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Article:Shirt
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[[Image:Charvet shirt.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Charvet Place Vendôme|Charvet]] shirt from the 1930s, [[Norwegian Museum of Cultural History|Norsk Folkemeuseum]], Oslo]]
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A '''shirt''' is a cloth garment for the upper body. Originally an [[undergarment]] worn exclusively by men, it has become, in [[American English]], a catch-all term for a broad variety of upper-body garments and undergarments. In [[British English]], a shirt is more specifically a garment with a [[collar (clothing)|collar]], sleeves with [[cuff]]s, and a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps (North Americans would call that a "dress shirt", a specific type of "collared shirt"). A shirt can also be worn with a [[necktie]] under the shirt collar. In New Zealand a shirt is abbreviation for T-Shirt.
 
 
== History ==
 
The world's oldest preserved garment, discovered by [[Flinders Petrie]], is a "highly sophisticated" linen shirt from a First Dynasty Egyptian tomb at [[Tarkhan (Egypt)|Tarkan]], c. 3000 BC: "the shoulders and sleeves have been finely pleated to give form-fitting trimness while allowing the wearer room to move. The small fringe formed during weaving along one edge of the cloth has been placed by the designer to decorate the neck opening and side seam."<ref>Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1994). ''Women's Work. The first 20,000 Years'', p.135.Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 0-393-31348-4</ref>
 
 
The shirt was an item of men's underwear until the twentieth century.<ref name="William L. Brown III 1999. p. 7">William L. Brown III, "Some Thoughts on Men's Shirts in America, 1750-1900", Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, PA 1999. ISBN 1-57747-048-6, p. 7</ref> Although the woman's [[chemise]] was a closely related garment to the man's,<ref>Dorothy K. Burnham, "Cut My Cote", Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario 1973. ISBN 0-88854-046-9, p. 14</ref> it is the man's garment that became the modern shirt. In the [[Middle Ages]], it was a plain, undyed garment worn next to the skin and under regular garments. In medieval artworks, the shirt is only visible (uncovered) on humble characters, such as [[shepherd]]s, prisoners, and [[Penance|penitents]].<ref>C. Willett and Phillis Cunnington, ''The History of Underclothes'', Dover Publications Inc., New York 1992. ISBN 0-486-27124-2 pp. 23–25</ref> In the seventeenth century, men's shirts were allowed to show, with much the same [[Eroticism|erotic]] import as visible underwear today.<ref>C. Willett and Phillis Cunnington, ''The History of Underclothes'', Dover Publications Inc., New York 1992. ISBN 0-486-27124-2 pp. 54</ref> In the eighteenth century, instead of underpants, men "relied on the long tails of shirts ... to serve the function of drawers.<ref>Linda Baumgarten, "What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America", The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia, in association with the [[Yale University Press]], New Haven, Connecticut 2002, ISBN 0-300-09580-5, p. 27</ref> Eighteenth-century costume historian [[Joseph Strutt (engraver and antiquary)|Joseph Strutt]] believed that men who did not wear shirts to bed were indecent.<ref>Linda Baumgarten, "What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America", The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia, in association with the [[Yale University Press]], New Haven, Connecticut 2002, ISBN 0-300-09580-5, pp. 20-22</ref> Even as late as 1879, a visible shirt with nothing over it was considered improper.<ref name="William L. Brown III 1999. p. 7"/>
 
 
The shirt sometimes had frills at the neck or cuffs. In the sixteenth century, men's shirts often had [[embroidery]], and sometimes frills or [[lace]] at the neck and cuffs,<ref>C. Willet and Phillis Cunnington, "The History of Underclothes", Dover Publications Inc., New York 1992. ISBN 0-486-27124-2 pp. 36–39</ref> and through the eighteenth century long neck frills, or [[Jabot (neckwear)|jabots]], were fashionable.<ref>C. Willet and Phillis Cunnington, "The History of Underclothes", Dover Publications Inc., New York 1992. ISBN 0-486-27124-2 pp. 73</ref> Coloured shirts began to appear in the early nineteenth century, as can be seen in the paintings of [[George Caleb Bingham]]. They were considered casual wear, for lower-class workers only, until the twentieth century. For a gentleman, "to wear a sky-blue shirt was unthinkable in 1860 but had become standard by 1920 and, in 1980, constituted the most commonplace event."<ref>Michel Pastoureau and Jody Gladding (translator), "The Devil's Cloth: A History of Stripes", Columbia University Press, New York 2001 ISBN 0-7434-5326-3, p. 65</ref>
 
 
European and American women began wearing shirts in 1860, when the [[Garibaldi shirt]], a red shirt as worn by the freedom fighters under [[Giuseppe Garibaldi]],<ref>Anne Buck, "Victorian Costume", Ruth Bean Publishers, Carlton, Bedford, England 1984. ISBN 0-903585-17-0</ref> was popularized by [[Eugénie de Montijo|Empress Eugénie]] of France.<ref>Young, Julia Ditto, "The Rise of the Shirt Waist", ''[[Good Housekeeping]]'', May 1902, pp. 354–357</ref> At the end of the nineteenth century, the ''[[Century Dictionary]]'' described an ordinary shirt as "of cotton, with linen bosom, wristbands and cuffs prepared for stiffening with starch, the collar and wristbands being usually separate and adjustable".
 
 
== Types ==
 
[[File:Shirt-types.svg|thumb|upright|Three types of shirt]]
 
* [[Camp shirt]] – a loose, straight-cut, short sleeved shirt or blouse with a simple placket front-opening and a "camp collar."
 
* [[Dress shirt]] – shirt with a formal (somewhat stiff) collar, a full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem (usually buttoned), and sleeves with cuffs
 
** [[Dinner shirt]] – a shirt specifically made to be worn with male evening wear, e.g. a [[black tie]] or [[white tie]].
 
** [[Guayabera]] – an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets.
 
* [[Poet shirt]] – a loose-fitting shirt or blouse with full bishop sleeves, usually with large frills on the front and on the cuffs.
 
* [[T-shirt]] – also "tee shirt", a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, made of a stretchy, finely knit fabric, usually cotton, and usually short-sleeved. Originally worn under other shirts, it is now a common shirt for everyday wear in some countries.
 
** [[Long-sleeved T-shirt]] – a t-shirt with long sleeves that extend to cover the arms.
 
** [[Ringer T-shirt]] – tee with a separate piece of fabric sewn on as the collar and sleeve hems
 
** [[Crop top|Halfshirt]] – a high-hemmed T-shirt
 
** [[Sleeveless shirt]] – a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off
 
*** [[A-shirt]] or '''vest or singlet''' (in [[British English]]) – essentially a sleeveless shirt with large armholes and a large neck hole, often worn by labourers or athletes for increased movability. Sometimes called a "[[wifebeater (shirt)|wife beater]]" when worn without a covering layer.
 
*** [[Camisole]] – woman's undershirt with narrow straps, or a similar garment worn alone (often with [[brassiere|bra]]). Also referred to as a '''cami''', '''shelf top''', '''spaghetti straps''' or '''strappy top'''
 
* [[Polo shirt]] (also '''tennis shirt''' or '''golf shirt''') – a pullover soft collar short-sleeved shirt with an abbreviated button placket at the neck and a longer back than front (the "tennis tail").
 
** [[Rugby shirt]] – a long-sleeved polo shirt, traditionally of rugged construction in thick cotton or wool, but often softer today
 
** [[Henley shirt]] – a collarless polo shirt
 
* baseball shirt ([[Jersey (clothing)#In sports|jersey]])&nbsp;– usually distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia, and flat waistseam
 
* [[Sweatshirt]] – long-sleeved athletic shirt of heavier material, with or without [[Hoodie|hood]]
 
* [[Tunic]] – primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction. Initially a men's garment, is normally seen in modern times being worn by women
 
* [[Shirtwaist]] – historically (circa. 1890–1920) a woman's tailored shirt (also called a "tailored waist") cut like a man's dress shirt;<ref>For example, see Laura I. Baldt, A.M., "Clothing for Women: Selection, Design and Construction", J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA 1924 (second edition), p. 312</ref> in contemporary usage, a woman's dress cut like a men's dress shirt to the waist, then extended into dress length at the bottom
 
* [[Nightshirt]] – often oversized, ruined or inexpensive light cloth undergarment shirt for [[sleep]]ing.
 
* [[Sleeveless shirt]] – A shirt with no sleeves. Contains only neck, bottom hem, body, and sometimes shoulders depending on type. Also referred to as a tank top.
 
* [[Halter top]] – a shoulderless, sleeveless garment for women. It is mechanically analogous to an [[apron]] with a string around the back of the neck and across the lower back holding it in place.
 
 
Tops that would generally not be considered shirts:
 
* [[Infant bodysuit|onesie]] or diaper shirt&nbsp;– a shirt for [[infant]]s which includes a long back that is wrapped between the legs and buttoned to the front of the shirt
 
* [[sweater]]s&nbsp;— heavy knitted upper garments with long sleeves and sometimes cuffs.
 
* [[jacket]]s, [[Coat (clothing)|coats]] and similar [[outerwear]]
 
* [[tube top]] (in [[American English]]) or boob tube (in [[British English]])&nbsp;– a shoulderless, sleeveless "tube" that wraps the torso not reaching higher than the armpit, staying in place by elasticity or by a single strap that is attached to the front of the tube
 
 
== Parts of shirt ==
 
Many terms are used to describe and differentiate types of shirts (and upper-body garments in general) and their construction. The smallest differences may have significance to a cultural or occupational group. Recently, (late twentieth century) it has become common to use tops to carry messages or advertising. Many of these distinctions apply to other upper-body garments, such as [[Coat (clothing)|coats]] and [[sweaters]].
 
 
=== Shoulders and arms ===
 
==== Sleeves ====
 
{{Main|sleeves}}
 
Shirts may:
 
* have no covering of the shoulders or arms&nbsp;— a [[tube top]] (not reaching higher than the armpits, staying in place by elasticity)
 
* have only shoulder straps, such as [[spaghetti strap]]s
 
* cover the shoulders, but without [[sleeve]]s
 
* have shoulderless sleeves, short or long, with or without shoulder straps, that expose the shoulders, but cover the rest of the arm from the biceps and triceps down to at least the elbow
 
* have short sleeves, varying from cap sleeves (covering only the shoulder and not extending below the armpit) to half sleeves (elbow length), with some having quarter-length sleeves (reaching to a point that covers half of the biceps and triceps area)
 
* have three-quarter-length sleeves (reaching to a point between the elbow and the wrist)
 
* have long sleeves (reaching a point to the wrist to a little beyond wrist)
 
 
==== Cuffs ====
 
{{Main|cuff}}
 
Shirts with long sleeves may further be distinguished by the [[cuff]]s:
 
* no [[button]]s&nbsp;— a [[closed placket cuff]]
 
* buttons (or analogous fasteners such as [[snap fastener|snaps]])&nbsp;— single or multiple. A single button or pair aligned parallel with the [[cuff]] hem is considered a [[button cuff]]. Multiple buttons aligned perpendicular to the [[cuff]] hem, or parallel to the [[placket]] constitute a [[barrel cuff]].
 
* buttonholes designed for [[cufflink]]s
 
** a [[French cuff]], where the end half of the [[cuff]] is folded over the [[cuff]] itself and fastened with a [[cufflink]]. This type of [[cuff]] has four buttons and a short [[placket]].
 
** more formally, a [[link cuff]]&nbsp;— fastened like a [[French cuff]], except is not folded over, but instead hemmed, at the edge of the sleeve.
 
* asymmetrical designs, such as one-shoulder, one-sleeve or with sleeves of different lengths.
 
 
=== Lower hem ===
 
* leaving the [[navel|belly button]] area [[Nudity|bare]] (much more common for women than for men). See [[halfshirt]].
 
* hanging to the [[waist]]
 
* covering the [[crotch]]
 
* covering part of the legs (essentially this is a [[dress]]; however, a piece of clothing is perceived either as a shirt (worn with [[trousers]]) or as a dress (in [[Western culture]] mainly worn by women)).
 
* going to the floor (as a pajama shirt)
 
 
=== Body ===
 
* vertical opening on the front side, all the way down, with [[button]]s or [[zipper]]. When fastened with buttons, this opening is often called the [[Placket|placket front]].
 
* similar opening, but in back.
 
* left and right front side not separable, put on over the head; with regard to upper front side opening:
 
** V-shaped permanent opening on the top of the front side
 
** no opening at the upper front side
 
** vertical opening on the upper front side with buttons or zipper
 
*** men's shirts are often buttoned on the right whereas women's are often buttoned on the left.
 
 
=== Neck ===
 
* with polo-neck
 
* with v-neck but no collar
 
* with plunging neck
 
* with open or tassel neck
 
* with [[collar (clothing)|collar]]
 
** [[windsor collar]] or '''spread collar'''&nbsp;— a dressier collar designed with a wide distance between points (the '''spread''') to accommodate the [[windsor knot]] tie. The standard business collar.
 
** [[tab collar]]&nbsp;– a collar with two small fabric tabs that fasten together behind a tie to maintain collar spread.
 
** [[wing collar]]&nbsp;– best suited for the bow tie, often only worn for very formal occasions.
 
** [[straight collar]]&nbsp;– or '''point collar''', a version of the [[windsor collar]] that is distinguished by a narrower spread to better accommodate the [[four-in-hand knot]], [[pratt knot]], and the [[half-windsor knot]]. A moderate dress collar.
 
** [[button-down collar]]&nbsp;– A collar with buttons that fasten the points or tips to a shirt. The most casual of collars worn with a tie.
 
** [[band collar]]&nbsp;~ essentially the lower part of a normal collar, first used as the original collar to which a separate [[collarpiece]] was attached. Rarely seen in modern fashion. Also casual.
 
** [[Polo neck|turtle neck collar]]&nbsp;– A collar that covers most of the throat.
 
* without collar
 
*** V-neck [[no collar]];– The neckline protrudes down the chest and to a point, creating a "V" looking neck line.
 
 
=== Other features ===
 
* '''[[pocket]]s'''&nbsp;– how many (if any), where, and with regard to closure: not closable, just a flap, or with a [[button]] or [[zipper]].
 
* with or without [[Hood (headgear)|hood]]
 
 
Some combinations are not applicable, e.g. a tube top cannot have a collar.
 
 
== Types of fabric ==
 
There are two main categories of fibres used: natural fibre and man-made fibre (synthetics or petroleum based).
 
Some natural fibres are linen, the first used historically, [[cotton]], the most used, [[ramie]], [[wool]], [[silk]] and more recently [[bamboo]] or [[Soy fabric|soya]]. Some synthetic fibres are [[polyester]], [[tencel]], [[viscose]], etc. Polyester mixed with cotton (poly-cotton) is often used. Fabrics for shirts are called shirtings. The four main weaves for shirtings are [[plain weave]], [[oxford (cloth)|oxford]], [[twill]] and [[satin]]. [[Broadcloth]], [[poplin]] and [[end-on-end]] are variations of the plain weave. After weaving, [[finishing (textiles)|finishing]] can be applied to the fabric.
 
 
== Shirts and politics ==
 
{{See also|Political colour}}
 
In the 1920s and 1930s, [[fascists]] wore different coloured shirts:
 
* [[Black shirts]] were used by the Italian [[fascio]], and in Britain, Finland and Germany and Croatia.
 
* [[Brownshirts]] were worn by German Nazis of the SA.
 
* The [[Blueshirts]] was a fascist movement in Ireland and Canada, and the colour of the Portuguese ''[[National Syndicalists (Portugal)|Nacional Sindicalistas]]'', the Spanish ''[[Falange Española]]'', the French ''[[Solidarité Française]]'', and the Chinese [[Blue Shirts Society]].
 
* [[Greenshirts (disambiguation)|Green shirts]] were used in Hungary, Ireland, Romania, Brazil and Portugal.
 
* ''[[Camisas Doradas]]'' (golden shirts) were used in [[Mexico]].
 
* [[Silver Shirts]] were worn in the United States of America.
 
 
In addition, [[redshirt (disambiguation)|red shirts]] have been used to symbolize a variety of different political groups, including [[Garibaldi]]'s Italian revolutionaries, nineteenth century American street gangs, and [[socialist]] militias in Spain and Mexico during the 1930s.
 
 
In the UK, the [[Social Credit]] movement of the thirties wore green shirts.
 
 
== See also ==
 
{{Commons category|Shirts}}
 
* [[Bare chested]]
 
* [[Blouse]]
 
* [[Cardigan (sweater)|Cardigan]]
 
* [[Descamisado]]
 
* [[Dress shirt]]
 
* [[Jermyn Street]], home of the oldest English shirtmakers
 
* [[Jersey (clothing)|Jersey]]
 
* [[Shirtdress]]
 
* [[Sleeveless shirt]]
 
 
== References ==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
== External links ==
 
{{wiktionary}}
 
* {{cite web |publisher= [[Victoria and Albert Museum]]
 
|url= http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-18th-century-fashion/
 
|title= Introduction to 18th-century fashion
 
|work=Fashion, Jewellery & Accessories
 
|accessdate= 2008-08-06}}
 
* {{cite web |publisher= [[Victoria and Albert Museum]]
 
|url= http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/i/introduction-to-19th-century-fashion/
 
|title= Introduction to 19th-century fashion
 
|work=Fashion, Jewellery & Accessories
 
|accessdate= 2008-08-06}}
 
* {{cite web |publisher= [[Paki design]]
 
|url= http://www.pakidesign.com/men-dresses/men-shirts-casual-formal-guide
 
|title= Men Shirts Casual & Formal Guide
 
|work=Men Fashion, Men Dresses
 
|accessdate= 2013-04-19}}
 
 
{{Clothing}}
 
 
[[Category:History of clothing]]
 
[[Category:History of clothing (Europe)]]
 
[[Category:History of clothing (Western fashion)]]
 
[[Category:Shirts| ]]
 
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