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ID:1861593
User:24.102.47.58
Article:Egyptian temple
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(Religious)
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===Religious===
 
===Religious===
 
[[File:Seti before Amun.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Relief showing an ornately dressed Egyptian man reaching toward a male figure on a pedestal.|[[Low relief]] of [[Pharaoh]] [[Seti I]] performing rituals for the god [[Amun]]]]
 
[[File:Seti before Amun.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Relief showing an ornately dressed Egyptian man reaching toward a male figure on a pedestal.|[[Low relief]] of [[Pharaoh]] [[Seti I]] performing rituals for the god [[Amun]]]]
[[Ancient Egypt]]ian [[temple]]s were meant as places for the [[Egyptian pantheon|gods]] to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most commonly used to describe the temple building, ''ḥwt-nṯr'', means "mansion (or enclosure) of a god".<ref>Spencer 1984, p. 22, 44; Snape 1996, p. 9</ref> A god's [[Divine presence|presence]] in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual. These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of ''[[maat]]'', the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief.<ref>Dunand and Zivie-Coche 2005, pp. 89–91</ref> Maintaining ''maat'' was the entire purpose of [[Ancient Egyptian religion|Egyptian religion]],<ref>Assmann 2001, p. 4</ref> and it was the purpose of a temple as well.<ref>Shafer, Byron E., "Temples, Priests, and Rituals: An Overview", in Shafer 1997, pp. 1–2</ref>
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[[Ancient Egypt]]ian [[temple]]s were meant as places for the [[Egyptian pantheon|gods]] to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most commonly used to describe the temple building, ''ḥwt-nṯr'', means "mansion (or enclosure) of a god".<ref>Spencer 1984, p. 22, 44; Snape 1996, p. 9</ref> A god's [[Divine presence|presence]] in the temple the gods would come and eat bread, drink milk, and be merry, becoming linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual. These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature. They were therefore a key part of the maintenance of ''[[maat]]'', the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief.<ref>Dunand and Zivie-Coche 2005, pp. 89–91</ref> Maintaining ''maat'' was the entire purpose of [[Ancient Egyptian religion|Egyptian religion]],<ref>Assmann 2001, p. 4</ref> and it was the purpose of a temple as well.<ref>Shafer, Byron E., "Temples, Priests, and Rituals: An Overview", in Shafer 1997, pp. 1–2</ref>
   
 
Because he was credited with divine power himself,{{#tag:ref|Many Egyptologists, such as [[Wolfgang Helck]] and Dietrich Wildung, have argued that the Egyptians did not actually believe their kings were divine. Nevertheless, the divinity of the king is constantly emphasized in official writings: the products of the royal court and religious establishment. Therefore, regardless of whether ordinary Egyptians believed in it, the king's divine nature is key to the ideology of the Egyptian temple.<ref>Haeny, Gerhard, "New Kingdom 'Mortuary Temples' and 'Mansions of Millions of Years', in Shafer 1997, pp. 126, 281</ref>|group="Note"}} the [[pharaoh]], as a [[sacred king]], was regarded as Egypt's representative to the gods and its most important upholder of ''maat''.<ref>Shafer, Byron E., "Temples, Priests, and Rituals: An Overview", in Shafer 1997, p. 3</ref> Thus, it was theoretically his duty to perform the temple rites. While it is uncertain how often he actually participated in ceremonies, the existence of temples across Egypt made it impossible for him to do so in all cases, and most of the time these duties were delegated to priests. The pharaoh was nevertheless obligated to maintain, provide for, and expand the temples throughout his realm.<ref>Wilkinson 2000, pp. 8, 86</ref>
 
Because he was credited with divine power himself,{{#tag:ref|Many Egyptologists, such as [[Wolfgang Helck]] and Dietrich Wildung, have argued that the Egyptians did not actually believe their kings were divine. Nevertheless, the divinity of the king is constantly emphasized in official writings: the products of the royal court and religious establishment. Therefore, regardless of whether ordinary Egyptians believed in it, the king's divine nature is key to the ideology of the Egyptian temple.<ref>Haeny, Gerhard, "New Kingdom 'Mortuary Temples' and 'Mansions of Millions of Years', in Shafer 1997, pp. 126, 281</ref>|group="Note"}} the [[pharaoh]], as a [[sacred king]], was regarded as Egypt's representative to the gods and its most important upholder of ''maat''.<ref>Shafer, Byron E., "Temples, Priests, and Rituals: An Overview", in Shafer 1997, p. 3</ref> Thus, it was theoretically his duty to perform the temple rites. While it is uncertain how often he actually participated in ceremonies, the existence of temples across Egypt made it impossible for him to do so in all cases, and most of the time these duties were delegated to priests. The pharaoh was nevertheless obligated to maintain, provide for, and expand the temples throughout his realm.<ref>Wilkinson 2000, pp. 8, 86</ref>
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