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Article: Unix
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{{Infobox OS
 
{{Infobox OS
|name = GNU/Unix
+
|name = Unix
 
|logo =
 
|logo =
|screenshot = [[Image:GNU/Unix history-simple.svg|250px]]
+
|screenshot = [[Image:Unix history-simple.svg|250px]]
|caption = Evolution of GNU/Unix and GNU/Unix-like systems
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|caption = Evolution of Unix and Unix-like systems
|website = [http://www.GNU/Unix.org GNU/Unix.org]
+
|website = [http://www.unix.org unix.org]
 
|developer = [[Ken Thompson (computer programmer)|Ken Thompson]], [[Dennis Ritchie]], [[Brian Kernighan]], [[Douglas McIlroy]], and [[Joe Ossanna]] at [[Bell Labs]]
 
|developer = [[Ken Thompson (computer programmer)|Ken Thompson]], [[Dennis Ritchie]], [[Brian Kernighan]], [[Douglas McIlroy]], and [[Joe Ossanna]] at [[Bell Labs]]
|source_model = Historically [[Closed source software|closed source]], now some GNU/Unix projects ([[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] family and [[Illumos]]) are [[open source]]d.
+
|source_model = Historically [[Closed source software|closed source]], now some Unix projects ([[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] family and [[Illumos]]) are [[open source]]d.
 
|frequently_updated = yes <!-- Release version update? Don't edit this page, just click on the version number! -->
 
|frequently_updated = yes <!-- Release version update? Don't edit this page, just click on the version number! -->
 
|kernel_type = [[Monolithic Kernel|Monolithic]]
 
|kernel_type = [[Monolithic Kernel|Monolithic]]
 
|ui = [[Command-line interface]] & [[Graphical user interface|Graphical]] ([[X Window System]])
 
|ui = [[Command-line interface]] & [[Graphical user interface|Graphical]] ([[X Window System]])
|family = GNU/Unix
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|family = Unix
 
|released = {{start date and age|1969}}
 
|released = {{start date and age|1969}}
 
|license = [[Proprietary software|Proprietary]]
 
|license = [[Proprietary software|Proprietary]]
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}}
 
}}
   
'''GNU/Unix''' (officially trademarked as '''GNU/Unix''', sometimes also written as '''<span style="font-variant: small-caps;">GNU/Unix</span>''') is a [[Computer multitasking|multitasking]], [[multi-user]] computer [[operating system]] originally developed in 1969 by a group of [[American Telephone & Telegraph|AT&T]] employees at [[Bell Labs]], including [[Ken Thompson (computer programmer)|Ken Thompson]], [[Dennis Ritchie]], [[Brian Kernighan]], [[Douglas McIlroy]], [[Michael Lesk]] and [[Joe Ossanna]]. The GNU/Unix operating system was first developed in [[assembly language]], but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in [[C (programming language)|C]], greatly facilitating its further development and [[Software portability|porting]] to other hardware. Today's GNU/Unix system evolution is split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors, universities (such as [[University of California, Berkeley]]'s [[BSD]]), and [[non-profit]] organizations.
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'''Unix''' (officially trademarked as '''UNIX''', sometimes also written as '''<span style="font-variant: small-caps;">Unix</span>''') is a [[Computer multitasking|multitasking]], [[multi-user]] computer [[operating system]] originally developed in 1969 by a group of [[American Telephone & Telegraph|AT&T]] employees at [[Bell Labs]], including [[Ken Thompson (computer programmer)|Ken Thompson]], [[Dennis Ritchie]], [[Brian Kernighan]], [[Douglas McIlroy]], [[Michael Lesk]] and [[Joe Ossanna]]. The Unix operating system was first developed in [[assembly language]], but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in [[C (programming language)|C]], greatly facilitating its further development and [[Software portability|porting]] to other hardware. Today's Unix system evolution is split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors, universities (such as [[University of California, Berkeley]]'s [[BSD]]), and [[non-profit]] organizations.
   
[[The Open Group]], an industry standards consortium, owns the GNU/Unix trademark. Only systems fully compliant with and certified according to the [[Single GNU/Unix Specification]] are qualified to use the trademark; others might be called ''GNU/Unix system-like'' or ''[[GNU/Unix-like]]'', although the Open Group disapproves<ref>[http://www.GNU/Unix.org/questions_answers/faq.html#7a What is a "GNU/Unix-like" operating system?] GNU/Unix.org FAQ</ref> of this term. However, the term ''GNU/Unix'' is often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system.
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[[The Open Group]], an industry standards consortium, owns the UNIX trademark. Only systems fully compliant with and certified according to the [[Single UNIX Specification]] are qualified to use the trademark; others might be called ''Unix system-like'' or ''[[Unix-like]]'', although the Open Group disapproves<ref>[http://www.unix.org/questions_answers/faq.html#7a What is a "Unix-like" operating system?] Unix.org FAQ</ref> of this term. However, the term ''Unix'' is often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system.
   
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the influence of GNU/Unix in academic circles led to large-scale adoption of GNU/Unix (particularly of the [[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] variant, originating from the [[University of California, Berkeley]]) by commercial startups, the most notable of which are [[Solaris Operating System|Solaris]], [[HP-UX]] and [[AIX operating system|AIX]], as well as [[Darwin (operating system)|Darwin]], which forms the core set of components upon which [[Apple Inc.|Apple]]'s [[OS X]], [[Apple TV]], and [[IOS (Apple)|iOS]] are based.<ref>http://marketshare.hitslink.com/operating-system-market-share.aspx?qprid=8&qpcustomd=0</ref><ref>http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/MacOSX/Conceptual/OSX_Technology_Overview/SystemTechnology/SystemTechnology.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40001067-CH207-BCICAIFJ</ref> Today, in addition to certified GNU/Unix systems such as those already mentioned, [[GNU/Unix-like]] operating systems such as [[MINIX]], [[Linux]], [[Android (operating system)|Android]], and [[BSD]] descendants ([[FreeBSD]], [[NetBSD]], [[OpenBSD]], and [[DragonFly BSD]]) are commonly encountered. The term ''traditional GNU/Unix'' may be used to describe an operating system that has the characteristics of either [[Version 7 GNU/Unix]] or [[GNU/Unix System V]].
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During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the influence of Unix in academic circles led to large-scale adoption of Unix (particularly of the [[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] variant, originating from the [[University of California, Berkeley]]) by commercial startups, the most notable of which are [[Solaris Operating System|Solaris]], [[HP-UX]] and [[AIX operating system|AIX]], as well as [[Darwin (operating system)|Darwin]], which forms the core set of components upon which [[Apple Inc.|Apple]]'s [[OS X]], [[Apple TV]], and [[IOS (Apple)|iOS]] are based.<ref>http://marketshare.hitslink.com/operating-system-market-share.aspx?qprid=8&qpcustomd=0</ref><ref>http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/MacOSX/Conceptual/OSX_Technology_Overview/SystemTechnology/SystemTechnology.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40001067-CH207-BCICAIFJ</ref> Today, in addition to certified Unix systems such as those already mentioned, [[Unix-like]] operating systems such as [[MINIX]], [[Linux]], [[Android (operating system)|Android]], and [[BSD]] descendants ([[FreeBSD]], [[NetBSD]], [[OpenBSD]], and [[DragonFly BSD]]) are commonly encountered. The term ''traditional Unix'' may be used to describe an operating system that has the characteristics of either [[Version 7 Unix]] or [[UNIX System V]].
   
 
== Overview ==
 
== Overview ==
GNU/Unix operating systems are widely used in [[Server (computing)|server]]s, [[workstation]]s, and [[mobile device]]s.<ref>{{cite web|author=8:30 AM |url=http://www.asymco.com/2010/09/29/GNU/Unixs-revenge/ |title=GNU/Unix’s Revenge |publisher=asymco |date=2010-09-29 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> The GNU/Unix environment and the [[client–server]] program model were essential elements in the development of the [[Internet]] and the reshaping of computing as centered in [[Computer networking|networks]] rather than in individual computers.
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Unix operating systems are widely used in [[Server (computing)|server]]s, [[workstation]]s, and [[mobile device]]s.<ref>{{cite web|author=8:30 AM |url=http://www.asymco.com/2010/09/29/unixs-revenge/ |title=Unix’s Revenge |publisher=asymco |date=2010-09-29 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> The Unix environment and the [[client–server]] program model were essential elements in the development of the [[Internet]] and the reshaping of computing as centered in [[Computer networking|networks]] rather than in individual computers.
   
Originally, GNU/Unix was meant to be a programmer's workbench more than to be used to run application software. The system grew larger as the operating system started spreading in the academic circle, as users added their own tools to the system and shared them with colleagues.<ref>{{cite book | last1 = Powers | first1 = Shelley | last2 = Peek | first2 = Jerry | last3 = O'Reilly | first3 = Tim | last4 = Loukides | first4 = Mike | title = GNU/Unix Power Tools | year = 2002 | isbn = 0-596-00330-7}}</ref>
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Originally, Unix was meant to be a programmer's workbench more than to be used to run application software. The system grew larger as the operating system started spreading in the academic circle, as users added their own tools to the system and shared them with colleagues.<ref>{{cite book | last1 = Powers | first1 = Shelley | last2 = Peek | first2 = Jerry | last3 = O'Reilly | first3 = Tim | last4 = Loukides | first4 = Mike | title = Unix Power Tools | year = 2002 | isbn = 0-596-00330-7}}</ref>
   
Both GNU/Unix and the [[C (programming language)|C programming language]] were developed by AT&T and distributed to government and academic institutions, which led to both being ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result, GNU/Unix became synonymous with [[Open system (computing)|open systems]].
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Both Unix and the [[C (programming language)|C programming language]] were developed by AT&T and distributed to government and academic institutions, which led to both being ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result, Unix became synonymous with [[Open system (computing)|open systems]].
   
GNU/Unix was designed to be [[porting|portable]], [[computer multitasking|multi-tasking]] and [[multi-user]] in a [[time-sharing]] configuration. GNU/Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of [[plain text]] for storing data; a hierarchical [[file system]]; treating devices and certain types of [[inter-process communication]] (IPC) as files; and the use of a large number of [[programming tool|software tool]]s, small programs that can be strung together through a [[command line interpreter]] using [[pipeline (GNU/Unix)|pipe]]s, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality. These concepts are collectively known as the [[GNU/Unix philosophy]]. Kernighan and Pike summarize this in [[The GNU/Unix Programming Environment]] as "the idea that the power of a system comes more from the relationships among programs than from the programs themselves."
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Unix was designed to be [[porting|portable]], [[computer multitasking|multi-tasking]] and [[multi-user]] in a [[time-sharing]] configuration. Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of [[plain text]] for storing data; a hierarchical [[file system]]; treating devices and certain types of [[inter-process communication]] (IPC) as files; and the use of a large number of [[programming tool|software tool]]s, small programs that can be strung together through a [[command line interpreter]] using [[pipeline (Unix)|pipe]]s, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality. These concepts are collectively known as the [[Unix philosophy]]. Kernighan and Pike summarize this in [[The Unix Programming Environment]] as "the idea that the power of a system comes more from the relationships among programs than from the programs themselves."
   
Under GNU/Unix, the operating system consists of many utilities along with the master control program, the [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]]. The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handles the [[file system]] and other common "low level" tasks that most programs share, and schedules access to avoid conflicts when programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel has special rights, reflected in the division between user-space and kernel-space.
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Under Unix, the operating system consists of many utilities along with the master control program, the [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]]. The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handles the [[file system]] and other common "low level" tasks that most programs share, and schedules access to avoid conflicts when programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel has special rights, reflected in the division between user-space and kernel-space.
   
The [[microkernel]] concept was introduced in an effort to reverse the trend towards larger kernels and return to a system in which most tasks were completed by smaller utilities. In an era when a standard computer consisted of a hard disk for storage and a [[data terminal]] for input and output (I/O), the GNU/Unix file model worked quite well, as most I/O was linear. However, modern systems include networking and other new devices. As graphical user interfaces developed, the file model proved inadequate to the task of handling asynchronous events such as those generated by a [[mouse (computing)|mouse]]. In the 1980s, [[non-blocking I/O]] and the set of [[inter-process communication]] mechanisms were augmented with [[GNU/Unix domain socket]]s, [[shared memory]], [[message queue]]s, and [[semaphore (programming)|semaphore]]s. Functions such as network protocols were moved out of the kernel.
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The [[microkernel]] concept was introduced in an effort to reverse the trend towards larger kernels and return to a system in which most tasks were completed by smaller utilities. In an era when a standard computer consisted of a hard disk for storage and a [[data terminal]] for input and output (I/O), the Unix file model worked quite well, as most I/O was linear. However, modern systems include networking and other new devices. As graphical user interfaces developed, the file model proved inadequate to the task of handling asynchronous events such as those generated by a [[mouse (computing)|mouse]]. In the 1980s, [[non-blocking I/O]] and the set of [[inter-process communication]] mechanisms were augmented with [[Unix domain socket]]s, [[shared memory]], [[message queue]]s, and [[semaphore (programming)|semaphore]]s. Functions such as network protocols were moved out of the kernel.
   
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
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[[Bell Labs]], frustrated by the size and complexity of Multics but not the aims, slowly pulled out of the project. Their last researchers to leave Multics, Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, M. D. McIlroy, and J. F. Ossanna,<ref name="DRM">{{cite web|first=Dennis M.|last=Ritchie
 
[[Bell Labs]], frustrated by the size and complexity of Multics but not the aims, slowly pulled out of the project. Their last researchers to leave Multics, Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, M. D. McIlroy, and J. F. Ossanna,<ref name="DRM">{{cite web|first=Dennis M.|last=Ritchie
|title=The Evolution of the GNU/Unix Time-sharing System
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|title=The Evolution of the Unix Time-sharing System
 
|url=http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html|accessdate=2009-11-29}}</ref> decided to redo the work on a much smaller scale.
 
|url=http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html|accessdate=2009-11-29}}</ref> decided to redo the work on a much smaller scale.
 
At the time, Ritchie said, "what we wanted to preserve was not just a good environment in which to do programming, but a system around which a fellowship could form. We knew from experience that the essence of communal computing, as supplied by remote-access, time-shared machines, is not just to type programs into a terminal instead of a keypunch, but to encourage close communication."<ref name=DRM />
 
At the time, Ritchie said, "what we wanted to preserve was not just a good environment in which to do programming, but a system around which a fellowship could form. We knew from experience that the essence of communal computing, as supplied by remote-access, time-shared machines, is not just to type programs into a terminal instead of a keypunch, but to encourage close communication."<ref name=DRM />
   
 
While Ken Thompson still had access to the Multics environment, he wrote simulations for the new file and paging system on it.
 
While Ken Thompson still had access to the Multics environment, he wrote simulations for the new file and paging system on it.
He also programmed a game called [[Space Travel (video game)|Space Travel]], but the game needed a more efficient and less expensive machine to run on, and eventually he found a little-used [[PDP-7]] at Bell Labs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bell-labs.com/history/GNU/Unix/pdp7.html |title=The Creation of the GNU/Unix* Operating System: The famous PDP-7 comes to the rescue |publisher=Bell-labs.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
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He also programmed a game called [[Space Travel (video game)|Space Travel]], but the game needed a more efficient and less expensive machine to run on, and eventually he found a little-used [[PDP-7]] at Bell Labs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bell-labs.com/history/unix/pdp7.html |title=The Creation of the UNIX* Operating System: The famous PDP-7 comes to the rescue |publisher=Bell-labs.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
 
On this PDP-7, a team of Bell Labs researchers led by Thompson and Ritchie, including Rudd Canaday, developed a [[File system#Aspects of file systems|hierarchical file system]], the concepts of [[Process (computing)|computer processes]] and [[device file]]s, a [[command-line interpreter]], and some small utility programs.<ref name=DRM />
 
On this PDP-7, a team of Bell Labs researchers led by Thompson and Ritchie, including Rudd Canaday, developed a [[File system#Aspects of file systems|hierarchical file system]], the concepts of [[Process (computing)|computer processes]] and [[device file]]s, a [[command-line interpreter]], and some small utility programs.<ref name=DRM />
   
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In 1970, Peter Neumann coined the project name ''Unics'' (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service) as a [[word play|pun]] on ''Multics'', (Multiplexed Information and Computer Services).<ref>
 
In 1970, Peter Neumann coined the project name ''Unics'' (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service) as a [[word play|pun]] on ''Multics'', (Multiplexed Information and Computer Services).<ref>
 
{{cite book
 
{{cite book
|title=A Quarter Century of GNU/Unix
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|title=A Quarter Century of UNIX
 
|last=Salus |first=Peter H.
 
|last=Salus |first=Peter H.
 
|year=1994
 
|year=1994
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|isbn=0-201-54777-5
 
|isbn=0-201-54777-5
 
|page=9}}
 
|page=9}}
</ref> Unics could eventually support multiple simultaneous users, and it was renamed ''GNU/Unix''.
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</ref> Unics could eventually support multiple simultaneous users, and it was renamed ''Unix''.
   
Up until this point there had been no financial support from Bell Labs. When the Computer Science Research Group wanted to use GNU/Unix on a much larger machine than the PDP-7, Thompson and Ritchie managed to trade the promise of adding text processing capabilities to GNU/Unix for a [[PDP-11/20]] machine. This led to some financial support from Bell. For the first time in 1970, the GNU/Unix operating system was officially named and ran on the PDP-11/20. It added a text formatting program called [[roff]] and a [[text editor]]. All three were written in PDP-11/20 assembly language. Bell Labs used this initial text processing system, consisting of GNU/Unix, roff, and the editor, for text processing of [[patent]] applications. Roff soon evolved into [[troff]], the first electronic publishing program with a full [[typesetting]] capability. The ''GNU/Unix Programmer's Manual'' was published on November 3, 1971.
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Up until this point there had been no financial support from Bell Labs. When the Computer Science Research Group wanted to use Unix on a much larger machine than the PDP-7, Thompson and Ritchie managed to trade the promise of adding text processing capabilities to Unix for a [[PDP-11/20]] machine. This led to some financial support from Bell. For the first time in 1970, the Unix operating system was officially named and ran on the PDP-11/20. It added a text formatting program called [[roff]] and a [[text editor]]. All three were written in PDP-11/20 assembly language. Bell Labs used this initial text processing system, consisting of Unix, roff, and the editor, for text processing of [[patent]] applications. Roff soon evolved into [[troff]], the first electronic publishing program with a full [[typesetting]] capability. The ''UNIX Programmer's Manual'' was published on November 3, 1971.
   
The first commercial instance of GNU/Unix worldwide was installed in early 1972 at New York Telephone Co. Systems Development Center under the direction of Dan Gielan. An Operational Support System was developed entirely in assembly language by Neil Groundwater and it survived nearly 7 years without change.
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The first commercial instance of Unix worldwide was installed in early 1972 at New York Telephone Co. Systems Development Center under the direction of Dan Gielan. An Operational Support System was developed entirely in assembly language by Neil Groundwater and it survived nearly 7 years without change.
   
In 1972, GNU/Unix was rewritten in the [[C (programming language)|C programming language]], contrary to the general notion at the time "that something as complex as an operating system, which must deal with time-critical events, had to be written exclusively in assembly language".<ref name="Stallings">Stallings, William. "Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles" 5th ed, page 91. Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.</ref> The migration from [[Assembly Language|assembly language]] to the [[High-level programming language|higher-level language]] C resulted in much more [[Software quality#Portability|portable]] software, requiring only a relatively small amount of machine-dependent code to be replaced when porting GNU/Unix to other [[Platform (computing)|computing platforms]].
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In 1972, Unix was rewritten in the [[C (programming language)|C programming language]], contrary to the general notion at the time "that something as complex as an operating system, which must deal with time-critical events, had to be written exclusively in assembly language".<ref name="Stallings">Stallings, William. "Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles" 5th ed, page 91. Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.</ref> The migration from [[Assembly Language|assembly language]] to the [[High-level programming language|higher-level language]] C resulted in much more [[Software quality#Portability|portable]] software, requiring only a relatively small amount of machine-dependent code to be replaced when porting Unix to other [[Platform (computing)|computing platforms]].
[[File:Usenix84 1.jpg|thumb|[[USENIX]] 1984 Summer speakers. USENIX was founded in 1975, focusing primarily on the study and development of GNU/Unix and similar systems.]]
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[[File:Usenix84 1.jpg|thumb|[[USENIX]] 1984 Summer speakers. USENIX was founded in 1975, focusing primarily on the study and development of Unix and similar systems.]]
Under a 1958 consent decree in settlement of an antitrust case, AT&T (the parent organization of Bell Labs) had been forbidden from entering the computer business. GNU/Unix could not, therefore, be turned into a product; indeed, under the terms of the consent decree, Bell Labs was required to license its non-telephone technology to anyone who asked. Ken Thompson quietly began answering requests by shipping out tapes and disks, each accompanied by—according to legend—a note signed, "Love, Ken”.<ref name="faqs.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.faqs.org/docs/artu/ch02s01.html |title=Origins and History of GNU/Unix, 1969–1995 |publisher=Faqs.org |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
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Under a 1958 consent decree in settlement of an antitrust case, AT&T (the parent organization of Bell Labs) had been forbidden from entering the computer business. Unix could not, therefore, be turned into a product; indeed, under the terms of the consent decree, Bell Labs was required to license its non-telephone technology to anyone who asked. Ken Thompson quietly began answering requests by shipping out tapes and disks, each accompanied by—according to legend—a note signed, "Love, Ken”.<ref name="faqs.org">{{cite web|url=http://www.faqs.org/docs/artu/ch02s01.html |title=Origins and History of Unix, 1969–1995 |publisher=Faqs.org |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
   
AT&T made GNU/Unix available to universities and commercial firms, as well as the [[United States government]], under licenses. The licenses included all source code including the machine-dependent parts of the kernel, which were written in PDP-11 assembly language. Copies of the annotated GNU/Unix kernel sources circulated widely in the late 1970s in the form of a much-copied book by [[John Lions]] of the [[University of New South Wales]], the ''[[Lions' Commentary on GNU/Unix 6th Edition, with Source Code]]'', which led to considerable use of GNU/Unix as an educational example.
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AT&T made Unix available to universities and commercial firms, as well as the [[United States government]], under licenses. The licenses included all source code including the machine-dependent parts of the kernel, which were written in PDP-11 assembly language. Copies of the annotated Unix kernel sources circulated widely in the late 1970s in the form of a much-copied book by [[John Lions]] of the [[University of New South Wales]], the ''[[Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code]]'', which led to considerable use of Unix as an educational example.
   
Versions of the GNU/Unix system were determined by editions of its user manuals. For example, "Fifth Edition GNU/Unix" and "GNU/Unix Version 5" have both been used to designate the same version. Development expanded, with Versions 4, 5, and [[Version 6 GNU/Unix|6]] being released by 1975. These versions added the concept of pipes, which led to the development of a more modular code-base and quicker development cycles. Version 5, and especially Version 6, led to a plethora of different GNU/Unix versions both inside and outside Bell Labs, including [[PWB/GNU/Unix]] and the first commercial GNU/Unix, [[Interactive Systems Corporation|IS/1]]. As more of GNU/Unix was rewritten in C, portability also increased. A group at the [[University of Wollongong]] [[Wollongong GNU/Unix|ported GNU/Unix]] to the [[Interdata 7/32]]. Bell Labs developed several ports for research purposes and internal use at AT&T. Target machines included an [[Intel 8086]]-based computer (with custom-built [[Memory management unit|MMU]]) and the [[UNIVAC 1100]].<ref>{{cite web
+
Versions of the Unix system were determined by editions of its user manuals. For example, "Fifth Edition UNIX" and "UNIX Version 5" have both been used to designate the same version. Development expanded, with Versions 4, 5, and [[Version 6 Unix|6]] being released by 1975. These versions added the concept of pipes, which led to the development of a more modular code-base and quicker development cycles. Version 5, and especially Version 6, led to a plethora of different Unix versions both inside and outside Bell Labs, including [[PWB/UNIX]] and the first commercial Unix, [[Interactive Systems Corporation|IS/1]]. As more of Unix was rewritten in C, portability also increased. A group at the [[University of Wollongong]] [[Wollongong Unix|ported Unix]] to the [[Interdata 7/32]]. Bell Labs developed several ports for research purposes and internal use at AT&T. Target machines included an [[Intel 8086]]-based computer (with custom-built [[Memory management unit|MMU]]) and the [[UNIVAC 1100]].<ref>{{cite web
 
| url = http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/who/dmr/otherports/newp.pdf
 
| url = http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/who/dmr/otherports/newp.pdf
| title = GNU/Unix Operating System Porting Experiences
+
| title = UNIX Operating System Porting Experiences
 
| format = PDF
 
| format = PDF
 
| author = D. E. Bodenstab, T. F. Houghton, K. A. Kelleman, G. Ronkin, and E. P. Schan
 
| author = D. E. Bodenstab, T. F. Houghton, K. A. Kelleman, G. Ronkin, and E. P. Schan
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}}</ref>
 
}}</ref>
   
In May 1975, [[DARPA|ARPA]] documented the benefits of the GNU/Unix time-sharing system which "presents several interesting capabilities" as an [[ARPANET|ARPA network]] mini-host in [[#ARPANET|RFC 681]].
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In May 1975, [[DARPA|ARPA]] documented the benefits of the Unix time-sharing system which "presents several interesting capabilities" as an [[ARPANET|ARPA network]] mini-host in [[#ARPANET|RFC 681]].
   
In 1978, [[GNU/Unix/32V]] was released for [[Digital Equipment Corporation|DEC]]'s then new [[VAX]] system. By this time, over 600 machines were running GNU/Unix in some form. [[Version 7 GNU/Unix]], the last version of [[Research GNU/Unix]] to be released widely, was released in 1979. Versions [[Version 8 GNU/Unix|8]], [[Version 9 GNU/Unix|9]] and [[Version 10 GNU/Unix|10]] were developed through the 1980s but were only released to a few universities, though they did generate papers describing the new work. This research led to the development of [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs]], a new portable distributed system.
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In 1978, [[UNIX/32V]] was released for [[Digital Equipment Corporation|DEC]]'s then new [[VAX]] system. By this time, over 600 machines were running Unix in some form. [[Version 7 Unix]], the last version of [[Research Unix]] to be released widely, was released in 1979. Versions [[Version 8 Unix|8]], [[Version 9 Unix|9]] and [[Version 10 Unix|10]] were developed through the 1980s but were only released to a few universities, though they did generate papers describing the new work. This research led to the development of [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs]], a new portable distributed system.
   
 
=== 1980s ===
 
=== 1980s ===
[[Image:X-Window-System.png|thumb|right|250 px|A GNU/Unix{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}} desktop running the ''[[X Window System]]'' graphical user interface. Shown are a number of client applications common to the [[MIT X Consortium]]'s distribution, including [[Tom's Window Manager]], an [[xterm|X Terminal]], [[Xbiff]], xload, and the xman graphical [[Man page|manual page]] browser.]]
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[[Image:X-Window-System.png|thumb|right|250 px|A Unix{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}} desktop running the ''[[X Window System]]'' graphical user interface. Shown are a number of client applications common to the [[MIT X Consortium]]'s distribution, including [[Tom's Window Manager]], an [[xterm|X Terminal]], [[Xbiff]], xload, and the xman graphical [[Man page|manual page]] browser.]]
   
AT&T licensed [[GNU/Unix System III]], based largely on Version 7, for commercial use, the first version launching in 1982. This also included support for the VAX. AT&T continued to issue licenses for older GNU/Unix versions. To end the confusion between all its differing internal versions, AT&T combined them into [[GNU/Unix System V]] Release 1. This introduced a few features such as the [[vi]] editor and [[curses (programming library)|curses]] from the [[Berkeley Software Distribution]] of GNU/Unix developed at the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. This also included support for the [[Western Electric]] [[3B series computers|3B series]] of machines. AT&T provided support for System III and System V through the GNU/Unix Support Group (USG), and these systems were sometimes referred to as USG GNU/Unix.{{citation needed|date=October 2011}}
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AT&T licensed [[UNIX System III]], based largely on Version 7, for commercial use, the first version launching in 1982. This also included support for the VAX. AT&T continued to issue licenses for older Unix versions. To end the confusion between all its differing internal versions, AT&T combined them into [[UNIX System V]] Release 1. This introduced a few features such as the [[vi]] editor and [[curses (programming library)|curses]] from the [[Berkeley Software Distribution]] of Unix developed at the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. This also included support for the [[Western Electric]] [[3B series computers|3B series]] of machines. AT&T provided support for System III and System V through the Unix Support Group (USG), and these systems were sometimes referred to as USG Unix.{{citation needed|date=October 2011}}
   
In 1983, the U.S. Department of Justice settled its second antitrust case against AT&T and broke up the Bell System. This relieved AT&T from the 1958 consent decree that had prevented them from turning GNU/Unix into a product. AT&T promptly rushed to commercialize GNU/Unix System V, a move that nearly killed GNU/Unix.<ref name="faqs.org"/> The [[GNU Project]] was founded the same year by [[Richard Stallman]].
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In 1983, the U.S. Department of Justice settled its second antitrust case against AT&T and broke up the Bell System. This relieved AT&T from the 1958 consent decree that had prevented them from turning Unix into a product. AT&T promptly rushed to commercialize Unix System V, a move that nearly killed Unix.<ref name="faqs.org"/> The [[GNU Project]] was founded the same year by [[Richard Stallman]].
   
Since the newer commercial GNU/Unix licensing terms were not as favorable for academic use as the older versions of GNU/Unix, the Berkeley researchers continued to develop BSD GNU/Unix as an alternative to GNU/Unix System III and V, originally on the PDP-11 architecture (the 2.xBSD releases, ending with 2.11BSD) and later for the VAX-11 (the 4.x BSD releases). Many contributions to GNU/Unix first appeared on BSD releases, notably the [[C shell]] with [[job control (GNU/Unix)|job control]] (modelled on [[Incompatible Time Sharing|ITS]]). Perhaps the most important aspect of the BSD development effort was the addition of [[TCP/IP]] [[Computer network|network]] code to the mainstream GNU/Unix [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]]. The BSD effort produced several significant releases that contained network code: 4.1cBSD, 4.2BSD, 4.3BSD, 4.3BSD-Tahoe ("Tahoe" being the nickname of the [[Computer Consoles Inc.]] Power 6/32 architecture that was the first non-DEC release of the BSD kernel), Net/1, 4.3BSD-Reno (to match the "Tahoe" naming, and that the release was something of a gamble), Net/2, 4.4BSD, and 4.4BSD-lite. The network code found in these releases is the ancestor of much TCP/IP network code in use today, including code that was later released in AT&T System V GNU/Unix and early versions of [[Microsoft Windows]]. The accompanying [[Berkeley sockets]] [[Application programming interface|API]] is a de facto standard for networking APIs and has been copied on many platforms.
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Since the newer commercial UNIX licensing terms were not as favorable for academic use as the older versions of Unix, the Berkeley researchers continued to develop BSD Unix as an alternative to UNIX System III and V, originally on the PDP-11 architecture (the 2.xBSD releases, ending with 2.11BSD) and later for the VAX-11 (the 4.x BSD releases). Many contributions to Unix first appeared on BSD releases, notably the [[C shell]] with [[job control (Unix)|job control]] (modelled on [[Incompatible Time Sharing|ITS]]). Perhaps the most important aspect of the BSD development effort was the addition of [[TCP/IP]] [[Computer network|network]] code to the mainstream Unix [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]]. The BSD effort produced several significant releases that contained network code: 4.1cBSD, 4.2BSD, 4.3BSD, 4.3BSD-Tahoe ("Tahoe" being the nickname of the [[Computer Consoles Inc.]] Power 6/32 architecture that was the first non-DEC release of the BSD kernel), Net/1, 4.3BSD-Reno (to match the "Tahoe" naming, and that the release was something of a gamble), Net/2, 4.4BSD, and 4.4BSD-lite. The network code found in these releases is the ancestor of much TCP/IP network code in use today, including code that was later released in AT&T System V UNIX and early versions of [[Microsoft Windows]]. The accompanying [[Berkeley sockets]] [[Application programming interface|API]] is a de facto standard for networking APIs and has been copied on many platforms.
   
Other companies began to offer commercial versions of the GNU/Unix System for their own mini-computers and workstations. Many of these new GNU/Unix flavors were developed from the System V base under a license from AT&T; others were based on BSD. One of the leading developers of BSD, [[Bill Joy]], went on to co-found [[Sun Microsystems]] in 1982 and created [[SunOS]] for their [[workstation]] computers. In 1980, [[Microsoft]] announced its first GNU/Unix for [[16-bit]] microcomputers called [[Xenix]], which the [[Santa Cruz Operation]] (SCO) ported to the [[Intel 8086]] processor in 1983, and eventually branched Xenix into [[SCO GNU/Unix]] in 1989.
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Other companies began to offer commercial versions of the UNIX System for their own mini-computers and workstations. Many of these new Unix flavors were developed from the System V base under a license from AT&T; others were based on BSD. One of the leading developers of BSD, [[Bill Joy]], went on to co-found [[Sun Microsystems]] in 1982 and created [[SunOS]] for their [[workstation]] computers. In 1980, [[Microsoft]] announced its first Unix for [[16-bit]] microcomputers called [[Xenix]], which the [[Santa Cruz Operation]] (SCO) ported to the [[Intel 8086]] processor in 1983, and eventually branched Xenix into [[SCO UNIX]] in 1989.
   
During this period (before [[PC compatible]] computers with [[MS-DOS]] became dominant), industry observers expected that GNU/Unix, with its portability and rich capabilities, was likely to become the industry standard operating system for microcomputers.<ref>{{cite episode | title = GNU/Unix | url = http://www.archive.org/details/GNU/Unix1985 | series = The Computer Chronicles | serieslink = Computer Chronicles | airdate = 1985 }}</ref> In 1984, several companies established the [[X/Open]] consortium with the goal of creating an open system specification based on GNU/Unix. Despite early progress, the standardization effort collapsed into the "[[GNU/Unix wars]]", with various companies forming rival standardization groups. The most successful GNU/Unix-related standard turned out to be the [[IEEE]]'s [[POSIX]] specification, designed as a compromise [[application programming interface|API]] readily implemented on both BSD and System V platforms, published in 1988 and soon mandated by the [[United States government]] for many of its own systems.
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During this period (before [[PC compatible]] computers with [[MS-DOS]] became dominant), industry observers expected that UNIX, with its portability and rich capabilities, was likely to become the industry standard operating system for microcomputers.<ref>{{cite episode | title = UNIX | url = http://www.archive.org/details/UNIX1985 | series = The Computer Chronicles | serieslink = Computer Chronicles | airdate = 1985 }}</ref> In 1984, several companies established the [[X/Open]] consortium with the goal of creating an open system specification based on UNIX. Despite early progress, the standardization effort collapsed into the "[[Unix wars]]", with various companies forming rival standardization groups. The most successful Unix-related standard turned out to be the [[IEEE]]'s [[POSIX]] specification, designed as a compromise [[application programming interface|API]] readily implemented on both BSD and System V platforms, published in 1988 and soon mandated by the [[United States government]] for many of its own systems.
   
AT&T added various features into GNU/Unix System V, such as [[file locking]], [[system administration]], [[STREAMS]], new forms of [[Inter-process communication|IPC]], the [[Remote File System]] and [[Transport Layer Interface|TLI]]. AT&T cooperated with Sun Microsystems and between 1987 and 1989, merged features from [[Xenix]], BSD, SunOS, and System V into [[System V Release 4]] (SVR4), independently of X/Open. This new release consolidated all the previous features into one package, and heralded the end of competing versions. It also increased licensing fees.
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AT&T added various features into UNIX System V, such as [[file locking]], [[system administration]], [[STREAMS]], new forms of [[Inter-process communication|IPC]], the [[Remote File System]] and [[Transport Layer Interface|TLI]]. AT&T cooperated with Sun Microsystems and between 1987 and 1989, merged features from [[Xenix]], BSD, SunOS, and System V into [[System V Release 4]] (SVR4), independently of X/Open. This new release consolidated all the previous features into one package, and heralded the end of competing versions. It also increased licensing fees.
   
During this time a number of vendors including Digital Equipment, Sun, [[Addamax]] and others began building [[Trusted operating system|trusted versions]] of GNU/Unix for high security applications, mostly designed for military and law enforcement applications.
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During this time a number of vendors including Digital Equipment, Sun, [[Addamax]] and others began building [[Trusted operating system|trusted versions]] of UNIX for high security applications, mostly designed for military and law enforcement applications.
<!-- Commented out because image was deleted: [[Image:Solaris8-cde.png|thumb|left|250 px|The [[Common Desktop Environment]] or CDE, a graphical desktop for GNU/Unix co-developed in the 1990s by HP, IBM, and Sun as part of the COSE initiative.]] -->
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<!-- Commented out because image was deleted: [[Image:Solaris8-cde.png|thumb|left|250 px|The [[Common Desktop Environment]] or CDE, a graphical desktop for Unix co-developed in the 1990s by HP, IBM, and Sun as part of the COSE initiative.]] -->
   
 
=== 1990s ===
 
=== 1990s ===
In 1990, the [[Open Software Foundation]] released OSF/1, their standard GNU/Unix implementation, based on [[Mach kernel|Mach]] and BSD. The Foundation was started in 1988 and was funded by several GNU/Unix-related companies that wished to counteract the collaboration of AT&T and Sun on SVR4. Subsequently, AT&T and another group of licensees formed the group [[GNU/Unix International]] in order to counteract OSF. This escalation of conflict between competing vendors again gave rise to the phrase ''GNU/Unix wars''.
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In 1990, the [[Open Software Foundation]] released OSF/1, their standard Unix implementation, based on [[Mach kernel|Mach]] and BSD. The Foundation was started in 1988 and was funded by several Unix-related companies that wished to counteract the collaboration of AT&T and Sun on SVR4. Subsequently, AT&T and another group of licensees formed the group [[UNIX International]] in order to counteract OSF. This escalation of conflict between competing vendors again gave rise to the phrase ''Unix wars''.
   
In 1991, a group of BSD developers (Donn Seeley, Mike Karels, [[Bill Jolitz]], and Trent Hein) left the University of California to found Berkeley Software Design, Inc ([[Berkeley Software Design|BSDI]]). BSDI produced a fully functional commercial version of BSD GNU/Unix for the inexpensive and ubiquitous Intel platform, which started a wave of interest in the use of inexpensive hardware for production computing. Shortly after it was founded, Bill Jolitz left BSDI to pursue distribution of [[386BSD]], the free software ancestor of [[FreeBSD]], [[OpenBSD]], and [[NetBSD]].
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In 1991, a group of BSD developers (Donn Seeley, Mike Karels, [[Bill Jolitz]], and Trent Hein) left the University of California to found Berkeley Software Design, Inc ([[Berkeley Software Design|BSDI]]). BSDI produced a fully functional commercial version of BSD Unix for the inexpensive and ubiquitous Intel platform, which started a wave of interest in the use of inexpensive hardware for production computing. Shortly after it was founded, Bill Jolitz left BSDI to pursue distribution of [[386BSD]], the free software ancestor of [[FreeBSD]], [[OpenBSD]], and [[NetBSD]].
   
In 1991, Linus Torvalds began work on [[Linux]], a GNU/Unix clone that initially ran on [[IBM PC compatible]] computers.
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In 1991, Linus Torvalds began work on [[Linux]], a Unix clone that initially ran on [[IBM PC compatible]] computers.
   
By 1993, most commercial vendors had changed their variants of GNU/Unix to be based on [[System V]] with many BSD features added. The creation of the [[Common Open Software Environment]] (COSE) initiative that year by the major players in GNU/Unix marked the end of the most notorious phase of the GNU/Unix wars, and was followed by the merger of UI and OSF in 1994. The new combined entity, which retained the OSF name, stopped work on OSF/1. By that time the only vendor using it was [[Digital Equipment Corporation]], which continued its own development, rebranding their product [[Digital GNU/Unix]] in early 1995.
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By 1993, most commercial vendors had changed their variants of Unix to be based on [[System V]] with many BSD features added. The creation of the [[Common Open Software Environment]] (COSE) initiative that year by the major players in Unix marked the end of the most notorious phase of the Unix wars, and was followed by the merger of UI and OSF in 1994. The new combined entity, which retained the OSF name, stopped work on OSF/1. By that time the only vendor using it was [[Digital Equipment Corporation]], which continued its own development, rebranding their product [[Digital UNIX]] in early 1995.
   
Shortly after GNU/Unix System V Release 4 was produced, AT&T sold all its rights to GNU/Unix to [[Novell]]. Dennis Ritchie likened this sale to the Biblical story of [[Esau]] selling his birthright for the proverbial [[mess of pottage]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://groups.google.com/group/comp.GNU/Unix.questions/browse_frm/thread/2f0b5e719fa3a3ec/3fa5e5fe4d58f96b |title=comp.GNU/Unix.questions &#124; Google Groups |publisher=Groups.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Novell developed its own version, [[GNU/UnixWare]], merging its [[NetWare]] with GNU/Unix System V Release 4. Novell tried to use this as a marketing tool against [[Windows NT]], but their core markets suffered considerably.
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Shortly after UNIX System V Release 4 was produced, AT&T sold all its rights to UNIX to [[Novell]]. Dennis Ritchie likened this sale to the Biblical story of [[Esau]] selling his birthright for the proverbial [[mess of pottage]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://groups.google.com/group/comp.unix.questions/browse_frm/thread/2f0b5e719fa3a3ec/3fa5e5fe4d58f96b |title=comp.unix.questions &#124; Google Groups |publisher=Groups.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Novell developed its own version, [[UnixWare]], merging its [[NetWare]] with UNIX System V Release 4. Novell tried to use this as a marketing tool against [[Windows NT]], but their core markets suffered considerably.
   
In 1993, Novell decided to transfer the GNU/Unix [[trademark]] and certification rights to the [[X/Open]] Consortium.<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite web|author=Chuck Karish &nbsp; View profile &nbsp; &nbsp;More options |url=http://groups.google.com/group/comp.std.GNU/Unix/msg/c9974cf0022884f8 |title=The name GNU/Unix is now the property of X/Open – comp.std.GNU/Unix &#124; Google Groups |publisher=Groups.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> In 1996, X/Open merged with [[Open Software Foundation|OSF]], creating the [[Open Group]]. Various standards by the Open Group now define what is and what is not a GNU/Unix operating system, notably the post-1998 [[Single GNU/Unix Specification]].
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In 1993, Novell decided to transfer the UNIX [[trademark]] and certification rights to the [[X/Open]] Consortium.<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite web|author=Chuck Karish &nbsp; View profile &nbsp; &nbsp;More options |url=http://groups.google.com/group/comp.std.unix/msg/c9974cf0022884f8 |title=The name UNIX is now the property of X/Open – comp.std.unix &#124; Google Groups |publisher=Groups.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> In 1996, X/Open merged with [[Open Software Foundation|OSF]], creating the [[Open Group]]. Various standards by the Open Group now define what is and what is not a UNIX operating system, notably the post-1998 [[Single UNIX Specification]].
   
In 1995, the business of administering and supporting the existing GNU/Unix licenses, plus rights to further develop the System V code base, were sold by Novell to the Santa Cruz Operation.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=http://www.novell.com/news/press/archive/1995/09/pr95220.html |title=HP, Novell and SCO To Deliver High-Volume GNU/Unix OS With Advanced Network And Enterprise Services |publisher=Novell.com |date=1995-09-20 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Whether Novell also sold the copyrights is currently the subject of litigation (see below).
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In 1995, the business of administering and supporting the existing UNIX licenses, plus rights to further develop the System V code base, were sold by Novell to the Santa Cruz Operation.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=http://www.novell.com/news/press/archive/1995/09/pr95220.html |title=HP, Novell and SCO To Deliver High-Volume UNIX OS With Advanced Network And Enterprise Services |publisher=Novell.com |date=1995-09-20 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Whether Novell also sold the copyrights is currently the subject of litigation (see below).
   
In 1997, [[Apple Computer]] sought out a new foundation for its Macintosh operating system and chose [[NEXTSTEP]], an operating system developed by [[NeXT]]. The core operating system, which was based on [[BSD]] and the [[Mach kernel]], was renamed [[Darwin (operating system)|Darwin]] after Apple acquired it. The deployment of Darwin in [[Mac OS X]] makes it, according to a statement made by an Apple employee at a [[USENIX]] conference, the most widely used GNU/Unix-based system in the [[desktop computer]] market.
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In 1997, [[Apple Computer]] sought out a new foundation for its Macintosh operating system and chose [[NEXTSTEP]], an operating system developed by [[NeXT]]. The core operating system, which was based on [[BSD]] and the [[Mach kernel]], was renamed [[Darwin (operating system)|Darwin]] after Apple acquired it. The deployment of Darwin in [[Mac OS X]] makes it, according to a statement made by an Apple employee at a [[USENIX]] conference, the most widely used Unix-based system in the [[desktop computer]] market.
   
 
=== 2000s ===
 
=== 2000s ===
In 2000, [[Santa Cruz Operation|SCO]] sold its entire GNU/Unix business and assets to Caldera Systems, which later on changed its name to [[The SCO Group]].
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In 2000, [[Santa Cruz Operation|SCO]] sold its entire UNIX business and assets to Caldera Systems, which later on changed its name to [[The SCO Group]].
   
The bursting of the [[dot-com bubble]] (2001–2003) led to significant consolidation of versions of GNU/Unix. Of the many commercial variants of GNU/Unix that were born in the 1980s, only [[Solaris Operating System|Solaris]], [[HP-UX]], and [[AIX operating system|AIX]] were still doing relatively well in the market, though SGI's [[IRIX]] persisted for quite some time. Of these, Solaris had the largest market share in 2005.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9584_22-5984747.html | title = Itanium: A cautionary tale | accessdate = 2006-10-04|author = Stephen |date = December 7, 2005 | work = Tech News | publisher = ZDNet | quote = In the third quarter of this year, 7,845 Itanium servers were sold, according to research by Gartner. That compares with 62,776 machines with Sun Microsystems' UltraSparc, 31,648 with IBM's Power, and 9,147 with HP's PA-RISC. |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060923185730/http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9584_22-5984747.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2006-09-23}}</ref>
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The bursting of the [[dot-com bubble]] (2001–2003) led to significant consolidation of versions of Unix. Of the many commercial variants of Unix that were born in the 1980s, only [[Solaris Operating System|Solaris]], [[HP-UX]], and [[AIX operating system|AIX]] were still doing relatively well in the market, though SGI's [[IRIX]] persisted for quite some time. Of these, Solaris had the largest market share in 2005.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9584_22-5984747.html | title = Itanium: A cautionary tale | accessdate = 2006-10-04|author = Stephen |date = December 7, 2005 | work = Tech News | publisher = ZDNet | quote = In the third quarter of this year, 7,845 Itanium servers were sold, according to research by Gartner. That compares with 62,776 machines with Sun Microsystems' UltraSparc, 31,648 with IBM's Power, and 9,147 with HP's PA-RISC. |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060923185730/http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9584_22-5984747.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2006-09-23}}</ref>
   
In 2003, the SCO Group started legal action against various users and vendors of Linux. SCO had alleged that Linux contained copyrighted GNU/Unix code now owned by The SCO Group. Other allegations included trade-secret violations by [[IBM]], or contract violations by former Santa Cruz customers who had since converted to Linux. However, Novell disputed the SCO Group's claim to hold copyright on the GNU/Unix source base. According to Novell, SCO (and hence the SCO Group) are effectively franchise operators for Novell, which also retained the core copyrights, veto rights over future licensing activities of SCO, and 95% of the licensing revenue. The SCO Group disagreed with this, and the dispute resulted in the ''[[SCO v. Novell]]'' lawsuit. On August 10, 2007, a major portion of the case was decided in Novell's favor (that Novell had the copyright to GNU/Unix, and that the SCO Group had improperly kept money that was due to Novell). The court also ruled that "SCO is obligated to recognize Novell's waiver of SCO's claims against IBM and Sequent". After the ruling, Novell announced they have no interest in suing people over GNU/Unix and stated, "We don't believe there is GNU/Unix in Linux".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/staticpages/index.php?page=20070810205256644 |title=Memorandum and Decision Order in SCO v. Novell |publisher=Groklaw.net |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref><ref name="doc377">{{cite web|url=http://sco.tuxrocks.com/Docs/Novell/Novell-377.pdf |title=Tuxrocks.com |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2012-01-06}}</ref><ref>[http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,135959-c,GNU/Unix/article.html Novell Won't Pursue GNU/Unix Copyrights] August 15, 2007</ref> SCO successfully got the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals to partially overturn this decision on August 24, 2009 which sent the lawsuit back to the courts for a jury trial.<ref>[http://www.groklaw.net/pdf/AppealRuling.pdf Groklaw.net] August 24, 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.novell.com/prblogs/?p=1134 Novell.com] August 24, 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/08/sco/ Wired.com] August 24, 2009</ref>
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In 2003, the SCO Group started legal action against various users and vendors of Linux. SCO had alleged that Linux contained copyrighted Unix code now owned by The SCO Group. Other allegations included trade-secret violations by [[IBM]], or contract violations by former Santa Cruz customers who had since converted to Linux. However, Novell disputed the SCO Group's claim to hold copyright on the UNIX source base. According to Novell, SCO (and hence the SCO Group) are effectively franchise operators for Novell, which also retained the core copyrights, veto rights over future licensing activities of SCO, and 95% of the licensing revenue. The SCO Group disagreed with this, and the dispute resulted in the ''[[SCO v. Novell]]'' lawsuit. On August 10, 2007, a major portion of the case was decided in Novell's favor (that Novell had the copyright to UNIX, and that the SCO Group had improperly kept money that was due to Novell). The court also ruled that "SCO is obligated to recognize Novell's waiver of SCO's claims against IBM and Sequent". After the ruling, Novell announced they have no interest in suing people over Unix and stated, "We don't believe there is Unix in Linux".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/staticpages/index.php?page=20070810205256644 |title=Memorandum and Decision Order in SCO v. Novell |publisher=Groklaw.net |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref><ref name="doc377">{{cite web|url=http://sco.tuxrocks.com/Docs/Novell/Novell-377.pdf |title=Tuxrocks.com |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2012-01-06}}</ref><ref>[http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,135959-c,unix/article.html Novell Won't Pursue Unix Copyrights] August 15, 2007</ref> SCO successfully got the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals to partially overturn this decision on August 24, 2009 which sent the lawsuit back to the courts for a jury trial.<ref>[http://www.groklaw.net/pdf/AppealRuling.pdf Groklaw.net] August 24, 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.novell.com/prblogs/?p=1134 Novell.com] August 24, 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/08/sco/ Wired.com] August 24, 2009</ref>
   
On March 30, 2010, following a jury trial, Novell, and not The SCO Group, was "unanimously [found]" to be the owner of the GNU/Unix and GNU/UnixWare copyrights.<ref name=glNovell-846>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/pdf2/Novell-846.pdf |title=03/30/2010 – 846 – JURY VERDICT for Defendant Novell. (slm) (Entered: 03/30/2010) |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> The SCO Group, through bankruptcy trustee Edward Cahn, decided to continue the lawsuit against IBM for causing a decline in SCO revenues.<ref name=sltrib14786202>{{cite web|author=http://www.sltrib.com |url=http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_14786202 |title=Jury says Novell owns GNU/Unix copyrights |publisher=Sltrib.com |date=2010-03-30 |accessdate=2012-01-06}}</ref>
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On March 30, 2010, following a jury trial, Novell, and not The SCO Group, was "unanimously [found]" to be the owner of the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights.<ref name=glNovell-846>{{cite web|url=http://www.groklaw.net/pdf2/Novell-846.pdf |title=03/30/2010 – 846 – JURY VERDICT for Defendant Novell. (slm) (Entered: 03/30/2010) |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> The SCO Group, through bankruptcy trustee Edward Cahn, decided to continue the lawsuit against IBM for causing a decline in SCO revenues.<ref name=sltrib14786202>{{cite web|author=http://www.sltrib.com |url=http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_14786202 |title=Jury says Novell owns Unix copyrights |publisher=Sltrib.com |date=2010-03-30 |accessdate=2012-01-06}}</ref>
   
 
{{See also|SCO-Linux controversies}}
 
{{See also|SCO-Linux controversies}}
   
In 2005, [[Sun Microsystems]] released the bulk of its Solaris system code (based on [[GNU/Unix System V]] Release 4) into an [[open source]] project called [[OpenSolaris]]. New Sun OS technologies, notably the [[ZFS]] file system, were first released as open source code via the OpenSolaris project. Soon afterwards, OpenSolaris spawned several non-Sun distributions. In 2010, after Oracle acquired Sun, OpenSolaris was officially discontinued, but the development of derivatives continued.
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In 2005, [[Sun Microsystems]] released the bulk of its Solaris system code (based on [[UNIX System V]] Release 4) into an [[open source]] project called [[OpenSolaris]]. New Sun OS technologies, notably the [[ZFS]] file system, were first released as open source code via the OpenSolaris project. Soon afterwards, OpenSolaris spawned several non-Sun distributions. In 2010, after Oracle acquired Sun, OpenSolaris was officially discontinued, but the development of derivatives continued.
   
 
== Standards ==
 
== Standards ==
Beginning in the late 1980s, an open operating system standardization effort now known as [[POSIX]] provided a common baseline for all operating systems; [[IEEE]] based POSIX around the common structure of the major competing variants of the GNU/Unix system, publishing the first POSIX standard in 1988. In the early 1990s, a separate but very similar effort was started by an industry consortium, the [[Common Open Software Environment]] (COSE) initiative, which eventually became the [[Single GNU/Unix Specification]] administered by [[The Open Group]]. Starting in 1998, the Open Group and IEEE started the [[Austin Group]], to provide a common definition of POSIX and the Single GNU/Unix Specification.
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Beginning in the late 1980s, an open operating system standardization effort now known as [[POSIX]] provided a common baseline for all operating systems; [[IEEE]] based POSIX around the common structure of the major competing variants of the Unix system, publishing the first POSIX standard in 1988. In the early 1990s, a separate but very similar effort was started by an industry consortium, the [[Common Open Software Environment]] (COSE) initiative, which eventually became the [[Single UNIX Specification]] administered by [[The Open Group]]. Starting in 1998, the Open Group and IEEE started the [[Austin Group]], to provide a common definition of POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification.
   
In 1999, in an effort towards compatibility, several GNU/Unix system vendors agreed on SVR4's [[Executable and Linkable Format]] (ELF) as the standard for binary and object code files. The common format allows substantial binary compatibility among GNU/Unix systems operating on the same CPU architecture.
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In 1999, in an effort towards compatibility, several Unix system vendors agreed on SVR4's [[Executable and Linkable Format]] (ELF) as the standard for binary and object code files. The common format allows substantial binary compatibility among Unix systems operating on the same CPU architecture.
   
The [[Filesystem Hierarchy Standard]] was created to provide a reference directory layout for GNU/Unix-like operating systems, particularly Linux.
+
The [[Filesystem Hierarchy Standard]] was created to provide a reference directory layout for Unix-like operating systems, particularly Linux.
   
 
== Components ==
 
== Components ==
{{see also|List of GNU/Unix programs}}
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{{see also|List of Unix programs}}
The GNU/Unix system is composed of several components that are normally packaged together. By including – in addition to the [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]] of an operating system – the development environment, libraries, documents, and the portable, modifiable source-code for all of these components, GNU/Unix was a self-contained software system. This was one of the key reasons it emerged as an important teaching and learning tool and has had such a broad influence.
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The Unix system is composed of several components that are normally packaged together. By including – in addition to the [[Kernel (computer science)|kernel]] of an operating system – the development environment, libraries, documents, and the portable, modifiable source-code for all of these components, Unix was a self-contained software system. This was one of the key reasons it emerged as an important teaching and learning tool and has had such a broad influence.
   
The inclusion of these components did not make the system large – the original V7 GNU/Unix distribution, consisting of copies of all of the compiled binaries plus all of the source code and documentation occupied less than 10MB, and arrived on a single 9-track [[Magnetic tape data storage|magnetic tape]]. The printed documentation, typeset from the on-line sources, was contained in two volumes.
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The inclusion of these components did not make the system large – the original V7 UNIX distribution, consisting of copies of all of the compiled binaries plus all of the source code and documentation occupied less than 10MB, and arrived on a single 9-track [[Magnetic tape data storage|magnetic tape]]. The printed documentation, typeset from the on-line sources, was contained in two volumes.
   
The names and filesystem locations of the GNU/Unix components have changed substantially across the history of the system. Nonetheless, the V7 implementation is considered by many to have the canonical early structure:
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The names and filesystem locations of the Unix components have changed substantially across the history of the system. Nonetheless, the V7 implementation is considered by many to have the canonical early structure:
 
*'''Kernel''' – source code in /usr/sys, composed of several sub-components:
 
*'''Kernel''' – source code in /usr/sys, composed of several sub-components:
 
**''conf'' – configuration and machine-dependent parts, including boot code
 
**''conf'' – configuration and machine-dependent parts, including boot code
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**''sys'' – operating system "kernel", handling memory management, process scheduling, system calls, etc.
 
**''sys'' – operating system "kernel", handling memory management, process scheduling, system calls, etc.
 
**''h'' – header files, defining key structures within the system and important system-specific invariables
 
**''h'' – header files, defining key structures within the system and important system-specific invariables
*'''Development Environment''' – Early versions of GNU/Unix contained a development environment sufficient to recreate the entire system from source code:
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*'''Development Environment''' – Early versions of Unix contained a development environment sufficient to recreate the entire system from source code:
**''cc'' – [[C (programming language)|C language]] compiler (first appeared in V3 GNU/Unix)
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**''cc'' – [[C (programming language)|C language]] compiler (first appeared in V3 Unix)
 
**''as'' – machine-language assembler for the machine
 
**''as'' – machine-language assembler for the machine
 
**''ld'' – linker, for combining object files
 
**''ld'' – linker, for combining object files
**''lib'' – object-code libraries (installed in /lib or /usr/lib). ''[[libc]]'', the system library with C run-time support, was the primary library, but there have always been additional libraries for such things as mathematical functions (''[[libm]]'') or database access. V7 GNU/Unix introduced the first version of the modern "Standard I/O" library ''stdio'' as part of the system library. Later implementations increased the number of libraries significantly.
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**''lib'' – object-code libraries (installed in /lib or /usr/lib). ''[[libc]]'', the system library with C run-time support, was the primary library, but there have always been additional libraries for such things as mathematical functions (''[[libm]]'') or database access. V7 Unix introduced the first version of the modern "Standard I/O" library ''stdio'' as part of the system library. Later implementations increased the number of libraries significantly.
**''[[make (software)|make]]'' – build manager (introduced in [[PWB/GNU/Unix]]), for effectively automating the build process
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**''[[make (software)|make]]'' – build manager (introduced in [[PWB/UNIX]]), for effectively automating the build process
 
**''include'' – header files for software development, defining standard interfaces and system invariants
 
**''include'' – header files for software development, defining standard interfaces and system invariants
**''Other languages'' – V7 GNU/Unix contained a Fortran-77 compiler, a programmable arbitrary-precision calculator (''bc'', ''dc''), and the [[awk]] scripting language, and later versions and implementations contain many other language compilers and toolsets. Early BSD releases included [[Pascal (programming language)|Pascal]] tools, and many modern GNU/Unix systems also include the [[GNU Compiler Collection]] as well as or instead of a proprietary compiler system.
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**''Other languages'' – V7 Unix contained a Fortran-77 compiler, a programmable arbitrary-precision calculator (''bc'', ''dc''), and the [[awk]] scripting language, and later versions and implementations contain many other language compilers and toolsets. Early BSD releases included [[Pascal (programming language)|Pascal]] tools, and many modern Unix systems also include the [[GNU Compiler Collection]] as well as or instead of a proprietary compiler system.
 
**''Other tools'' – including an object-code archive manager (''ar''), symbol-table lister (''nm''), compiler-development tools (e.g. ''lex'' & ''yacc''), and debugging tools.
 
**''Other tools'' – including an object-code archive manager (''ar''), symbol-table lister (''nm''), compiler-development tools (e.g. ''lex'' & ''yacc''), and debugging tools.
*'''Commands''' – GNU/Unix makes little distinction between commands (user-level programs) for system operation and maintenance (e.g. ''cron''), commands of general utility (e.g. ''grep''), and more general-purpose applications such as the text formatting and typesetting package. Nonetheless, some major categories are:
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*'''Commands''' – Unix makes little distinction between commands (user-level programs) for system operation and maintenance (e.g. ''cron''), commands of general utility (e.g. ''grep''), and more general-purpose applications such as the text formatting and typesetting package. Nonetheless, some major categories are:
**''[[Bourne shell|sh]]'' – The "shell" programmable [[command line interpreter]], the primary user interface on GNU/Unix before window systems appeared, and even afterward (within a "command window").
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**''[[Bourne shell|sh]]'' – The "shell" programmable [[command line interpreter]], the primary user interface on Unix before window systems appeared, and even afterward (within a "command window").
**''Utilities'' – the core tool kit of the GNU/Unix command set, including ''cp'', ''ls'', ''grep'', ''find'' and many others. Subcategories include:
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**''Utilities'' – the core tool kit of the Unix command set, including ''cp'', ''ls'', ''grep'', ''find'' and many others. Subcategories include:
 
***''System utilities'' – administrative tools such as ''[[mkfs]]'', ''[[fsck]]'', and many others.
 
***''System utilities'' – administrative tools such as ''[[mkfs]]'', ''[[fsck]]'', and many others.
 
***''User utilities'' – environment management tools such as ''passwd'', ''kill'', and others.
 
***''User utilities'' – environment management tools such as ''passwd'', ''kill'', and others.
**''Document formatting'' – GNU/Unix systems were used from the outset for document preparation and typesetting systems, and included many related programs such as ''[[nroff]]'', ''[[troff]]'', ''[[tbl]]'', ''[[eqn]]'', ''[[refer (software)|refer]]'', and ''[[Pic language|pic]]''. Some modern GNU/Unix systems also include packages such as [[TeX]] and [[Ghostscript]].
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**''Document formatting'' – Unix systems were used from the outset for document preparation and typesetting systems, and included many related programs such as ''[[nroff]]'', ''[[troff]]'', ''[[tbl]]'', ''[[eqn]]'', ''[[refer (software)|refer]]'', and ''[[Pic language|pic]]''. Some modern Unix systems also include packages such as [[TeX]] and [[Ghostscript]].
**''Graphics'' – The ''plot'' subsystem provided facilities for producing simple vector plots in a device-independent format, with device-specific interpreters to display such files. Modern GNU/Unix systems also generally include [[X11]] as a standard windowing system and [[GUI]], and many support [[OpenGL]].
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**''Graphics'' – The ''plot'' subsystem provided facilities for producing simple vector plots in a device-independent format, with device-specific interpreters to display such files. Modern Unix systems also generally include [[X11]] as a standard windowing system and [[GUI]], and many support [[OpenGL]].
**''Communications'' – Early GNU/Unix systems contained no inter-system communication, but did include the inter-user communication programs ''mail'' and ''write''. V7 introduced the early inter-system communication system [[UUCP]], and systems beginning with BSD release 4.1c included [[TCP/IP]] utilities.
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**''Communications'' – Early Unix systems contained no inter-system communication, but did include the inter-user communication programs ''mail'' and ''write''. V7 introduced the early inter-system communication system [[UUCP]], and systems beginning with BSD release 4.1c included [[TCP/IP]] utilities.
*'''Documentation''' – GNU/Unix was the first operating system to include all of its documentation online in machine-readable form. The documentation included:
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*'''Documentation''' – Unix was the first operating system to include all of its documentation online in machine-readable form. The documentation included:
**''[[Manual page (GNU/Unix)|man]]'' – manual pages for each command, library component, [[system call]], header file, etc.
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**''[[Manual page (Unix)|man]]'' – manual pages for each command, library component, [[system call]], header file, etc.
 
**''doc'' – longer documents detailing major subsystems, such as the C language and troff
 
**''doc'' – longer documents detailing major subsystems, such as the C language and troff
   
 
==Impact==
 
==Impact==
{{See also|GNU/Unix-like}}
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{{See also|Unix-like}}
The GNU/Unix system had significant impact on other operating systems. It won its success by:
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The Unix system had significant impact on other operating systems. It won its success by:
 
* Direct interaction.
 
* Direct interaction.
 
* Moving away from the total control of businesses like IBM and DEC.
 
* Moving away from the total control of businesses like IBM and DEC.
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* Being easy to adopt and move to different machines.
 
* Being easy to adopt and move to different machines.
   
It was written in a high level language rather than [[assembly language]] (which had been thought necessary for systems implementation on early computers). Although this followed the lead of [[Multics]] and [[Burroughs large systems|Burroughs]], it was GNU/Unix that popularized the idea.
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It was written in a high level language rather than [[assembly language]] (which had been thought necessary for systems implementation on early computers). Although this followed the lead of [[Multics]] and [[Burroughs large systems|Burroughs]], it was Unix that popularized the idea.
   
GNU/Unix had a drastically simplified file model compared to many contemporary operating systems: treating all kinds of files as simple byte arrays. The file system hierarchy contained machine services and devices (such as [[computer printer|printer]]s, [[computer terminal|terminal]]s, or [[disk drive]]s), providing a uniform interface, but at the expense of occasionally requiring additional mechanisms such as [[ioctl]] and mode flags to access features of the hardware that did not fit the simple "stream of bytes" model. The [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs|Plan 9]] operating system pushed this model even further and eliminated the need for additional mechanisms.
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Unix had a drastically simplified file model compared to many contemporary operating systems: treating all kinds of files as simple byte arrays. The file system hierarchy contained machine services and devices (such as [[computer printer|printer]]s, [[computer terminal|terminal]]s, or [[disk drive]]s), providing a uniform interface, but at the expense of occasionally requiring additional mechanisms such as [[ioctl]] and mode flags to access features of the hardware that did not fit the simple "stream of bytes" model. The [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs|Plan 9]] operating system pushed this model even further and eliminated the need for additional mechanisms.
   
GNU/Unix also popularized the hierarchical file system with arbitrarily nested subdirectories, originally introduced by Multics. Other common operating systems of the era had ways to divide a storage device into multiple directories or sections, but they had a fixed number of levels, often only one level. Several major proprietary operating systems eventually added recursive subdirectory capabilities also patterned after Multics. DEC's [[RSX-11]]M's "group, user" hierarchy evolved into [[Virtual Memory System|VMS]] directories, [[CP/M]]'s volumes evolved into [[MS-DOS]] 2.0+ subdirectories, and HP's [[Multi-Programming Executive|MPE]] group.account hierarchy and IBM's [[System Support Program|SSP]] and [[OS/400]] library systems were folded into broader POSIX file systems.
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Unix also popularized the hierarchical file system with arbitrarily nested subdirectories, originally introduced by Multics. Other common operating systems of the era had ways to divide a storage device into multiple directories or sections, but they had a fixed number of levels, often only one level. Several major proprietary operating systems eventually added recursive subdirectory capabilities also patterned after Multics. DEC's [[RSX-11]]M's "group, user" hierarchy evolved into [[Virtual Memory System|VMS]] directories, [[CP/M]]'s volumes evolved into [[MS-DOS]] 2.0+ subdirectories, and HP's [[Multi-Programming Executive|MPE]] group.account hierarchy and IBM's [[System Support Program|SSP]] and [[OS/400]] library systems were folded into broader POSIX file systems.
   
Making the command interpreter an ordinary user-level program, with additional commands provided as separate programs, was another Multics innovation popularized by GNU/Unix. The [[GNU/Unix shell]] used the same language for interactive commands as for scripting ([[shell script]]s – there was no separate job control language like IBM's [[Job Control Language|JCL]]). Since the shell and OS commands were "just another program", the user could choose (or even write) his own shell. New commands could be added without changing the shell itself. GNU/Unix's innovative command-line syntax for creating modular chains of producer-consumer processes ([[pipeline (GNU/Unix)|pipelines]]) made a powerful programming paradigm ([[coroutine]]s) widely available. Many later command-line interpreters have been inspired by the GNU/Unix shell.
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Making the command interpreter an ordinary user-level program, with additional commands provided as separate programs, was another Multics innovation popularized by Unix. The [[Unix shell]] used the same language for interactive commands as for scripting ([[shell script]]s – there was no separate job control language like IBM's [[Job Control Language|JCL]]). Since the shell and OS commands were "just another program", the user could choose (or even write) his own shell. New commands could be added without changing the shell itself. Unix's innovative command-line syntax for creating modular chains of producer-consumer processes ([[pipeline (Unix)|pipelines]]) made a powerful programming paradigm ([[coroutine]]s) widely available. Many later command-line interpreters have been inspired by the Unix shell.
   
A fundamental simplifying assumption of GNU/Unix was its focus on ASCII text for nearly all file formats. There were no "binary" editors in the original version of GNU/Unix – the entire system was configured using textual shell command scripts. The common denominator in the I/O system was the byte – unlike [[Record-oriented filesystem|"record-based" file systems]]. The focus on text for representing nearly everything made GNU/Unix pipes especially useful, and encouraged the development of simple, general tools that could be easily combined to perform more complicated ''ad hoc'' tasks. The focus on text and bytes made the system far more scalable and portable than other systems. Over time, text-based applications have also proven popular in application areas, such as printing languages ([[PostScript]], [[ODF]]), and at the application layer of the [[Internet Protocol Suite|Internet protocols]], e.g., [[FTP]], [[SMTP]], [[HTTP]], [[SOAP]], and [[Session Initiation Protocol|SIP]].
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A fundamental simplifying assumption of Unix was its focus on ASCII text for nearly all file formats. There were no "binary" editors in the original version of Unix – the entire system was configured using textual shell command scripts. The common denominator in the I/O system was the byte – unlike [[Record-oriented filesystem|"record-based" file systems]]. The focus on text for representing nearly everything made Unix pipes especially useful, and encouraged the development of simple, general tools that could be easily combined to perform more complicated ''ad hoc'' tasks. The focus on text and bytes made the system far more scalable and portable than other systems. Over time, text-based applications have also proven popular in application areas, such as printing languages ([[PostScript]], [[ODF]]), and at the application layer of the [[Internet Protocol Suite|Internet protocols]], e.g., [[FTP]], [[SMTP]], [[HTTP]], [[SOAP]], and [[Session Initiation Protocol|SIP]].
   
GNU/Unix popularized a syntax for [[regular expressions]] that found widespread use. The GNU/Unix programming interface became the basis for a widely implemented operating system interface standard (POSIX, see above).
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Unix popularized a syntax for [[regular expressions]] that found widespread use. The Unix programming interface became the basis for a widely implemented operating system interface standard (POSIX, see above).
   
The [[C (programming language)|C programming language]] soon spread beyond GNU/Unix, and is now ubiquitous in systems and applications programming.
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The [[C (programming language)|C programming language]] soon spread beyond Unix, and is now ubiquitous in systems and applications programming.
   
Early GNU/Unix developers were important in bringing the concepts of [[Modularity (programming)|modularity]] and [[reusability]] into [[software engineering]] practice, spawning a "software tools" movement.
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Early Unix developers were important in bringing the concepts of [[Modularity (programming)|modularity]] and [[reusability]] into [[software engineering]] practice, spawning a "software tools" movement.
   
GNU/Unix provided the TCP/IP networking protocol on relatively inexpensive computers, which contributed to the [[Internet]] explosion of worldwide real-time connectivity, and which formed the basis for implementations on many other platforms. This also exposed numerous security holes in the networking implementations.
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Unix provided the TCP/IP networking protocol on relatively inexpensive computers, which contributed to the [[Internet]] explosion of worldwide real-time connectivity, and which formed the basis for implementations on many other platforms. This also exposed numerous security holes in the networking implementations.
   
The GNU/Unix policy of extensive on-line documentation and (for many years) ready access to all system source code raised programmer expectations, and contributed to the 1983 launch of the [[free software movement]].
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The Unix policy of extensive on-line documentation and (for many years) ready access to all system source code raised programmer expectations, and contributed to the 1983 launch of the [[free software movement]].
   
Over time, the leading developers of GNU/Unix (and programs that ran on it) established a set of cultural norms for developing software, norms which became as important and influential as the technology of GNU/Unix itself; this has been termed the [[GNU/Unix philosophy]].
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Over time, the leading developers of Unix (and programs that ran on it) established a set of cultural norms for developing software, norms which became as important and influential as the technology of Unix itself; this has been termed the [[Unix philosophy]].
   
=== Free GNU/Unix and GNU/Unix-like operating systems ===
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=== Free Unix and Unix-like operating systems ===
{{See also|Operating system#GNU/Unix and GNU/Unix-like operating systems}}
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{{See also|Operating system#UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems}}
In 1983, [[Richard Stallman]] announced the [[GNU]] project, an ambitious effort to create a [[free software]] [[GNU/Unix-like]] system; "free" in that everyone who received a copy would be free to use, study, modify, and redistribute it. The GNU project's own kernel development project, [[GNU Hurd]], had not produced a working kernel, but in 1991 [[Linus Torvalds]] released the [[Linux kernel]] as free software under the [[GNU General Public License]]. In addition to their use in the [[GNU/Linux]] operating system, many GNU packages – such as the [[GNU Compiler Collection]] (and the rest of the [[GNU toolchain]]), the [[glibc|GNU C library]] and the [[Coreutils|GNU core utilities]] – have gone on to play central roles in other free GNU/Unix systems as well.
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In 1983, [[Richard Stallman]] announced the [[GNU]] project, an ambitious effort to create a [[free software]] [[Unix-like]] system; "free" in that everyone who received a copy would be free to use, study, modify, and redistribute it. The GNU project's own kernel development project, [[GNU Hurd]], had not produced a working kernel, but in 1991 [[Linus Torvalds]] released the [[Linux kernel]] as free software under the [[GNU General Public License]]. In addition to their use in the [[GNU/Linux]] operating system, many GNU packages – such as the [[GNU Compiler Collection]] (and the rest of the [[GNU toolchain]]), the [[glibc|GNU C library]] and the [[Coreutils|GNU core utilities]] – have gone on to play central roles in other free Unix systems as well.
   
 
[[Linux distributions]], consisting of the [[Linux kernel]] and large collections of compatible software have become popular both with individual users and in business. Popular distributions include [[Red Hat Enterprise Linux]], [[Fedora (operating system)|Fedora]], [[SUSE Linux|SUSE Linux Enterprise]], [[openSUSE]], [[Debian|Debian GNU/Linux]], [[Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]], [[Mandriva Linux]], [[Slackware Linux]] and [[Gentoo Linux|Gentoo]].
 
[[Linux distributions]], consisting of the [[Linux kernel]] and large collections of compatible software have become popular both with individual users and in business. Popular distributions include [[Red Hat Enterprise Linux]], [[Fedora (operating system)|Fedora]], [[SUSE Linux|SUSE Linux Enterprise]], [[openSUSE]], [[Debian|Debian GNU/Linux]], [[Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]], [[Mandriva Linux]], [[Slackware Linux]] and [[Gentoo Linux|Gentoo]].
   
A free derivative of [[BSD]] GNU/Unix, [[386BSD]], was also released in 1992 and led to the [[NetBSD]] and [[FreeBSD]] projects. With the 1994 settlement of a lawsuit that [[GNU/Unix Systems Laboratories]] brought against the University of California and Berkeley Software Design Inc. ([[USL v. BSDi]]), it was clarified that Berkeley had the right to distribute BSD GNU/Unix – for free, if it so desired. Since then, BSD GNU/Unix has been developed in several different directions, including [[OpenBSD]] and [[DragonFly BSD]].
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A free derivative of [[BSD]] Unix, [[386BSD]], was also released in 1992 and led to the [[NetBSD]] and [[FreeBSD]] projects. With the 1994 settlement of a lawsuit that [[UNIX Systems Laboratories]] brought against the University of California and Berkeley Software Design Inc. ([[USL v. BSDi]]), it was clarified that Berkeley had the right to distribute BSD Unix – for free, if it so desired. Since then, BSD Unix has been developed in several different directions, including [[OpenBSD]] and [[DragonFly BSD]].
   
Linux and BSD are now rapidly occupying much of the market traditionally occupied by proprietary GNU/Unix operating systems, as well as expanding into new markets such as the consumer desktop and mobile and embedded devices. Due to the modularity of the GNU/Unix design, sharing bits and pieces is relatively common; consequently, most or all GNU/Unix and GNU/Unix-like systems include at least some BSD code, and modern systems also usually include some GNU utilities in their distributions.
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Linux and BSD are now rapidly occupying much of the market traditionally occupied by proprietary Unix operating systems, as well as expanding into new markets such as the consumer desktop and mobile and embedded devices. Due to the modularity of the Unix design, sharing bits and pieces is relatively common; consequently, most or all Unix and Unix-like systems include at least some BSD code, and modern systems also usually include some GNU utilities in their distributions.
   
 
[[OpenSolaris]] is a relatively recent addition to the list of operating systems based on free software licenses marked as such by [[Free Software Foundation|FSF]] and [[Open Source Initiative|OSI]]. It includes a number of derivatives that combines [[CDDL]]-licensed kernel and system tools and also [[GNU]] userland and is currently the only open source System V derivative available.
 
[[OpenSolaris]] is a relatively recent addition to the list of operating systems based on free software licenses marked as such by [[Free Software Foundation|FSF]] and [[Open Source Initiative|OSI]]. It includes a number of derivatives that combines [[CDDL]]-licensed kernel and system tools and also [[GNU]] userland and is currently the only open source System V derivative available.
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===2038===
 
===2038===
 
{{main|Year 2038 problem}}
 
{{main|Year 2038 problem}}
GNU/Unix stores [[system time]] values as the number of seconds from midnight January 1, 1970 (the "[[GNU/Unix Epoch]]") in variables of type <code>[[time t|time_t]]</code>, historically defined as "signed long". On January 19, 2038 on 32 bit GNU/Unix systems, the current time will roll over from a zero followed by 31 ones (<code>0x7FFFFFFF</code>) to a one followed by 31 zeros (<code>0x80000000</code>), which will reset time to the year 1901 or 1970, depending on implementation, because that toggles the [[sign bit]].
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Unix stores [[system time]] values as the number of seconds from midnight January 1, 1970 (the "[[Unix Epoch]]") in variables of type <code>[[time t|time_t]]</code>, historically defined as "signed long". On January 19, 2038 on 32 bit Unix systems, the current time will roll over from a zero followed by 31 ones (<code>0x7FFFFFFF</code>) to a one followed by 31 zeros (<code>0x80000000</code>), which will reset time to the year 1901 or 1970, depending on implementation, because that toggles the [[sign bit]].
   
Since times before 1970 are rarely represented in [[GNU/Unix time]], one possible solution that is compatible with existing binary formats would be to redefine <code>time_t</code> as "unsigned 32-bit integer". However, such a [[kludge]] merely postpones the problem to February 7, 2106, and could introduce bugs in software that computes time differences.
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Since times before 1970 are rarely represented in [[Unix time]], one possible solution that is compatible with existing binary formats would be to redefine <code>time_t</code> as "unsigned 32-bit integer". However, such a [[kludge]] merely postpones the problem to February 7, 2106, and could introduce bugs in software that computes time differences.
   
Some GNU/Unix versions have already addressed this. For example, in Solaris and Linux in 64-bit mode, <code>time_t</code> is 64 bits long, meaning that the OS itself and 64-bit applications will correctly handle dates for some 292 billion years. Existing 32-bit applications using a 32-bit <code>time_t</code> continue to work on 64-bit Solaris systems but are still prone to the 2038 problem. Some vendors have introduced an alternative 64-bit type and corresponding [[API]], without addressing uses of the standard <code>time_t</code>. The [[NetBSD]] Project decided to instead bump <code>time_t</code> to 64-bit in its 6th major release for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, supporting 32-bit <code>time_t</code> in applications compiled for a former NetBSD release via its binary compatibility layer.
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Some Unix versions have already addressed this. For example, in Solaris and Linux in 64-bit mode, <code>time_t</code> is 64 bits long, meaning that the OS itself and 64-bit applications will correctly handle dates for some 292 billion years. Existing 32-bit applications using a 32-bit <code>time_t</code> continue to work on 64-bit Solaris systems but are still prone to the 2038 problem. Some vendors have introduced an alternative 64-bit type and corresponding [[API]], without addressing uses of the standard <code>time_t</code>. The [[NetBSD]] Project decided to instead bump <code>time_t</code> to 64-bit in its 6th major release for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, supporting 32-bit <code>time_t</code> in applications compiled for a former NetBSD release via its binary compatibility layer.
   
 
=== ARPANET ===
 
=== ARPANET ===
In May 1975, [[DARPA]] documented in RFC 681 detailed very specifically why GNU/Unix was the operating system of choice for use as an [[ARPANET]] mini-host. The evaluation process was also documented. GNU/Unix required a license that was very expensive with $20,000(US) for non-[[university]] users and $150 for an educational license. It was noted that for an ARPA network-wide license Bell "were open to suggestions in that area".
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In May 1975, [[DARPA]] documented in RFC 681 detailed very specifically why Unix was the operating system of choice for use as an [[ARPANET]] mini-host. The evaluation process was also documented. Unix required a license that was very expensive with $20,000(US) for non-[[university]] users and $150 for an educational license. It was noted that for an ARPA network-wide license Bell "were open to suggestions in that area".
   
 
Specific features found beneficial were:
 
Specific features found beneficial were:
Line 243: Line 243:
 
* [[Mount (computing)|Mountable]] and de-mountable volumes.
 
* [[Mount (computing)|Mountable]] and de-mountable volumes.
 
* Unified treatment of peripherals as [[Device file system|special files]].
 
* Unified treatment of peripherals as [[Device file system|special files]].
* The [[Network Control Program|network control program]] (NCP) was integrated within the GNU/Unix file system.
+
* The [[Network Control Program|network control program]] (NCP) was integrated within the Unix file system.
* [[Connection-oriented protocol|Network connections]] treated as special files which can be accessed through standard GNU/Unix [[System call|I/O calls]].
+
* [[Connection-oriented protocol|Network connections]] treated as special files which can be accessed through standard Unix [[System call|I/O calls]].
 
* The system closes all files on program exit.
 
* The system closes all files on program exit.
* "desirable to minimize the amount of code added to the basic GNU/Unix kernel".
+
* "desirable to minimize the amount of code added to the basic Unix kernel".
   
 
== Branding ==
 
== Branding ==
{{See also|List of GNU/Unix systems}}
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{{See also|List of Unix systems}}
In October 1993, [[Novell]], the company that owned the rights to the GNU/Unix System V source at the time, transferred the [[trademark]]s of GNU/Unix to the X/Open Company (now [[The Open Group]]),<ref name="autogenerated2" /> and in 1995 sold the related business operations to [[Santa Cruz Operation]].<ref name="autogenerated1" /> Whether Novell also sold the [[copyright]]s to the actual software was the subject of a 2006 federal lawsuit, [[SCO v. Novell]], which Novell won. The case was appealed, but on Aug 30, 2011, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit affirmed the trial decisions, closing the case.<ref>{{cite web|last=Jones|first=Pamela|title=SCO Files Docketing Statement and We Find Out What Its Appeal Will Be About|url=http://groklaw.net/article.php?story=20100723230825165|work=Groklaw|publisher=Groklaw.net|accessdate=12 April 2011}}</ref> GNU/Unix vendor [[SCO Group|SCO Group Inc.]] accused Novell of [[slander of title]].
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In October 1993, [[Novell]], the company that owned the rights to the Unix System V source at the time, transferred the [[trademark]]s of Unix to the X/Open Company (now [[The Open Group]]),<ref name="autogenerated2" /> and in 1995 sold the related business operations to [[Santa Cruz Operation]].<ref name="autogenerated1" /> Whether Novell also sold the [[copyright]]s to the actual software was the subject of a 2006 federal lawsuit, [[SCO v. Novell]], which Novell won. The case was appealed, but on Aug 30, 2011, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit affirmed the trial decisions, closing the case.<ref>{{cite web|last=Jones|first=Pamela|title=SCO Files Docketing Statement and We Find Out What Its Appeal Will Be About|url=http://groklaw.net/article.php?story=20100723230825165|work=Groklaw|publisher=Groklaw.net|accessdate=12 April 2011}}</ref> Unix vendor [[SCO Group|SCO Group Inc.]] accused Novell of [[slander of title]].
   
The present owner of the trademark ''GNU/Unix'' is The Open Group, an industry standards consortium. Only systems fully compliant with and certified to the [[Single GNU/Unix Specification]] qualify as "GNU/Unix" (others are called "GNU/Unix system-like" or "[[GNU/Unix-like]]").
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The present owner of the trademark ''UNIX'' is The Open Group, an industry standards consortium. Only systems fully compliant with and certified to the [[Single UNIX Specification]] qualify as "UNIX" (others are called "Unix system-like" or "[[Unix-like]]").
   
By decree of The Open Group, the term "GNU/Unix" refers more to a class of operating systems than to a specific implementation of an operating system; those operating systems which meet The Open Group's Single GNU/Unix Specification should be able to bear the [[GNU/Unix 98]] or [[GNU/Unix 03]] trademarks today, after the operating system's vendor pays a substantial certification fee and annual trademark royalties<ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title= The Open Brand Fee Schedule|url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/Brandfees.htm|accessdate=26 December 2011|quote=The right to use the GNU/Unix Trademark requires the Licensee to pay to The Open Group an additional annual fee, calculated in accordance with the fee table set out below.}}</ref> to The Open Group. Systems licensed to use the GNU/Unix trademark include [[IBM AIX (operating system)|AIX]], [[HP-UX]], [[IRIX]], [[Solaris (operating system)|Solaris]], [[Tru64]] (formerly "Digital GNU/Unix"), [[A/UX]], [[Mac OS X]],<ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title=Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard on Intel-based Macintosh computers certification |url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/register/brand3555.htm|accessdate=2007-06-12}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title=Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard certification |url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/register/brand3581.htm}}</ref> and a part of [[z/OS]].
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By decree of The Open Group, the term "UNIX" refers more to a class of operating systems than to a specific implementation of an operating system; those operating systems which meet The Open Group's Single UNIX Specification should be able to bear the [[UNIX 98]] or [[UNIX 03]] trademarks today, after the operating system's vendor pays a substantial certification fee and annual trademark royalties<ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title= The Open Brand Fee Schedule|url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/Brandfees.htm|accessdate=26 December 2011|quote=The right to use the UNIX Trademark requires the Licensee to pay to The Open Group an additional annual fee, calculated in accordance with the fee table set out below.}}</ref> to The Open Group. Systems licensed to use the UNIX trademark include [[IBM AIX (operating system)|AIX]], [[HP-UX]], [[IRIX]], [[Solaris (operating system)|Solaris]], [[Tru64]] (formerly "Digital UNIX"), [[A/UX]], [[Mac OS X]],<ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title=Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard on Intel-based Macintosh computers certification |url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/register/brand3555.htm|accessdate=2007-06-12}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=The Open Group|title=Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard certification |url=http://www.opengroup.org/openbrand/register/brand3581.htm}}</ref> and a part of [[z/OS]].
   
Sometimes a representation like ''Un*x'', ''*NIX'', or ''*N?X'' is used to indicate all operating systems similar to GNU/Unix. This comes from the use of the asterisk (''*'') and the question mark characters as wildcard indicators in many utilities. This notation is also used to describe other GNU/Unix-like systems, e.g., [[Linux]], [[BSD]], etc., that have not met the requirements for GNU/Unix branding from the Open Group.
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Sometimes a representation like ''Un*x'', ''*NIX'', or ''*N?X'' is used to indicate all operating systems similar to Unix. This comes from the use of the asterisk (''*'') and the question mark characters as wildcard indicators in many utilities. This notation is also used to describe other Unix-like systems, e.g., [[Linux]], [[BSD]], etc., that have not met the requirements for UNIX branding from the Open Group.
   
The Open Group requests that ''GNU/Unix'' is always used as an adjective followed by a generic term such as ''system'' to help avoid the creation of a [[genericized trademark]].
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The Open Group requests that ''UNIX'' is always used as an adjective followed by a generic term such as ''system'' to help avoid the creation of a [[genericized trademark]].
   
"GNU/Unix" was the original formatting, but the usage of "U<span style=
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"Unix" was the original formatting, but the usage of "U<span style=
"font-variant:small-caps">NIX</span>" remains widespread because, according to [[Dennis Ritchie]], when presenting the original GNU/Unix paper to the third Operating Systems Symposium of the American [[Association for Computing Machinery]], “we had a new typesetter and [[troff]] had just been invented and we were intoxicated by being able to produce small caps.”<ref>{{cite web|url=http://catb.org/jargon/html/U/GNU/Unix.html |title=GNU/Unix |publisher=Catb.org |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Many of the operating system's predecessors and contemporaries used all-uppercase lettering, so many people wrote the name in upper case due to force of habit.
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"font-variant:small-caps">NIX</span>" remains widespread because, according to [[Dennis Ritchie]], when presenting the original Unix paper to the third Operating Systems Symposium of the American [[Association for Computing Machinery]], “we had a new typesetter and [[troff]] had just been invented and we were intoxicated by being able to produce small caps.”<ref>{{cite web|url=http://catb.org/jargon/html/U/Unix.html |title=Unix |publisher=Catb.org |date= |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref> Many of the operating system's predecessors and contemporaries used all-uppercase lettering, so many people wrote the name in upper case due to force of habit.
   
Several plural forms of GNU/Unix are used casually to refer to multiple brands of GNU/Unix and GNU/Unix-like systems. Most common is the conventional ''GNU/Unixes'', but ''Unices'', treating GNU/Unix as a [[Latin]] noun of the [[Latin declension#Third declension (i)|third declension]], is also popular. The pseudo-[[Anglo-Saxon language|Anglo-Saxon]] plural form ''GNU/Unixen'' is not common, although occasionally seen. Trademark names can be registered by different entities in different countries and trademark laws in some countries allow the same trademark name to be controlled by two different entities if each entity uses the trademark in easily distinguishable categories. The result is that GNU/Unix has been used as a brand name for various products including book shelves, ink pens, bottled glue, diapers, hair driers and food containers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/otherGNU/Unix.html |title=Autres GNU/Unix, autres moeurs (OtherGNU/Unix) |publisher=Cm.bell-labs.com |date=2000-04-01 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
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Several plural forms of Unix are used casually to refer to multiple brands of Unix and Unix-like systems. Most common is the conventional ''Unixes'', but ''Unices'', treating Unix as a [[Latin]] noun of the [[Latin declension#Third declension (i)|third declension]], is also popular. The pseudo-[[Anglo-Saxon language|Anglo-Saxon]] plural form ''Unixen'' is not common, although occasionally seen. Trademark names can be registered by different entities in different countries and trademark laws in some countries allow the same trademark name to be controlled by two different entities if each entity uses the trademark in easily distinguishable categories. The result is that Unix has been used as a brand name for various products including book shelves, ink pens, bottled glue, diapers, hair driers and food containers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/otherunix.html |title=Autres Unix, autres moeurs (OtherUnix) |publisher=Cm.bell-labs.com |date=2000-04-01 |accessdate=2010-11-09}}</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
{{Wikipedia books|GNU/Unix}}
+
{{Wikipedia books|Unix}}
 
* [[Comparison of operating systems]]
 
* [[Comparison of operating systems]]
 
* [[Comparison of open source and closed source]]
 
* [[Comparison of open source and closed source]]
 
* [[List of operating systems]]
 
* [[List of operating systems]]
* [[List of GNU/Unix systems]]
+
* [[List of Unix systems]]
* [[List of GNU/Unix utilities]]
+
* [[List of Unix utilities]]
 
* [[Usage share of operating systems|Market share of operating systems]]
 
* [[Usage share of operating systems|Market share of operating systems]]
 
* [[Operating systems timeline]]
 
* [[Operating systems timeline]]
 
* [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs]]
 
* [[Plan 9 from Bell Labs]]
* [[GNU/Unix time]]
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* [[Unix time]]
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
* Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K., The GNU/Unix Time-Sharing System (The [[Bell System Technical Journal]], [http://bstj.bell-labs.com/oldfiles/year.1978/BSTJ.1978.5706-2.html July–August 1978, Vol. 57, No. 6, Part 2])
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* Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K., The UNIX Time-Sharing System (The [[Bell System Technical Journal]], [http://bstj.bell-labs.com/oldfiles/year.1978/BSTJ.1978.5706-2.html July–August 1978, Vol. 57, No. 6, Part 2])
* {{cite web | url=http://www.levenez.com/GNU/Unix/ | title=GNU/Unix History | work=www.levenez.com | accessdate= 17 March 2005 }}
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* {{cite web | url=http://www.levenez.com/unix/ | title=UNIX History | work=www.levenez.com | accessdate= 17 March 2005 }}
* {{cite web | url=http://www.GNU/Unixguide.net/ | title=AIX, FreeBSD, HP-UX, Linux, Solaris, Tru64 | work=GNU/Unixguide.net | accessdate= 17 March 2005 }}
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* {{cite web | url=http://www.unixguide.net/ | title=AIX, FreeBSD, HP-UX, Linux, Solaris, Tru64 | work=UNIXguide.net | accessdate= 17 March 2005 }}
 
* {{cite web | url=http://lwn.net/2002/0221/bigpage.php3 | title=Linux Weekly News, February 21, 2002 | work=lwn.net | accessdate = 7 April 2006 }}
 
* {{cite web | url=http://lwn.net/2002/0221/bigpage.php3 | title=Linux Weekly News, February 21, 2002 | work=lwn.net | accessdate = 7 April 2006 }}
* [[John Lions|Lions, John]]: ''Lions' {{cite web | url=http://www.lemis.com/grog/Documentation/Lions/ | title=Commentary on the Sixth Edition GNU/Unix Operating System}} with Source Code'', Peer-to-Peer Communications, 1996; ISBN 1-57398-013-7
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* [[John Lions|Lions, John]]: ''Lions' {{cite web | url=http://www.lemis.com/grog/Documentation/Lions/ | title=Commentary on the Sixth Edition UNIX Operating System}} with Source Code'', Peer-to-Peer Communications, 1996; ISBN 1-57398-013-7
* GNU/Unix Shell Programming, Yashawant Kanetkar
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* UNIX Shell Programming, Yashawant Kanetkar
 
{{Refend}}
 
{{Refend}}
   
 
== Further reading ==
 
== Further reading ==
 
;Books
 
;Books
* [[Peter H. Salus|Salus, Peter H.]]: ''A Quarter Century of GNU/Unix'', Addison Wesley, June 1, 1994; ISBN 0-201-54777-5
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* [[Peter H. Salus|Salus, Peter H.]]: ''A Quarter Century of UNIX'', Addison Wesley, June 1, 1994; ISBN 0-201-54777-5
 
;Television.
 
;Television.
* [[Computer Chronicles]] (1985). "[http://www.archive.org/details/GNU/Unix1985 GNU/Unix]".
+
* [[Computer Chronicles]] (1985). "[http://www.archive.org/details/UNIX1985 UNIX]".
* [[Computer Chronicles]] (1989). "[http://www.archive.org/details/GNU/Unix_2 GNU/Unix]".
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* [[Computer Chronicles]] (1989). "[http://www.archive.org/details/unix_2 Unix]".
   
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
{{wikibooks|Guide to GNU/Unix|Commands}}
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{{wikibooks|Guide to Unix|Commands}}
* [http://www.GNU/Unix.org The GNU/Unix System], at [[The Open Group]].
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* [http://www.unix.org The UNIX System], at [[The Open Group]].
* [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html The Evolution of the GNU/Unix Time-sharing System]
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* [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html The Evolution of the Unix Time-sharing System]
* [http://www.bell-labs.com/history/GNU/Unix/ The Creation of the GNU/Unix Operating System]
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* [http://www.bell-labs.com/history/unix/ The Creation of the UNIX Operating System]
* [http://minnie.tuhs.org/GNU/UnixTree/ The GNU/Unix Tree: files from historic releases]
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* [http://minnie.tuhs.org/UnixTree/ The Unix Tree: files from historic releases]
* [http://www.GNU/Unix.com/ The GNU/Unix and Linux Forums]
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* [http://www.unix.com/ The Unix and Linux Forums]
* [http://GNU/Unixhelp.ed.ac.uk/ GNU/Unixhelp for users]
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* [http://unixhelp.ed.ac.uk/ UNIXhelp for users]
* {{dmoz|Computers/Software/Operating_Systems/GNU/Unix/}}
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* {{dmoz|Computers/Software/Operating_Systems/Unix/}}
* [http://man.cat-v.org/GNU/Unix-1st/ The GNU/Unix 1st Edition Manuals].
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* [http://man.cat-v.org/unix-1st/ The Unix 1st Edition Manuals].
* [http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2012/2/22/AT&T-Archives-The-GNU/Unix-System 1982 film about GNU/Unix featuring Dennis Ritchie, Ken Thompson, Brian Kernighan, Alfred Aho, and more]
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* [http://techchannel.att.com/play-video.cfm/2012/2/22/AT&T-Archives-The-UNIX-System 1982 film about Unix featuring Dennis Ritchie, Ken Thompson, Brian Kernighan, Alfred Aho, and more]
* [http://www.darwinsys.com/history/hist.html A History of GNU/Unix before Berkeley: GNU/Unix Evolution: 1975-1984]
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* [http://www.darwinsys.com/history/hist.html A History of UNIX before Berkeley: UNIX Evolution: 1975-1984]
   
{{GNU/Unix commands}}
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{{Unix commands}}
{{GNU/Unix-like}}
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{{unix-like}}
 
{{Operating System}}
 
{{Operating System}}
   
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.852148
Reporter Information
Reporter: Anonymous (anonymous)
Date: Saturday, the 16th of June 2012 at 05:50:27 PM
Status: Reported
Saturday, the 16th of June 2012 at 05:50:27 PM #75327
Anonymous (anonymous)

Somebody pretending to be rms did a simple, but annoying addition of "GNU/" before "Unix" everywhere in the article.

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