources grew more slowly, reaching a crisis (such as famine, war, or epidemic) would reduce the population to a sustainable size. Britain escaped the 'Malthusian trap' because the Industrial Revolution had a positive impact on living standards.<ref name=EssayEL>"Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population: Library of Economics" (description), Liberty Fund, Inc., 2000, ''EconLib.org'' webpage: [http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Malthus/malPop.html EconLib-MalPop].</ref> People had more money and could improve their standards; therefore, a population increase was sustainable.
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Fertility rates in the Victorian era increased every decade until 1901 when the rates started evening out.{{citation needed|date=April 2011}} There are several reasons for the increase in birth rates. One reason is biological. With living standards improving, the percentage of women who were able to have children increased. Another possible explanation is social. In the 19th century, the marriage rate increased, and the age people were getting married was very young until the end of the 19th century, when the average age of marriage started to increase again slowly. Reasons why people got married younger and more frequently are uncertain. One theory is that greater prosperity allowed people to finance marriage and new households earlier than previously possible. With more births inside marriage it seems inevitable that marriage rates and birth rates would rise together.
 
Fertility rates in the Victorian era increased every decade until 1901 when the rates started evening out.{{citation needed|date=April 2011}} There are several reasons for the increase in birth rates. One reason is biological. With living standards improving, the percentage of women who were able to have children increased. Another possible explanation is social. In the 19th century, the marriage rate increased, and the age people were getting married was very young until the end of the 19th century, when the average age of marriage started to increase again slowly. Reasons why people got married younger and more frequently are uncertain. One theory is that greater prosperity allowed people to finance marriage and new households earlier than previously possible. With more births inside marriage it seems inevitable that marriage rates and birth rates would rise together.
   
Birth rates were originally measured by the '[[Crude birth rate]]'&nbsp;– births per year in population per every thousand people. This is thought not to be accurate enough as key groups and their fertility rates are not clear. It also does not take into account population changes, e.g., same number of births in a smaller population (if men go to war, etc.). It was then changed to be recorded by the 'Net Reproduction Rate' that only measured the fertility rate of women who were capable of giving birth.
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Birth rates were originally measured by the '[[Crude birth rate]]'&nbsposmdmmekkdkdkkdkd;– births per year in population per every thousand people. This is thought not to be accurate enough as key groups and their fertility rates are not clear. It also does not take into account population changes, e.g., same number of births in a smaller population (if men go to war, etc.). It was then changed to be recorded by the 'Net Reproduction Rate' that only measured the fertility rate of women who were capable of giving birth.
   
 
The evening out of fertility rates at the beginning of the 20th century was mainly a result of a few big changes: forms of birth control became available, and people's attitude towards sex altered.<ref>Bradlaw and Besant published 'Fruits of Philosophy', which is a publication about birth control.</ref>
 
The evening out of fertility rates at the beginning of the 20th century was mainly a result of a few big changes: forms of birth control became available, and people's attitude towards sex altered.<ref>Bradlaw and Besant published 'Fruits of Philosophy', which is a publication about birth control.</ref>
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