ClueBot NG Report Interface

// Report

Navigation

ID:1064680
User:Nender14
Article:Long-term effects of cannabis
Diff:
(Memory and intelligence)
m (Mental health: added citation needed tag for claim)
Line 31: Line 31:
   
 
==Mental health==
 
==Mental health==
Cannabis use has been assessed by several studies<ref>{{Cite book |title=Cannabis and Mental Health: Put into Context |url=http://ncpic.org.au/ncpic/news/ncpic-news/article/new-national-drug-strategy-monograph-series-report-cannabis-and-mental-health-put-into-context |last1=McLaren |first1=Jennifer |last2=Lemon |first2=Jim |last3=Robins |first3=Lisa |last4=Mattick |first4=Richard P. |year=2008 |month=February |publisher=Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing |accessdate=17 October 2009 |series=National Drug Strategy Monograph Series }}</ref> to be [[Dual diagnosis|correlated with the development]] of anxiety, psychosis, and depression.<ref name="henquet2005">{{cite doi|10.1136/bmj.38267.664086.63}}</ref><ref name="patton2002">Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Lynskey, M., and Hall, W. 2002. [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7374/1195?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&author1=Patton&author2=Coffey&title=Cannabis+Cohort&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&fdate=1/1/2000&tdate=3/31/2006&resourcetype=HWCIT Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study]. ''BMJ'' '''325'''(7374): 1195-1198. Retrieved 45 March 2007</ref> Studies have also shown a large correlation between tobacco cigarette smoking and such brain disorders, but there is not much said about cause and effect. Some studies regarding cannabis assess that the causality is more likely to involve a path from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms rather than a path from psychotic symptoms to cannabis use,<ref>Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, John L.; Ridder, Elizabeth M. "[http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01001.x Research Report: Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms]. [[University of Otago Christchurch School of Medicine]] published in the ''[[Society for the Study of Addiction]]'' (2004-11-05). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.</ref> while others assess the opposite direction of the causality, or hold cannabis to only form parts of the "causal constellation", while not inflicting mental health problems that would have occurred in the absence of the cannabis use.<ref>Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Lousia; Teesson, Maree. "[http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713993666~db=all Cannabis use and psychotic disorders: an update]". Office of Public Policy and Ethics, [[University of Queensland|Institute for Molecular Bioscience University of Queensland Australia]], and National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre University of New South Wales Australia published in ''[[Drug and Alcohol Review]]'' (December 2004). Vol 23 Issue 4. Pg 433-443</ref><ref name="arseneault2004">{{cite journal| title=Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence | author=L. Arseneault ''et al.'' | journal=The British Journal of Psychiatry | year=2004 | volume=184 | pages= 110–117 | url=http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/184/2/110| doi=10.1192/bjp.184.2.110| pmid=14754822 | issue=2}}</ref> A common interpretation of the correlation and theorized direction of the causality is the self-medication hypothesis, which is based on partially or fully attributing the correlation between psychiatric diseases and cannabis to the extensive substance abuse among sufferers of certain mental disorders, before diagnosis in many cases, which increases the likeliness of cannabis use among the mentally ill and the undiagnosed, thus accounting for correlation and debunking some claims of causality with the opposite direction.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_health3.shtml|title=Cannabis & Psychosis - A guide to current research about cannabis and mental health|author=Earth Erowid|year=2005}}</ref> As much as 60% of the mentally ill are suspected to be substance abusers, and many seem to prefer cannabis and alcohol.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Drake RE, Wallach MA |title=Substance abuse among the chronic mentally ill |journal=Hospital & Community Psychiatry |volume=40 |issue=10 |pages=1041–6 |year=1989 |month=October |pmid=2807205 |url=http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2807205}}</ref>
+
Cannabis use has been assessed by several studies<ref>{{Cite book |title=Cannabis and Mental Health: Put into Context |url=http://ncpic.org.au/ncpic/news/ncpic-news/article/new-national-drug-strategy-monograph-series-report-cannabis-and-mental-health-put-into-context |last1=McLaren |first1=Jennifer |last2=Lemon |first2=Jim |last3=Robins |first3=Lisa |last4=Mattick |first4=Richard P. |year=2008 |month=February |publisher=Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing |accessdate=17 October 2009 |series=National Drug Strategy Monograph Series }}</ref> to be [[Dual diagnosis|correlated with the development]] of anxiety, psychosis, and depression.<ref name="henquet2005">{{cite doi|10.1136/bmj.38267.664086.63}}</ref><ref name="patton2002">Patton, G. C., Coffey, C., Carlin, J. B., Degenhardt, L., Lynskey, M., and Hall, W. 2002. [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7374/1195?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&author1=Patton&author2=Coffey&title=Cannabis+Cohort&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&fdate=1/1/2000&tdate=3/31/2006&resourcetype=HWCIT Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study]. ''BMJ'' '''325'''(7374): 1195-1198. Retrieved 45 March 2007</ref> Studies have also shown a large correlation between tobacco cigarette smoking and such brain disorders, but there is not much said about cause and effect. {{Citation needed|reason=source needed for claim that tobacco is correlated with mental health problems.}} Some studies regarding cannabis assess that the causality is more likely to involve a path from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms rather than a path from psychotic symptoms to cannabis use,<ref>Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, John L.; Ridder, Elizabeth M. "[http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01001.x Research Report: Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms]. [[University of Otago Christchurch School of Medicine]] published in the ''[[Society for the Study of Addiction]]'' (2004-11-05). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.</ref> while others assess the opposite direction of the causality, or hold cannabis to only form parts of the "causal constellation", while not inflicting mental health problems that would have occurred in the absence of the cannabis use.<ref>Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Lousia; Teesson, Maree. "[http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713993666~db=all Cannabis use and psychotic disorders: an update]". Office of Public Policy and Ethics, [[University of Queensland|Institute for Molecular Bioscience University of Queensland Australia]], and National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre University of New South Wales Australia published in ''[[Drug and Alcohol Review]]'' (December 2004). Vol 23 Issue 4. Pg 433-443</ref><ref name="arseneault2004">{{cite journal| title=Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence | author=L. Arseneault ''et al.'' | journal=The British Journal of Psychiatry | year=2004 | volume=184 | pages= 110–117 | url=http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/184/2/110| doi=10.1192/bjp.184.2.110| pmid=14754822 | issue=2}}</ref> A common interpretation of the correlation and theorized direction of the causality is the self-medication hypothesis, which is based on partially or fully attributing the correlation between psychiatric diseases and cannabis to the extensive substance abuse among sufferers of certain mental disorders, before diagnosis in many cases, which increases the likeliness of cannabis use among the mentally ill and the undiagnosed, thus accounting for correlation and debunking some claims of causality with the opposite direction.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_health3.shtml|title=Cannabis & Psychosis - A guide to current research about cannabis and mental health|author=Earth Erowid|year=2005}}</ref> As much as 60% of the mentally ill are suspected to be substance abusers, and many seem to prefer cannabis and alcohol.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Drake RE, Wallach MA |title=Substance abuse among the chronic mentally ill |journal=Hospital & Community Psychiatry |volume=40 |issue=10 |pages=1041–6 |year=1989 |month=October |pmid=2807205 |url=http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2807205}}</ref>
 
Dr Stanley Zammit of Bristol and Cardiff universities (in the ''Daily Express'' newspaper of 27 July 2007) reported, "Even if cannabis did increase the risk of psychosis, most people using the drug would not get ill" But he added: "Nevertheless, we would still advise people to avoid or limit their use of this drug, especially if they start to develop any mental health symptoms or if they have relatives with psychotic illnesses." A 2007 study of studies published in the Lancet concluded that cannabis users are 40% more likely to be sufferers of a psychotic illness than non-users.<ref name=Zammitt2007>"[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6917003.stm Cannabis 'raises psychosis risk']". [[BBC News]] (2007-07-27). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.</ref>
 
Dr Stanley Zammit of Bristol and Cardiff universities (in the ''Daily Express'' newspaper of 27 July 2007) reported, "Even if cannabis did increase the risk of psychosis, most people using the drug would not get ill" But he added: "Nevertheless, we would still advise people to avoid or limit their use of this drug, especially if they start to develop any mental health symptoms or if they have relatives with psychotic illnesses." A 2007 study of studies published in the Lancet concluded that cannabis users are 40% more likely to be sufferers of a psychotic illness than non-users.<ref name=Zammitt2007>"[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6917003.stm Cannabis 'raises psychosis risk']". [[BBC News]] (2007-07-27). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.</ref>
   
Reason:
Your username:
Reverted:Yes
Comment
(optional):

Note: Comments are completely optional. You do not have to justify your edit.
If this is a false positive, then you're right, and the bot is wrong - you don't need to explain why.