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ID:1604027
User:Orrerysky
Article:Plasma cosmology
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(Fact that plasma cosmology is rejected by almost all cosmologists and astrophysicists because of its contradiction with present observation and knowledge.)
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[[Image:cosmic-triple-jump.gif|thumb|200px|[[Hannes Alfvén]] used [[Plasma scaling|scaling]] laboratory results to extrapolate up to the scale of the universe. A scaling jump by a factor 10<sup>9</sup> was required to extrapolate to the magnetosphere, a second jump to extrapolate to galactic conditions, and a third jump to extrapolate to the [[Hubble's law#Hubble length|Hubble distance]].<ref name=scaling>Hannes Alfvén, [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1983Ap%26SS..89..313A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=4521318e0206333 "On hierarchical cosmology"] (1983) ''Astrophysics and Space Science'' (ISSN 0004-640X), vol. 89, no. 2, January 1983, p. 313-324.</ref>]]
 
[[Image:cosmic-triple-jump.gif|thumb|200px|[[Hannes Alfvén]] used [[Plasma scaling|scaling]] laboratory results to extrapolate up to the scale of the universe. A scaling jump by a factor 10<sup>9</sup> was required to extrapolate to the magnetosphere, a second jump to extrapolate to galactic conditions, and a third jump to extrapolate to the [[Hubble's law#Hubble length|Hubble distance]].<ref name=scaling>Hannes Alfvén, [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1983Ap%26SS..89..313A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=4521318e0206333 "On hierarchical cosmology"] (1983) ''Astrophysics and Space Science'' (ISSN 0004-640X), vol. 89, no. 2, January 1983, p. 313-324.</ref>]]
   
'''Plasma cosmology''' is a mostly rejected [[non-standard cosmology|non-standard cosmological]] model, whose central postulate is that the dynamics of ionized gases and [[plasma (physics)|plasmas]] play important roles in the physics of the universe beyond the [[Solar System]].<ref name=Peratt1992 >{{cite journal |authors=Anthony L. Peratt |title=Plasma Cosmology |journal=Sky & Telescope |year=1992 |month=February |url=http://plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf |accessdate=26 May 2012 }}</ref><ref name=statement>It was described as this in the February 1992 issue of ''Sky & Telescope'' ("Plasma Cosmology"), and by Anthony Peratt in the 1980s, who describes it as a "nonstandard picture". The [[Lambda-CDM model|ΛCDM model]] big bang picture is typically described as the "concordance model", "standard [[scientific model|model]]" or "standard [[scientific paradigm|paradigm]]" of cosmology [http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/find/hep/www?rawcmd=FIND+T+%22STANDARD+COSMOLOGICAL+MODEL%22 here], and [http://lanl.arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9505066 here].{{verify credibility|date=September 2012}}</ref><ref name=Alfven1990 >Alfven, Hannes O. G., "Cosmology in the plasma universe - an introductory exposition", ''IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science'' (ISSN 0093-3813), vol. 18, Feb. 1990, p. 5-10.</ref>
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'''Plasma Cosmology''' is a laboratory model of [[astrophysics]] developed chiefly by Drs. Hannes Alfven, [[Winston H. Bostick]], and moew recently Dr. Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its central postulate involves the dynamics of ionized [[plasma (physics)|plasmas]] in the solar system, galaxy and universe.<ref name=Peratt1992 >{{cite journal |authors=Anthony L. Peratt |title=Plasma Cosmology |journal=Sky & Telescope |year=1992 |month=February |url=http://plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf |accessdate=26 May 2012 }}</ref><ref name=statement></ref>. In the words of Dr. Peratt, Plasma Cosmology has been under development "to address the growing recognition of the need for plasma physics in astrophysics," <ref>Anthony L. Peratt, ''Physics of the Plasma Universe'', 1991 Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-97575-6</ref>
   
[[Scientific consensus|Consensus]] by [[cosmology|cosmologists]] and [[astrophysics|astrophysicists]] strongly support that astronomical bodies and structures in the universe are mostly influenced by [[Gravitation|gravity]], [[Einstein]]'s [[theory of general relativity]] and [[quantum mechanics]], to explain the origin, structure and evolution of the universe on cosmic scales. Presently, plasma cosmology is openly rejected by the vast majority of researchers because it does not match modern observations of astrophysical phenomenae or accepted cosmological theory.
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Many of the general concepts in Plasma Cosmology are attributed to [[Hannes Alfvén]], who was awarded as a 1970 [[Nobel laureate]] for his work in [[magnetohydrodynamics]] (MHD).<ref name=statement>His MHD research found that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn creates forces on the fluid and also changes the magnetic field itself.</ref><ref>Helge S. Kragh, ''Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe'', 1996 Princeton University Press, 488 pages, ISBN 0-691-00546-X ([http://books.google.com/books?id=f6p0AFgzeMsC&pg=PA384&dq=%22Plasma+Cosmology%22&sig=V2j6C8UTK3BCoBmQVWw6yVaCWrY#PPA383,M1 pp.482-483])</ref> Later, Alfvén proposed the use of [[plasma scaling]] to extrapolate the results of laboratory experiments and [[space physics|space plasma physics]] observations scaled across many [[order-of-magnitude|orders-of-magnitude]] up to the largest observable objects in the universe. (See box<ref name=scaling/>)
   
Some general concepts about plasma cosmology have been attributed to [[Hannes Alfvén]], who was also awarded as the 1970 [[Nobel laureate]] for his other unrelated work into [[magnetohydrodynamics]] (MHD).<ref name=statement>His MHD research found that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn creates forces on the fluid and also changes the magnetic field itself.</ref><ref>Helge S. Kragh, ''Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe'', 1996 Princeton University Press, 488 pages, ISBN 0-691-00546-X ([http://books.google.com/books?id=f6p0AFgzeMsC&pg=PA384&dq=%22Plasma+Cosmology%22&sig=V2j6C8UTK3BCoBmQVWw6yVaCWrY#PPA383,M1 pp.482-483])</ref> Later, Alfvén proposed the use of [[plasma scaling]] to extrapolate the results of laboratory experiments and [[space physics|space plasma physics]] observations scaled across many [[order-of-magnitude|orders-of-magnitude]] up to the largest observable objects in the universe. (See box<ref name=scaling/>)
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The term '''Plasma Universe''' is sometimes used as a synonym for Plasma Cosmology,<ref name=Peratt1992 >{{cite journal |authors=Anthony L. Peratt |title=Plasma Cosmology |journal=Sky & Telescope |year=1992 |month=February |url=http://plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf |accessdate=26 May 2012 }}</ref> being seen as the evolution of the plasma in the universe.<ref name=Alfven1990 /><ref name="Peratt1986">{{cite journal |author=A. Peratt |title=Evolution of the Plasma Universe: II. The Formation of Systems of Galaxies |journal=IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science |ISSN=0093-3813 |volume=PS-14 |pages=763–778 |year=1986 |url=http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/downloadsCosmo/Peratt86TPS-II.pdf}}</ref>
 
The term '''plasma universe''' is sometimes used as a synonym for plasma cosmology,<ref name=Peratt1992 >{{cite journal |authors=Anthony L. Peratt |title=Plasma Cosmology |journal=Sky & Telescope |year=1992 |month=February |url=http://plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf |accessdate=26 May 2012 }}</ref> being seen as the evolution of the plasma in the universe.<ref name=Alfven1990 /><ref name="Peratt1986">{{cite journal |author=A. Peratt |title=Evolution of the Plasma Universe: II. The Formation of Systems of Galaxies |journal=IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science |ISSN=0093-3813 |volume=PS-14 |pages=763–778 |year=1986 |url=http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/downloadsCosmo/Peratt86TPS-II.pdf}}</ref>
 
   
 
==Alfvén and cosmic plasma==
 
==Alfvén and cosmic plasma==
In contrast to plasma cosmology, [[plasma physics]] is accepted as having influence on many astrophysical phenomena. Much of the matter in the universe is thought to be ionised or exist as [[plasma (physics)|plasma]], and it is this plasma that can generate [[magnetic field]]s.
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An astrophysical extension of plasma science, Plasma Cosmology is accepted as having influence on many astrophysical phenomena. Much of the matter in the universe is thought to be ionized or exist as [[plasma (physics)|plasma]], and it is this plasma that can generate [[magnetic field]]s. Much of Plasma Cosmology focuses on local phenomenon in the Solar System laboratory. Most notably, the Van Allen radiation belts, the solar wind, and terrestrial phenomenon such as [[Auroras]].
   
 
Hannes Alfvén's in the 1960s to 1980s once suggested that plasma may play an important role in the universe, and asserted that [[electromagnetic force]]s are far more important than [[gravity]] when acting on interplanetary and interstellar [[charged particle]]s.<ref>H. Alfvén and C.-G. Falthammar, ''Cosmic electrodynamics'' (2nd edition, Clarendon press, Oxford, 1963). "The basic reason why electromagnetic phenomena are so important in cosmical physics is that there exist celestial magnetic fields which affect the motion of charged particles in space ... The strength of the interplanetary magnetic field is of the order of 10<sup>-4</sup> gauss (10 [[nanotesla]]s), which gives the [ratio of the magnetic force to the force of gravity] ≈ 10<sup>7</sup>. This illustrates the enormous importance of interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields, compared to gravitation, as long as the matter is ionized." (p.2-3)</ref>
 
Hannes Alfvén's in the 1960s to 1980s once suggested that plasma may play an important role in the universe, and asserted that [[electromagnetic force]]s are far more important than [[gravity]] when acting on interplanetary and interstellar [[charged particle]]s.<ref>H. Alfvén and C.-G. Falthammar, ''Cosmic electrodynamics'' (2nd edition, Clarendon press, Oxford, 1963). "The basic reason why electromagnetic phenomena are so important in cosmical physics is that there exist celestial magnetic fields which affect the motion of charged particles in space ... The strength of the interplanetary magnetic field is of the order of 10<sup>-4</sup> gauss (10 [[nanotesla]]s), which gives the [ratio of the magnetic force to the force of gravity] ≈ 10<sup>7</sup>. This illustrates the enormous importance of interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields, compared to gravitation, as long as the matter is ionized." (p.2-3)</ref>
   
 
Alfvén hypothesized that [[Birkeland currents]] (here meaning currents in space plasmas which are aligned with magnetic field lines) were responsible for many filamentary structures and that a galactic magnetic field and associated [[current sheet]], with an estimated galactic current of 10<sup>17</sup> to 10<sup>19</sup> amperes, might promote the contraction of [[interstellar cloud]]s and may even constitute the main mechanism for contraction, initiating [[star formation]].<ref name="Alfven1978" >Alfvén, H.; Carlqvist, P., [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1978Ap%26SS..55..487A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=42ca922c9c30728 "Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars"] ''Astrophysics and Space Science'', vol. 55, no. 2, May 1978, p. 487-509.</ref> The current standard view is that magnetic fields can hinder collapse, that large-scale Birkeland currents have not been observed, and that the length scale for charge neutrality is predicted to be far smaller than the relevant cosmological scales.<ref name="Siegel2006" >{{cite journal |authors=Siegel, E. R.; Fry, J. N. |title=Can Electric Charges and Currents Survive in an Inhomogeneous Universe? |journal=arXiv |year=2006 |month=Sept |url=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006astro.ph..9031S}}</ref>
 
Alfvén hypothesized that [[Birkeland currents]] (here meaning currents in space plasmas which are aligned with magnetic field lines) were responsible for many filamentary structures and that a galactic magnetic field and associated [[current sheet]], with an estimated galactic current of 10<sup>17</sup> to 10<sup>19</sup> amperes, might promote the contraction of [[interstellar cloud]]s and may even constitute the main mechanism for contraction, initiating [[star formation]].<ref name="Alfven1978" >Alfvén, H.; Carlqvist, P., [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1978Ap%26SS..55..487A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=42ca922c9c30728 "Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars"] ''Astrophysics and Space Science'', vol. 55, no. 2, May 1978, p. 487-509.</ref> The current standard view is that magnetic fields can hinder collapse, that large-scale Birkeland currents have not been observed, and that the length scale for charge neutrality is predicted to be far smaller than the relevant cosmological scales.<ref name="Siegel2006" >{{cite journal |authors=Siegel, E. R.; Fry, J. N. |title=Can Electric Charges and Currents Survive in an Inhomogeneous Universe? |journal=arXiv |year=2006 |month=Sept |url=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006astro.ph..9031S}}</ref>
 
==Alfvén-Klein cosmology==
 
In the 1960s, the theory behind plasma cosmology was introduced by Alfvén, [[Oskar Klein]] and [[Carl-Gunne Fälthammar]],<ref>{{cite journal |authors=H. Alfvén, O. Klein |year=1963 |title=Matter-Antimatter Annihilation and Cosmology |journal=Arkiv Fysik |volume=23 |pages=187–194}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |authors=H. Alfvén and C.-G. Falthammar |title=Cosmic electrodynamics |publisher=Clarendon Press |location=Oxford |year=1963}}</ref> and Alfvén's 1966 book ''Worlds-Antiworlds''.<ref name="Alfven1966" >{{cite book |title=Worlds-antiworlds: antimatter in cosmology | author=H. Alfvén |publisher=Freeman |year=1966 }}</ref> Klein in 1971 extended Alfvén's ''Worlds-Antiworlds'' proposals and developed the "Alfvén-Klein model" of the [[universe]],<ref>O. Klein, "Arguments concerning relativity and cosmology," ''Science'' '''171''' (1971), 339</ref> or ''meta-[[galaxy]]'', an earlier term to distinguish between the universe and the [[Milky Way galaxy]]). In this '''Alfvén-Klein cosmology''', sometimes called '''Klein-Alfvén cosmology''', the universe is made up of equal amounts of matter and [[antimatter]] with the boundaries between the regions of matter and antimatter being delineated by cosmic [[electromagnetic fields]] formed by [[Double layer (plasma)|double layers]], being thin regions comprising two parallel layers with opposite electrical charge. Interaction between these boundary regions would generate radiation, and this would form the plasma. Alfvén introduced the term '''ambiplasma''' for a plasma made up of matter and antimatter and the double layers are thus formed of ambiplasma. According to Alfvén, such an ambiplasma would be relatively long-lived as the component particles and antiparticles would be too hot and too low-density to annihilate each other rapidly. The double layers will act to repel clouds of opposite type, but combine clouds of the same type, creating ever-larger regions of matter and antimatter. The idea of ambiplasma was developed further into the forms of heavy ambiplasma (protons-antiprotons) and light ambiplasma (electrons-positrons).<ref name=Alfven1966 />
 
 
Alfvén-Klein cosmology was proposed in part to explain the observed [[baryon asymmetry]] in the universe, starting from an [[initial condition]] of exact [[symmetry]] between matter and antimatter. According to Alfvén and Klein, ambiplasma would naturally form pockets of matter and pockets of antimatter that would expand outwards as annihilation between matter and antimatter occurred in the double layer at the boundaries. They concluded that we must just happen to live in one of the pockets that was mostly [[baryon]]s rather than [[antibaryon]]s, explaining the baryon asymmetry. The pockets, or bubbles, of matter or antimatter would expand because of annihilations at the boundaries, which Alfvén considered as a possible explanation for the observed apparent [[metric expansion of space|expansion of the universe]], which would be merely a local phase of a much larger history. Alfvén postulated that the universe has always existed<ref name="Alfvén1988" >Hannes Alfvén, "Has the Universe an Origin" (1988) ''Trita-EPP'', 1988, 07, p. 6.</ref><ref>Anthony L. Peratt, [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1995Ap%26SS.227....3P&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=4521318e0229815 "Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology"] (1995) ''Astrophysics and Space Science'', v. 227, p. 3-11: "issues now a hundred years old were debated including plasma cosmology's traditional refusal to claim any knowledge about an 'origin' of the universe (e.g., Alfvén, 1988)"</ref> due to [[causality]] arguments and the rejection of ''[[ex nihilo]]'' models, such as the [[Big Bang]], as a stealth form of [[creationism]].<ref>Alfvén, Hannes, [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1992ITPS...20..590A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=4521318e0224666 "Cosmology: Myth or Science?"] (1992) ''IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science'' (ISSN 0093-3813), vol. 20, no. 6, p. 590-600</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Alfvén, H. |title=Cosmology - Myth or science? |journal=Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy |volume=5 |year=1984 |month=March |pages=79–98 |ISSN=0250-6335 |url=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984JApA....5...79A |bibcode = 1984JApA....5...79A |doi = 10.1007/BF02714974 }}</ref> The exploding double layer was also suggested by Alfvén as a possible mechanism for the generation of [[cosmic rays]],<ref>Hannes Alfvén, ''Cosmic plasma''. Taylor & Francis US, 1981,IV.10.3.2, p.109. "Double layers may also produce extremely high energies. This is known to take place in solar flares, where they generate solar cosmic rays up to 10<sup>9</sup> to 10<sup>10</sup> eV."</ref> [[X-ray burster|x-ray bursts]] and [[gamma-ray burst]]s.<ref>Alfvén, H., [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1986ITPS...14..779A&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=4521318e0221922 "Double layers and circuits in astrophysics"], (1986) ''IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science'' (ISSN 0093-3813), vol. PS-14, Dec. 1986, p. 779-793. Based on the NASA sponsored conference "[http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=13527&id=1&qs=Ntt%3Ddouble%252Blayers%26Ntk%3Dall%26Ntx%3Dmode%2520matchall%26N%3D32%26Ns%3DPublicationYear%257c1 Double Layers in Astrophysics]" (1986)</ref>
 
 
In 1993, theoretical cosmologist [[Jim Peebles]] criticized the cosmology of Klein (1971) and Alfvén's 1966 book, ''Worlds-Antiworlds'', writing that "there is no way that the results can be consistent with the isotropy of the [[cosmic microwave background radiation]] and [[X-ray background]]s".<ref name=Peebles>P. J. E. Peebles, [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0691074283 ''Principles of Physical Cosmology''], (1993) Princeton University Press, p. 207, ISBN 978-0-691-07428-3</ref> In his book he also claimed that Alfvén's models do not predict [[Hubble's law]], [[Big Bang nucleosynthesis|the abundance of light elements]], or the existence of the [[cosmic microwave background]]. A further difficulty with the ambiplasma model is that matter–antimatter [[annihilation]] results in the production of high energy [[photon]]s, which are not observed in the amounts predicted. While it is possible that the local "matter-dominated" cell is simply larger than the [[observable universe]], this proposition does not lend itself to observational tests.
 
   
 
== Plasma Universe proposals ==
 
== Plasma Universe proposals ==
   
In the 1980s and 1990s, Alfvén and [[Anthony Peratt]], a plasma physicist at [[Los Alamos National Laboratory]], outlined a program they called the "plasma universe".<ref>H. Alfvén, ''Model of the Plasma Universe'', IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. Vol PS-14, 1986. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/ModelOfTPU_Alfv%C3%A9n.pdf]</ref><ref name=WI1>A. L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology: Part I, Interpretations of a Visible Universe'', World & I, vol. 8, pp. 294-301, August 1989. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PerattPlasmaCosmology1W&I.pdf]</ref><ref name=WI2>A. L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology:Part II, The Universe is a Sea of Electrically Charged Particles'', World & I, vol. 9, pp. 306-317, September 1989 .[http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PerattPlasmaCosmology2W&I.pdf]</ref> In plasma universe proposals, various plasma physics phenomena were associated with astrophysical observations and were used to explain extant mysteries and problems outstanding in astrophysics in the 1980s and 1990s. In various venues, Peratt profiled what he characterized as an alternative viewpoint to the mainstream models applied in astrophysics and cosmology.<ref name=WI1 /><ref name=WI2 /><ref name=ST>A.L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology,'' Sky & Tel. Feb. 1992. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf]</ref><ref>A. L. Peratt, ''Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology'', Astrophys. Space Sci. 227, 3-11 (1995). [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PrincetonEditorial.1993.pdf]</ref>
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In the 1980s and 1990s, Alfvén and [[Anthony Peratt]], a plasma physicist at [[Los Alamos National Laboratory]], outlined a program they called the "Plasma Universe".<ref>H. Alfvén, ''Model of the Plasma Universe'', IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. Vol PS-14, 1986. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/ModelOfTPU_Alfv%C3%A9n.pdf]</ref><ref name=WI1>A. L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology: Part I, Interpretations of a Visible Universe'', World & I, vol. 8, pp. 294-301, August 1989. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PerattPlasmaCosmology1W&I.pdf]</ref><ref name=WI2>A. L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology:Part II, The Universe is a Sea of Electrically Charged Particles'', World & I, vol. 9, pp. 306-317, September 1989 .[http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PerattPlasmaCosmology2W&I.pdf]</ref> In plasma universe proposals, various plasma physics phenomena were associated with astrophysical observations and were used to explain extant mysteries and problems outstanding in astrophysics in the 1980s and 1990s. In various venues, Peratt profiled what he characterized as an alternative viewpoint to the mainstream models applied in astrophysics and cosmology.<ref name=WI1 /><ref name=WI2 /><ref name=ST>A.L. Peratt, ''Plasma Cosmology,'' Sky & Tel. Feb. 1992. [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/CosmologyPeratt.pdf]</ref><ref>A. L. Peratt, ''Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology'', Astrophys. Space Sci. 227, 3-11 (1995). [http://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/PrincetonEditorial.1993.pdf]</ref>
   
 
For example, Peratt proposed that the mainstream approach to galactic dynamics which relied on gravitational modeling of stars and gas in galaxies with the addition of dark matter was overlooking a possibly major contribution from plasma physics. He mentions laboratory experiments of [[Winston H. Bostick]] in the 1950s that created plasma discharges that looked like galaxies.<ref name="Peratt1986b">{{cite journal |author=A. Peratt |title=Evolution of the plasma universe. I - Double radio galaxies, quasars, and extragalactic jets |journal=IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science |ISSN=0093-3813 |volume=PS-14 |pages=639–660 |year=1986 |url=http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/downloadsCosmo/Peratt86TPS-I.pdf }}</ref><ref>Bostick, W. H., [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1986ITPS...14..703B&amp;db_key=PHY&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=42ca922c9c11925 "What laboratory-produced plasma structures can contribute to the understanding of cosmic structures both large and small"] (1986) ''IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science'' (ISSN 0093-3813), vol. PS-14, Dec. 1986, p. 703-717</ref> Perrat conducted computer simulations of colliding plasma clouds that he reported also mimicked the shape of galaxies.<ref>{{cite journal |authors=AL Peratt, J Green and D Nielson |title=Evolution of Colliding Plasmas |journal=Physical Review Letters |volume=44 |date=20 June 1980 |pages=1767–1770|bibcode = 1980PhRvL..44.1767P |doi = 10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1767 }}</ref> Peratt proposed that galaxies formed due to plasma filaments joining in a [[z-pinch]], the filaments starting 300,000 light years apart and carrying [[Birkeland current]]s of 10<sup>18</sup> Amps.<ref name=Lerner /><ref name="Peratt1983">{{cite journal |authors=AL Peratt and J Green |title=On the Evolution of Interacting, Magnetized, Galactic Plasmas |journal=Astrophysics and Space Science |volume=91 |year=1983 |pages=19–33|bibcode = 1983Ap&SS..91...19P |doi = 10.1007/BF00650210 }}</ref> Peratt also reported simulations he did showing emerging jets of material from the central buffer region that he compared to [[quasars]] and [[active galactic nucleus|active galactic nuclei]] occurring without [[supermassive black hole]]s. Peratt proposed a sequence for [[galaxy evolution]]: "the transition of double [[radio galaxy|radio galaxies]] to [[quasar|radioquasars]] to radioquiet QSO's to peculiar and [[Seyfert galaxy|Seyfert galaxies]], finally ending in [[spiral galaxy|spiral galaxies]]".<ref name="Peratt1986"/> He also reported that flat [[galaxy rotation curves]] were simulated without [[dark matter]].<ref name=Lerner /> At the same time [[Eric Lerner]], an independent plasma researcher and supporter of Peratt's ideas, proposed a plasma model for then still-mysterious phenomenon of quasars based on a [[dense plasma focus]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=E.J. Lerner |title=Magnetic Self‑Compression in Laboratory Plasma, Quasars and Radio Galaxies |journal=Laser and Particle Beams |volume=4 part 2 |year=1986 |pages=193‑222 |bibcode = 1986LPB.....4..193L |doi = 10.1017/S0263034600001750 }}</ref>
 
For example, Peratt proposed that the mainstream approach to galactic dynamics which relied on gravitational modeling of stars and gas in galaxies with the addition of dark matter was overlooking a possibly major contribution from plasma physics. He mentions laboratory experiments of [[Winston H. Bostick]] in the 1950s that created plasma discharges that looked like galaxies.<ref name="Peratt1986b">{{cite journal |author=A. Peratt |title=Evolution of the plasma universe. I - Double radio galaxies, quasars, and extragalactic jets |journal=IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science |ISSN=0093-3813 |volume=PS-14 |pages=639–660 |year=1986 |url=http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/downloadsCosmo/Peratt86TPS-I.pdf }}</ref><ref>Bostick, W. H., [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1986ITPS...14..703B&amp;db_key=PHY&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=42ca922c9c11925 "What laboratory-produced plasma structures can contribute to the understanding of cosmic structures both large and small"] (1986) ''IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science'' (ISSN 0093-3813), vol. PS-14, Dec. 1986, p. 703-717</ref> Perrat conducted computer simulations of colliding plasma clouds that he reported also mimicked the shape of galaxies.<ref>{{cite journal |authors=AL Peratt, J Green and D Nielson |title=Evolution of Colliding Plasmas |journal=Physical Review Letters |volume=44 |date=20 June 1980 |pages=1767–1770|bibcode = 1980PhRvL..44.1767P |doi = 10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1767 }}</ref> Peratt proposed that galaxies formed due to plasma filaments joining in a [[z-pinch]], the filaments starting 300,000 light years apart and carrying [[Birkeland current]]s of 10<sup>18</sup> Amps.<ref name=Lerner /><ref name="Peratt1983">{{cite journal |authors=AL Peratt and J Green |title=On the Evolution of Interacting, Magnetized, Galactic Plasmas |journal=Astrophysics and Space Science |volume=91 |year=1983 |pages=19–33|bibcode = 1983Ap&SS..91...19P |doi = 10.1007/BF00650210 }}</ref> Peratt also reported simulations he did showing emerging jets of material from the central buffer region that he compared to [[quasars]] and [[active galactic nucleus|active galactic nuclei]] occurring without [[supermassive black hole]]s. Peratt proposed a sequence for [[galaxy evolution]]: "the transition of double [[radio galaxy|radio galaxies]] to [[quasar|radioquasars]] to radioquiet QSO's to peculiar and [[Seyfert galaxy|Seyfert galaxies]], finally ending in [[spiral galaxy|spiral galaxies]]".<ref name="Peratt1986"/> He also reported that flat [[galaxy rotation curves]] were simulated without [[dark matter]].<ref name=Lerner /> At the same time [[Eric Lerner]], an independent plasma researcher and supporter of Peratt's ideas, proposed a plasma model for then still-mysterious phenomenon of quasars based on a [[dense plasma focus]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=E.J. Lerner |title=Magnetic Self‑Compression in Laboratory Plasma, Quasars and Radio Galaxies |journal=Laser and Particle Beams |volume=4 part 2 |year=1986 |pages=193‑222 |bibcode = 1986LPB.....4..193L |doi = 10.1017/S0263034600001750 }}</ref>
   
For a few decades, Peratt was able to promote and develop the plasma cosmology approach as a [[senior fellow|IEEE fellow]] of the [[IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society]]. As a guest editor of the journal [[Transactions on Plasma Science]], he supported the publication of a number of special issues dedicated to plasma cosmology, the last one appearing in 2007.<ref>(See IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, issues in [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?db_key=AST&db_key=PHY&sim_query=YES&ned_query=YES&aut_logic=OR&obj_logic=OR&author=&object=&start_mon=12&start_year=1986&end_mon=12&end_year=1986&ttl_logic=OR&title=&txt_logic=OR&text=&nr_to_return=100&start_nr=1&jou_pick=ALL&ref_stems=ITPS.&data_and=ALL&group_and=ALL&start_entry_day=&start_entry_mon=&start_entry_year=&end_entry_day=&end_entry_mon=&end_entry_year=&min_score=&sort=SCORE&data_type=SHORT&aut_syn=YES&ttl_syn=YES&txt_syn=YES&aut_wt=1.0&obj_wt=1.0&ttl_wt=0.3&txt_wt=3.0&aut_wgt=YES&obj_wgt=YES&ttl_wgt=YES&txt_wgt=YES&ttl_sco=YES&txt_sco=YES&version=1 1986], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1989&isnumber=928 1989], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1990&isnumber=1720 1990], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1992&isnumber=5186 1992], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=2000&isnumber=19507 2000], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=2003&isnumber=28301 2003], and [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isnumber=4287017 2007])</ref> Additionally, in 1991, Lerner wrote a popular-level book supporting plasma cosmology titled ''The Big Bang Never Happened''.<ref name= "Lerner">{{cite book |author=E. J. Lerner |title=The Big Bang Never Happened |publisher=Random House |location=New York and Toronto |year=1991 |ISBN=0-8129-1853-3}}</ref>
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For a few decades, Peratt was able to promote and develop the Plasma Cosmology approach as a [[senior fellow|IEEE fellow]] of the [[IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society]]. As a guest editor of the journal [[Transactions on Plasma Science]], he supported the publication of a number of special issues dedicated to Plasma Cosmology, the last one appearing in 2007.<ref>(See IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, issues in [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?db_key=AST&db_key=PHY&sim_query=YES&ned_query=YES&aut_logic=OR&obj_logic=OR&author=&object=&start_mon=12&start_year=1986&end_mon=12&end_year=1986&ttl_logic=OR&title=&txt_logic=OR&text=&nr_to_return=100&start_nr=1&jou_pick=ALL&ref_stems=ITPS.&data_and=ALL&group_and=ALL&start_entry_day=&start_entry_mon=&start_entry_year=&end_entry_day=&end_entry_mon=&end_entry_year=&min_score=&sort=SCORE&data_type=SHORT&aut_syn=YES&ttl_syn=YES&txt_syn=YES&aut_wt=1.0&obj_wt=1.0&ttl_wt=0.3&txt_wt=3.0&aut_wgt=YES&obj_wgt=YES&ttl_wgt=YES&txt_wgt=YES&ttl_sco=YES&txt_sco=YES&version=1 1986], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1989&isnumber=928 1989], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1990&isnumber=1720 1990], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=1992&isnumber=5186 1992], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=2000&isnumber=19507 2000], [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isYear=2003&isnumber=28301 2003], and [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isnumber=4287017 2007])</ref> Additionally, in 1991, Lerner wrote a popular-level book supporting plasma cosmology titled ''The Big Bang Never Happened''.<ref name= "Lerner">{{cite book |author=E. J. Lerner |title=The Big Bang Never Happened |publisher=Random House |location=New York and Toronto |year=1991 |ISBN=0-8129-1853-3}}</ref>
   
 
==Comparison to mainstream astrophysics==
 
==Comparison to mainstream astrophysics==
Proponents of plasma cosmology claim electrodynamics is as important as gravity in explaining the structure of the universe, and speculate that it provides an alternative explanation for the [[Galaxy formation and evolution|evolution of galaxies]]<ref name=Peratt1986 /> and the initial collapse of interstellar clouds.<ref name=Alfven1978 /> In particular plasma cosmology is claimed to provide an alternative explanation for the flat [[galaxy rotation curve|rotation curves]] of spiral galaxies and to do away with the need for [[dark matter]] in galaxies and with the need for [[supermassive black holes]] in galaxy centres to power [[quasars]] and [[active galactic nucleus|active galactic nuclei]].<ref name=Peratt1986 /><ref name="Peratt1983"/> However, theoretical analysis shows that "many scenarios for the generation of seed magnetic fields, which rely on the survival and sustainability of currents at early times [of the universe are disfavored]",<ref name=Siegel2006 /> i.e. Birkeland currents of the magnitude needed (say 10<sup>18</sup> Amps) for galaxy formation are thought to not exist.<ref name="Colafrancesco2006" >Colafrancesco, S. and Giordano, F. ''The impact of magnetic field on the cluster M - T relation'' Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 454, Issue 3, August II 2006, pp. L131-L134. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006A%26A...454L.131C&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=453e529efc17118] recount: "Numerical simulations have shown that the wide-scale magnetic fields in massive clusters produce variations of the cluster mass at the level of ~ 5 − 10% of their unmagnetized value ... Such variations are not expected to produce strong variations in the relative [mass-temperature] relation for massive clusters."</ref> Additionally, many of the issues that were mysterious in the 1980s and 1990s including discrepancies relating to the [[cosmic microwave background]] and the nature of [[quasars]] have been subsequently solved with more evidence that, in detail, provides a distance and time scale for the universe. Plasma cosmology supporters therefore dispute the interpretations of evidence for the [[Big Bang]].
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Proponents of Plasma Cosmology claim electrodynamics as an important factor in explaining the structure of the universe, and assert that it provides its own explanations for the [[Galaxy formation and evolution|evolution of galaxies]]<ref name=Peratt1986 /> and formation of stars.<ref name=Alfven1978 /> In particular the Plasma Cosmology paradigm has developed independent explanations for the flat [[galaxy rotation curve|rotation curves]] of spiral galaxies and to do away with the need for [[dark matter]] in galaxies and with the need for [[supermassive black holes]] in galaxy centres to power [[quasars]] and [[active galactic nucleus|active galactic nuclei]].<ref name=Peratt1986 /><ref name="Peratt1983"/> However, theoretical analysis shows that "many scenarios for the generation of seed magnetic fields, which rely on the survival and sustainability of currents at early times [of the universe are disfavored]",<ref name=Siegel2006 /> i.e. Birkeland currents of the magnitude needed (say 10<sup>18</sup> Amps) for galaxy formation are thought to not exist.<ref name="Colafrancesco2006" >Colafrancesco, S. and Giordano, F. ''The impact of magnetic field on the cluster M - T relation'' Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 454, Issue 3, August II 2006, pp. L131-L134. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006A%26A...454L.131C&amp;db_key=AST&amp;data_type=HTML&amp;format=&amp;high=453e529efc17118] recount: "Numerical simulations have shown that the wide-scale magnetic fields in massive clusters produce variations of the cluster mass at the level of ~ 5 − 10% of their unmagnetized value ... Such variations are not expected to produce strong variations in the relative [mass-temperature] relation for massive clusters."</ref>
   
Some of these issues include light element production without [[Big Bang nucleosynthesis]] which, in the context of Alfvén-Klein cosmology, has been shown to produce excessive [[x-ray]]s and [[gamma ray]]s beyond that observed.<ref>J.Audouze ''et al.'', "Big Bang Photosynthesis and Pregalactic Nucleosynthesis of Light Elements", ''Astrophysical Journal'' '''293''':L53-L57, 1985 June 15 [http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1985ApJ...293L..53A&amp;data_type=PDF_HIGH&amp;type=PRINTER&amp;filetype=.pdf]</ref><ref>Epstein ''et al.'', "The origin of deuterium", ''Nature'', '''Vol. 263''', September 16, 1976 point out that if proton fluxes with energies greater than 500 MeV were intense enough to produce the observed levels of deuterium, they would also produce about 1000 times more gamma rays than are observed.</ref> Plasma cosmology proponents have made proposals to explain light element abundances, but the attendant issues have not been fully addressed.<ref>Ref. 10 in "Galactic Model of Element Formation" (Lerner, ''IEEE Trans. Plasma Science'' Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1989 [http://www.health-freedom.info/pdf/Galactic%20Model%20of%20Element%20Formation.pdf]) is J.Audouze and J.Silk, "Pregalactic Synthesis of Deuterium" in ''Proc. ESO Workshop on "Primordial Helium"'', 1983, pp. 71-75 [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983prhe.work...71A] Lerner includes a paragraph on "Gamma Rays from D Production" in which he claims that the expected gamma ray level is consistent with the observations. He cites neither Audouze nor Epstein in this context, and does not explain why his result contradicts theirs.</ref> In 1995 Eric Lerner published his alternative explanation for the [[cosmic microwave background radiation]] (CMB).<ref>Eric Lerner. [http://www.photonmatrix.com/pdf/Intergalactic%20Radio%20Absorption%20And%20The%20COBE%20Data.pdf Intergalactic Radio Absorption and the COBE Data], ''Astrophysics and Space Science'', '''227''': 61-81, 1995.</ref> He argues that his model can explain both the fidelity of the CMB spectrum to that of a black body and the low level of anisotropies found. The sensitivity and resolution of the measurement of the CMB anisotropies was greatly advanced by [[WMAP]]. The fact that the CMB is so isotropic, in line with the predictions of the Big Bang model, was subsequently heralded as a major confirmation of the Big Bang model to the detriment of alternatives.<ref>D. N. Spergel ''et al.'' (WMAP collaboration), "First year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Determination of cosmological parameters", ''Astrophys. J. Suppl.'' '''148''' (2003) 175.</ref> These measurements show the [[Cosmic microwave background radiation#Primary anisotropy|acoustic peaks]] in the early universe are fit with high accuracy by the predictions of the Big Bang model. There has never been an attempt to explain the detailed spectrum of the anisotropies within the framework of plasma cosmology.
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Plasma Cosmology provides independent explanations for a variety of phenomenon including the Nucleosynthesis of Light Elements.<ref>Ref. 10 in "Galactic Model of Element Formation" (Lerner, ''IEEE Trans. Plasma Science'' Vol. 17, No. 2, April 1989 [http://www.health-freedom.info/pdf/Galactic%20Model%20of%20Element%20Formation.pdf]) is J.Audouze and J.Silk, "Pregalactic Synthesis of Deuterium" in ''Proc. ESO Workshop on "Primordial Helium"'', 1983, pp. 71-75 [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983prhe.work...71A] Lerner includes a paragraph on "Gamma Rays from D Production" in which he claims that the expected gamma ray level is consistent with the observations. He cites neither Audouze nor Epstein in this context, and does not explain why his result contradicts theirs.</ref> In 1995 Eric Lerner published his own explanation for the [[cosmic microwave background radiation]] (CMB).<ref>Eric Lerner. [http://www.photonmatrix.com/pdf/Intergalactic%20Radio%20Absorption%20And%20The%20COBE%20Data.pdf Intergalactic Radio Absorption and the COBE Data], ''Astrophysics and Space Science'', '''227''': 61-81, 1995.</ref> He argues that his model can explain both the fidelity of the CMB spectrum to that of a black body and the low level of anisotropies found. The sensitivity and resolution of the measurement of the CMB anisotropies was greatly advanced by [[WMAP]] and [[Planck]] which have challenged and placed severe restrictions on every popular model of the cosmos.
   
 
==References and Notes==
 
==References and Notes==
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