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ID: 1576694
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Article: Pain in animals
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The standard measure of pain in a human is that person's testimony (see [[Pain scale]]), because only they can know the pain's quality and intensity, and the degree of [[suffering]]. Animals without human language cannot report their feelings, and whether they are conscious and capable of suffering has been a matter of some debate.
 
The standard measure of pain in a human is that person's testimony (see [[Pain scale]]), because only they can know the pain's quality and intensity, and the degree of [[suffering]]. Animals without human language cannot report their feelings, and whether they are conscious and capable of suffering has been a matter of some debate.
   
Physical pain is both an objective physiological process and a subjective conscious experience. The physiological component usually involves the transmission of a signal along a chain of nerve fibers from the site of a noxious stimulus at the periphery to the spinal cord and brain. This process may evoke a [[Reflex arc|reflex]] response generated at the spinal cord and not involving the brain, such as flinching or withdrawal of a limb, and it may also involve brain activity, such as registering the location, intensity, quality and unpleasantness of the stimulus in various parts of the brain. This nervous activity is called [[nociception]] and it is found, in one form or another, across all major animal [[Taxon|taxa]].<ref name="Sneddon, (2004)>Sneddon, L.U., (2004). Evolution of nociception in vertebrates: comparative analysis of lower vertebrates. Brain Research Reviews, 46: 123–130</ref> Nociception can be observed using modern imaging techniques; and a [[Physiology|physiological]] and behavioral response to nociception can be detected. The subjective component of pain involves conscious awareness of both the sensation (its location, intensity, quality, etc.) and the unpleasantness (the aversive, negative [[Affect (psychology)|affect]]). The brain processes underlying conscious awareness of the unpleasantness (suffering), are not well understood.
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Physical pain is both an objective physiological process and a subjective conscious experience. The physiological component usually involves the transmission of a signal along a chain of nerve fibers from the site of a noxious stimulus at the periphery to the spinal cord and brain. This process may evoke a [[Reflex arc|reflex]] response generated at the spinal cord and not involving the brain, such as flinching or withdrawal of a limb, and it may also involve brain activity, such as registering the location, intensity, quality and unpleasantness of the stimulus in various parts of the brain. This nervous activity is called [[nociception]] and it is found, in one form or another, across all major animal [[Taxon|taxa]].<ref name="Sneddon, (2004)>Sneddon, L.U., (2004). Evolution of nociception in vertebrates: comparative analysis of lower vertebrates. Brain Research Reviews, 46: 123–130</ref> Nociception can be observed using modern imaging techniques; and a [[Physiology|physiological]] and behavioral response to nociception can be detected. The subjective component of pain involves conscious awareness of both the sensation (its location, intensity, quality, etc.) and the unpleasantness (the aversive, negative [[Affect (psychology)|affect]]). The brain processes underlying conscious awareness of the unpleasantness (suffering), are not well understood.sex
   
 
To address the problem of assessing the capacity of other species to experience the affective state of pain (to suffer), we resort to [[argument#Argument by analogy|argument-by-analogy]]. This is based on the principle that if an animal responds to a stimulus in a similar way to ourselves, it is likely to have had an analogous experience. If we stick a pin in a chimpanzee's finger and she rapidly withdraws her hand, we use argument-by-analogy and infer that like us, she felt pain. If we are consistent, we should also infer a cockroach experiences the same when it writhes after being stuck with a pin.<ref name="Sherwin, 2001">Sherwin, C.M., (2001). Can invertebrates suffer? Or, how robust is argument-by-analogy? Animal Welfare, 10 (supplement): S103-S118</ref><ref name="Elwood, 2011">Elwood, R.W., (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Journal, 52(2): 175-84 [http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/52_2/PDFs/v5202Elwood.pdf]</ref> Analogous to humans, when given a choice of feeds, rats<ref name="Colpaert et al., (2001)">Colpaert, F.C., Tarayre, J.P., Alliaga, M., Slot, L.A.B., Attal N. and Koek, W. (2001). Opiate self-administration as a measure of chronic nociceptive pain in arthritic rats. Pain, 91: 33-45</ref> and chickens<ref name="Danbury et al., (2000)">Danbury, T.C., Weeks, C.A. Chambers, J.P., Waterman-Pearson, A.E. and Kestin. S.C. (2000). Self-selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens. Veterinary Record, 14:307-311</ref> with clinical symptoms of pain will consume more of an analgesic-containing feed than animals not in pain. Additionally, the consumption of the analgesic [[carprofen]] in lame [[broiler]] chickens was positively correlated to the severity of lameness, and consumption resulted in an improved gait. Limitations of argument-by-analogy are that physical reactions may neither determine nor be motivated by mental states, and the approach is subject to criticism of [[anthropomorphism|anthropomorphic]] interpretation. For example, a single-celled organism such as an [[amoeba]] may writhe after being exposed to noxious stimuli despite the absence of nociception.
 
To address the problem of assessing the capacity of other species to experience the affective state of pain (to suffer), we resort to [[argument#Argument by analogy|argument-by-analogy]]. This is based on the principle that if an animal responds to a stimulus in a similar way to ourselves, it is likely to have had an analogous experience. If we stick a pin in a chimpanzee's finger and she rapidly withdraws her hand, we use argument-by-analogy and infer that like us, she felt pain. If we are consistent, we should also infer a cockroach experiences the same when it writhes after being stuck with a pin.<ref name="Sherwin, 2001">Sherwin, C.M., (2001). Can invertebrates suffer? Or, how robust is argument-by-analogy? Animal Welfare, 10 (supplement): S103-S118</ref><ref name="Elwood, 2011">Elwood, R.W., (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Journal, 52(2): 175-84 [http://dels-old.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/52_2/PDFs/v5202Elwood.pdf]</ref> Analogous to humans, when given a choice of feeds, rats<ref name="Colpaert et al., (2001)">Colpaert, F.C., Tarayre, J.P., Alliaga, M., Slot, L.A.B., Attal N. and Koek, W. (2001). Opiate self-administration as a measure of chronic nociceptive pain in arthritic rats. Pain, 91: 33-45</ref> and chickens<ref name="Danbury et al., (2000)">Danbury, T.C., Weeks, C.A. Chambers, J.P., Waterman-Pearson, A.E. and Kestin. S.C. (2000). Self-selection of the analgesic drug carprofen by lame broiler chickens. Veterinary Record, 14:307-311</ref> with clinical symptoms of pain will consume more of an analgesic-containing feed than animals not in pain. Additionally, the consumption of the analgesic [[carprofen]] in lame [[broiler]] chickens was positively correlated to the severity of lameness, and consumption resulted in an improved gait. Limitations of argument-by-analogy are that physical reactions may neither determine nor be motivated by mental states, and the approach is subject to criticism of [[anthropomorphism|anthropomorphic]] interpretation. For example, a single-celled organism such as an [[amoeba]] may writhe after being exposed to noxious stimuli despite the absence of nociception.
Reason: ANN scored at 0.906493
Reporter Information
Reporter: 91 (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 16th of June 2016 at 11:44:31 PM
Status: Reported
Thursday, the 16th of June 2016 at 11:44:31 PM #104719
91 (anonymous)

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