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ID:811609
User:170.185.204.19
Article:Ivan the Terrible
Diff:
m (clean up using AWB)
(Conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan)
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Ivan IV corresponded with Orthodox leaders overseas as well. In response to a letter of [[Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria]] asking the Tsar for financial assistance for the [[Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai|Monastery of St. Catherine]] in [[Sinai]], which had suffered from the Turks, Ivan IV sent in 1558 a delegation to [[Egypt]] led by [[archdeacon]] Gennady, who, however, died in [[Constantinople]] before he could reach Egypt. From then on the embassy was headed by [[Smolensk]] merchant Vasily Poznyakov. Poznyakov's delegation visited Alexandria, Cairo and Sinai, brought the patriarch a [[fur coat]] and an icon sent by the Tsar and left an interesting account of its 2.5 years of travels.<ref>[http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=5142 ХОЖДЕНИЕ НА ВОСТОК ГОСТЯ ВАСИЛИЯ ПОЗНЯКОВА С ТОВАРИЩИ] (The travels to the Orient by the merchant Vasily Poznyakov and his companions) {{ru icon}}</ref>
 
Ivan IV corresponded with Orthodox leaders overseas as well. In response to a letter of [[Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria]] asking the Tsar for financial assistance for the [[Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai|Monastery of St. Catherine]] in [[Sinai]], which had suffered from the Turks, Ivan IV sent in 1558 a delegation to [[Egypt]] led by [[archdeacon]] Gennady, who, however, died in [[Constantinople]] before he could reach Egypt. From then on the embassy was headed by [[Smolensk]] merchant Vasily Poznyakov. Poznyakov's delegation visited Alexandria, Cairo and Sinai, brought the patriarch a [[fur coat]] and an icon sent by the Tsar and left an interesting account of its 2.5 years of travels.<ref>[http://lib.pushkinskijdom.ru/Default.aspx?tabid=5142 ХОЖДЕНИЕ НА ВОСТОК ГОСТЯ ВАСИЛИЯ ПОЗНЯКОВА С ТОВАРИЩИ] (The travels to the Orient by the merchant Vasily Poznyakov and his companions) {{ru icon}}</ref>
   
===Conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan===
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{{Main|Siege of Kazan (1552)}}
 
 
While Ivan IV was a minor, armies of the [[Kazan Khanate]] repeatedly raided the northeast of Russia,<ref>Russian chronicles record about 40 attacks of Kazan Khans on Russian territories (mainly the regions of [[Nizhniy Novgorod]], [[Murom]], [[Kirov, Kirov Oblast|Vyatka]], [[Vladimir]], [[Kostroma]], and [[Galich, Russia|Galich]]) in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521 the combined forces of Khan [[Mehmed I Giray|Mehmed Giray]] and his Crimean allies attacked Russia, captured more than 150,000 slaves ''The Full Collection of the Russian Annals'', vol.13, SPb, 1904</ref> In 1530's, the Crimean khan constructed an offensive alliance with [[Safa Giray]] of [[Kazan]], his relative. When Safa Giray invaded [[Muscovy]] in December 1540, the Russians used [[Qasim Tatars]] to contain him. After his advance was stalled near [[Murom]], Safa Giray was forced to withdraw towards his own borders.
 
 
These reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan. A pro-Russian party, represented by [[Shahgali]], gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne. In 1545, Ivan IV mounted an expedition to the Volga River to show his support for pro-Russian factions.
 
[[File:Korovin kazan.jpg|thumb|''Ivan IV under the walls of Kazan'' by Pyotr Korovin.]]
 
In 1551, tsar sent his envoy to the [[Nogai Horde]] and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war. The [[Ar begs]] and [[Udmurts]] submitted to Russian authority as well. In 1551, the wooden fort of [[Sviyazhsk]] was transported down the Volga from [[Uglich]] all the way to Kazan. It was used as the Russian ''place d'armes'' during the decisive campaign of 1552.
 
 
On 16 June 1552 Ivan IV led a 150,000-strong Russian army towards Kazan. The last siege of the Tatar capital was commenced on 30 August. Under the supervision of Prince [[Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky]], the Russians used ram weapons, a [[Siege tower|battery-tower]], [[Mining (military)|mines]], and 150 cannons. The Russians also had the advantage of efficient [[military engineer]]s. The city's water supply was blocked and the walls were breached. Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed, and much of the population massacred. About 60,000 - 100,000 Russian prisoners and slaves were released. Tsar celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously [[Saint Basil's Cathedral]] on [[Red Square]] in Moscow.
 
 
The fall of Kazan had as its primary effect the outright annexation of the Middle Volga. The [[Bashkirs]] accepted Ivan IV's authority two years later. In 1556 Ivan annexed the [[Astrakhan Khanate]] and destroyed the largest [[slave market]] on the river Volga. These conquests complicated the [[Human migration|migration]] of the aggressive [[nomadic]] hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga. As a result of the Kazan campaigns, Muscovy was transformed into the multinational and multi-faith state of Russia.
 
   
 
===Livonian war===
 
===Livonian war===
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