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ID: 893551
User: 209.175.28.130
Article: Erbium
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(Chemical properties)
(Tag: references removed)
(Applications)
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Crushed minerals are attacked by hydrochloric or [[sulfuric acid]] that transforms insoluble rare-earth oxides into soluble chlorides or sulfates. The acidic filtrates are partially neutralized with caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) to pH 3-4. [[Thorium]] precipitates out of solution as hydroxide and is removed. After that the solution is treated with [[ammonium oxalate]] to convert rare earths into their insoluble [[oxalate]]s. The oxalates are converted to oxides by annealing. The oxides are dissolved in [[nitric acid]] that excludes one of the main components, [[cerium]], whose oxide is insoluble in HNO<sub>3</sub>. The solution is treated with [[magnesium nitrate]] to produce a crystallized mixture of [[double salt]]s of rare-earth metals. The salts are separated by [[ion exchange]]. In this process, rare-earth ions are sorbed onto suitable ion-exchange resin by exchange with hydrogen, ammonium or cupric ions present in the resin. The rare earth ions are then selectively washed out by suitable complexing agent.<ref name=patnaik/> Erbium metal is obtained from its oxide or salts by heating with [[calcium]] at 1450 °C under argon atmosphere.<ref name=patnaik/>
 
Crushed minerals are attacked by hydrochloric or [[sulfuric acid]] that transforms insoluble rare-earth oxides into soluble chlorides or sulfates. The acidic filtrates are partially neutralized with caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) to pH 3-4. [[Thorium]] precipitates out of solution as hydroxide and is removed. After that the solution is treated with [[ammonium oxalate]] to convert rare earths into their insoluble [[oxalate]]s. The oxalates are converted to oxides by annealing. The oxides are dissolved in [[nitric acid]] that excludes one of the main components, [[cerium]], whose oxide is insoluble in HNO<sub>3</sub>. The solution is treated with [[magnesium nitrate]] to produce a crystallized mixture of [[double salt]]s of rare-earth metals. The salts are separated by [[ion exchange]]. In this process, rare-earth ions are sorbed onto suitable ion-exchange resin by exchange with hydrogen, ammonium or cupric ions present in the resin. The rare earth ions are then selectively washed out by suitable complexing agent.<ref name=patnaik/> Erbium metal is obtained from its oxide or salts by heating with [[calcium]] at 1450 °C under argon atmosphere.<ref name=patnaik/>
   
== Applications ==
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John Krueger did this
[[File:Erbium-glass.jpg|thumb|Erbium-colored glass]]
 
Erbium's everyday uses are varied. It is commonly used as a [[filter (photography)|photographic filter]], and because of its resilience it is useful as a metallurgical additive. Other uses:
 
* Used in [[Nuclear power|nuclear]] technology in neutron-absorbing [[control rod]]s.<ref name=emsley/><ref>{{cite book | isbn = 9780792355939 | chapter = Use of UraniumErbium and PlutoniumErbium Fuel in RBMK Reactors | pages = 121&ndash;125 | author = edited by Theodore A. Parish, Vyacheslav V. Khromov, Igor Carron. | year = 1999 | publisher = Kluwer | location = CBoston | title = Safety issues associated with Plutonium involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle | url = http://books.google.com/?id=aamn7uifb3gC}}</ref>
 
* When added to [[vanadium]] as an [[alloy]], erbium lowers hardness and improves workability.<ref name=CRC>{{cite book| author = C. R. Hammond |title = The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition| publisher =CRC press| year = 2000| isbn = 0849304814}}</ref>
 
* [[Erbium oxide]] has a pink color, and is sometimes used as a colorant for [[glass]], [[cubic zirconia]] and [[porcelain]]. The glass is then often used in [[sunglasses]] and cheap [[jewelry]].<ref name=CRC/>
 
* Erbium-doped [[optical fibers|optical silica-glass fibers]] are the active element in [[erbium-doped fiber amplifier]]s (EDFAs), which are widely used in [[optical communications]].<ref>{{cite book | isbn = 9780120845903 | url = http://books.google.com/?id=uAOq75yt5CcC | author = P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, J.R. Simpson ; | year = 1999 | publisher = Academic Press | location = San Diego | title = Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers fundamentals and technology}}</ref> The same fibers can be used to create fiber [[lasers]]. Co-doping of optical fiber with Er and Yb is used in [[high-power Er/Yb fiber lasers]], which gradually replace CO<sub>2</sub> lasers for metal welding and cutting applications. Erbium can also be used in [[erbium-doped waveguide amplifier]]s.<ref name=emsley/>
 
* An erbium-[[nickel]] alloy Er<sub>3</sub>Ni has an unusually high specific heat capacity at liquid-helium temperatures and is used in [[cryocoolers]]; a mixture of 65% Er<sub>3</sub>[[cobalt|Co]] and 35% Er<sub>0.9</sub>[[Ytterbium|Yb]]<sub>0.1</sub>Ni by volume improves the specific heat capacity even more.<ref>{{cite book | title= Advances in Cryogenic Engineering volume 39a | editor=Peter Kittel}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | title= Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers | first = Robert A. | last = Ackermann | publisher = Springer | year = 1997 | isbn = 9780306454493 | page = 58 | url = http://books.google.com/?id=nIzviZ_-_NsC}}</ref>
 
* A large variety of medical applications (i.e. dermatology, dentistry) utilize erbium ion's 2940&nbsp;nm emission (see [[Er:YAG laser]]), which is highly absorbed in water ([[Attenuation coefficient|absorption coefficient]] about 12000/cm). Such shallow tissue deposition of laser energy is necessary for laser surgery, and the efficient production of steam for laser enamel ablation in dentistry.
 
   
 
== Precautions ==
 
== Precautions ==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.953173
Reporter Information
Reporter: Eldridge (anonymous)
Date: Tuesday, the 18th of August 2015 at 11:51:11 PM
Status: Reported
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