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Article:North Carolina
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{{About|the U.S. state of North Carolina}}
{{Redirect|The Old North State|the song of the same name|The Old North State (song)}}
{{US state
|Name = North Carolina
|Fullname = State of North Carolina
|Flag = Flag of North Carolina.svg
|Flaglink = [[Flag of North Carolina|Flag]]
|Seal = Seal of North Carolina.svg
|Map = North Carolina in United States.svg
|Nickname = [[Tar Heel]] State; {{nowrap|Old North State}}
|Motto = [[Esse quam videri]] (official); {{nowrap|[[Wright brothers#Ohio–North Carolina rivalry|First in Flight]]}}
|MottoEng = To be, rather than to seem
|Former = Province of North Carolina
|LargestCity = [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]
|LargestMetro = [[Charlotte metropolitan area|Charlotte metro area]]
|LargestCounty = [[Wake County, North Carolina|Wake]]
|Old Capital = [[New Bern 1766, Hillsborogh NC, 1754]]
|Capital = [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]
|Demonym = North Carolinian (official);<br>[[Tar Heel]] (colloquial)
|Governor = [[Pat McCrory]] ([[Republican Party (United States)|R]])
|Lieutenant Governor = [[Dan Forest]] ([[Republican Party (United States)|R]])
|Legislature = [[North Carolina General Assembly|General Assembly]]
|Upperhouse = [[North Carolina Senate|Senate]]
|Lowerhouse = [[North Carolina House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
|Senators = [[Richard Burr]] ([[Republican Party (United States)|R]])<br/>[[Kay Hagan]] ([[United States Democratic Party|D]])
|Representative=4 Democrats,<br>9 Republicans
|PostalAbbreviation = NC
|OfficialLang = English
|Languages = English (90.70%)<br />Spanish (6.18%)<ref>{{cite web |url= |title= North Carolina |publisher= [[Modern Language Association]] |accessdate=August 11, 2012}}</ref>
|AreaRank = 28th
|TotalAreaUS = 53,819
|TotalArea = 139,390
|LandAreaUS = 48,711
|LandArea = 126,161
|WaterArea = 5,108
|PCWater = 9.5
|PopRank = 10th
|2000Pop = 9,752,073(2012 est)<ref name=PopEstUS/>
|DensityRank = 15th
|2000DensityUS = 212.2
|2000Density = 82.7
|MedianHouseholdIncome = $54,082<ref name = MHI>[ Median Household Income], from U.S. Census Bureau (from 2007 American Community Survey), [[U.S. Census Bureau]]. Retrieved April 9, 2009.</ref>
|IncomeRank = 38th<ref name = MHI/>
|AdmittanceOrder = 12th
|AdmittanceDate = November 21, 1789
|TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] [[Eastern Time Zone|-5]]/[[Eastern Daylight Time|-4]]
|Latitude = 33° 50′ N to 36° 35′ N
|Longitude = 75° 28′ W to 84° 19′ W
|WidthUS = 150
|Width = 241
|LengthUS = 560<ref>{{cite web |date=May 8, 2006 |url= |title=North Carolina Climate and Geography |work=NC Kids Page |publisher=North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State |accessdate=November 7, 2006}}</ref>
|Length = 901
|HighestPoint = [[Mount Mitchell (North Carolina)|Mount Mitchell]]<ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url=|title=Elevations and Distances in the United States|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 24, 2011}}</ref><ref name=NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
|HighestElevUS = 6,684
|HighestElev = 2037
|MeanElevUS = 700
|MeanElev = 210
|LowestPoint = [[Atlantic Ocean]]<ref name=USGS/>
|LowestElevUS = 0
|LowestElev = 0
|ISOCode = US-NC
|ElectoralVotes = 15
|Website =
'''North Carolina''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-North Carolina.ogg|ˌ|n|ɔr|θ|_|k|ær|ə|ˈ|l|aɪ|n|ə}}) is a state in [[Southeastern United States]]. The state borders [[South Carolina]] and [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] to the south, [[Tennessee]] to the west, [[Virginia]] to the north, and the [[Atlantic Ocean]] to the east. North Carolina is the [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|28th most extensive]] and the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population|10th most populous]] of the [[List of U.S. states|50 United States]]. North Carolina is known as the ''Tar Heel State'' and the ''Old North State''.
North Carolina is composed of [[List of counties in North Carolina|100 counties]]. North Carolina's two largest metropolitan areas are among the top ten fastest growing in the country: its capital, [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]], and its largest city, [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]. In the past five decades, North Carolina's economy has undergone a transition from heavy reliance upon tobacco, textiles, and furniture making to a more diversified economy with engineering, energy, [[biotechnology]], and finance sectors.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The Industrial History of North Carolina: A Research Guide|accessdate=November 3, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The Growth of Research Triangle Park|accessdate=November 3, 2010}}</ref>
North Carolina has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to {{convert|6684|ft}} at [[Mount Mitchell]], the highest point in the Eastern US.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Mount Mitchell State Park " History|accessdate=November 7, 2010}}</ref> The climate of the coastal plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the [[humid subtropical climate]] zone. More than {{convert|300|mi|km|-2}} from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a [[subtropical highland climate]].
{{Main|Geography of North Carolina}}
[[File:North carolina topographic.jpg|thumb|right|North Carolina topographic map]]
[[File:Rainy Blue Ridge-27527.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Blue Ridge Mountains]] as seen from the [[Blue Ridge Parkway]].]]
[[File:Enodeer.jpg|thumb|Deer in the [[Eno River]] as it flows through the Piedmont region of North Carolina]]
[[File:Road near Tellico Plains.jpg|thumb|View at end of [[Cherohala Skyway]] near Tellico Plains]]
North Carolina borders [[South Carolina]] on the south, [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] on the southwest, [[Tennessee]] on the west, [[Virginia]] on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The [[United States Census Bureau]] classifies North Carolina as a [[Southern United States|southern]] state in the subcategory of being one of the [[South Atlantic States]].
North Carolina consists of three main geographic sections: the [[Atlantic Coastal Plain|coastal plain]], which occupies the eastern 45% of the state; the [[Piedmont (United States)|Piedmont]] region, which contains the middle 35%; and the [[Appalachian Mountains]] and [[Foothills (North Carolina)|foothills]]. The extreme eastern section of the state contains the [[Outer Banks]], a string of sandy, narrow islands which form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and two inland waterways or "sounds": [[Albemarle Sound]] in the north and [[Pamlico Sound]] in the south. They are the two largest landlocked sounds in the United States. So many ships have been lost off [[Cape Hatteras]] that the area is known as the "[[Graveyard of the Atlantic]]". More than 1,000 ships have sunk in these waters since records began in 1526. The most famous of these is the [[Queen Anne's Revenge]] (flagship of the pirate [[Blackbeard]]) which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718.<ref>{{cite web|title=Blackbeard’s Queen Anne’s Revenge Coming Back to Beaufort|publisher=Beach Carolina Magazine|date=March 30, 2011|url=}}</ref>
Immediately inland, the coastal plain is relatively flat, with rich soil ideal for growing tobacco, [[soybeans]], melons, and cotton. The coastal plain is North Carolina's most rural section, with few large towns or cities. Agriculture remains an important industry.
The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the "[[fall line]]", a line which marks the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most urbanized and densely populated section. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. Small, isolated, and deeply eroded mountain ranges and peaks are located in the Piedmont, including the [[Sauratown Mountains]], [[Pilot Mountain (North Carolina)|Pilot Mountain]], the [[Uwharrie Mountains]], [[Crowder's Mountain]], [[King's Pinnacle]], the [[Brushy Mountains (North Carolina)|Brushy Mountains]], and the [[South Mountains (North Carolina)|South Mountains]]. The Piedmont ranges from about 300–400&nbsp;feet (90–120&nbsp;m) elevation in the east to over 1,000 feet (300&nbsp;m) in the west. Due to the rapid population growth in the Piedmont, a significant part of the rural area in this region is being transformed into suburbs with shopping centers, housing, and corporate offices. Agriculture is steadily declining in its importance. The major rivers of the Piedmont, such as the [[Yadkin River|Yadkin]] and [[Catawba River|Catawba]], tend to be fast-flowing, shallow, and narrow.
The [[Western North Carolina|western section]] of the state is part of the [[Appalachian Mountain]] range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the [[Great Smoky Mountains]], [[Blue Ridge Mountains]], [[Great Balsam Mountains]], and the [[Black Mountains (North Carolina)|Black Mountains]]. The Black Mountains are the highest in the Eastern United States, and culminate in [[Mount Mitchell (North Carolina)|Mount Mitchell]] at 6,684 feet (2,037&nbsp;m).<ref name="usgs">{{cite web |date=April 29, 2005
|url= |title=Elevations and Distances in the United States |publisher=U.S Geological Survey |accessdate=November 6, 2006}}</ref> It is the highest point east of the [[Mississippi River]]. Although agriculture still remains important, tourism has become a dominant industry in the mountains. Growing [[Christmas trees]] has recently been an important industry. Due to the higher altitude, the climate in the mountains often differs markedly from the rest of the state. Winter in western North Carolina typically features high snowfall and subfreezing temperatures more akin to those of a midwestern state than of a southern state.
[[File:cullasaja.jpg|thumb|upright|left|[[Cullasaja Falls]] in [[Macon County, North Carolina|Macon County]]]]
North Carolina has 17 major river basins. The basins west of the [[Blue Ridge Mountains]] flow to the Gulf of Mexico (via the Ohio and then the Mississippi River). All the others flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins, 11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the state's border – the [[Cape Fear (headland)|Cape Fear]], [[Neuse]] which is the widest river in the United States at its mouth at [[Pamlico Sound]], [[White Oak River]] and [[Tar-Pamlico]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Watersheds|publisher=NC Office of Environmental Education|date=February 16, 2007|url=}}{{dead link|date=September 2012}}</ref>
{{Main|Climate of North Carolina}}
[[File:Snow in old fort.JPG|thumb|right|Snow in [[Old Fort, North Carolina]] caused by the 2009 Blizzard]]
[[File:Graveyard Fields 3.jpg|thumb|[[Graveyard Fields]] in [[autumn]]]]
[[File:2009 Coca-Cola 600.jpg|thumb|A rainy day at Charlotte Motor Speedway]]
The geographical divisions of North Carolina are useful when discussing the [[climate]] of the state.
The climate of the coastal plain is influenced by the [[Atlantic Ocean]], which keeps temperatures mild in winter and moderate in summer. The highest coastal, daytime temperature averages less than {{convert|89|°F|0}} during summer months. The coast has mild temperature in winter, with daytime highs rarely below {{convert|40|°F|0}}. The average daytime temperature in the coastal plain is usually in the mid-50s&nbsp;°F (11–14&nbsp;°C) in winter. Temperatures in the coastal plain only occasionally drop below the freezing point at night. The coastal plain averages only around {{convert|1|in|cm|1}} of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all.
The Atlantic Ocean has less influence on the climate of the Piedmont region, which has hotter summers and colder winters than in the coast. Daytime highs in the Piedmont often average over {{convert|90|°F|0}} in the summer. While it is not common for the temperature to reach over {{convert|100|°F|0}} in the state, such temperature, if it occurs, is found in the lower areas of the Piedmont. The weaker influence of the Atlantic Ocean also means that temperatures in the Piedmont often fluctuate more widely than in the coast.
In winter, the Piedmont is colder than the coast, with temperatures usually averaging in the upper 40s–lower 50s&nbsp;°F (8–12&nbsp;°C) during the day and often dropping below the freezing point at night. The region averages from {{convert|3|–|5|in|cm|0|abbr=on}} of snowfall annually in the Charlotte area, to around {{convert|12|in|cm|0|abbr=on}} in the Asheville area. The Piedmont is especially notorious for [[Rain and snow mixed|sleet]] and [[freezing rain]]. Freezing rain can be heavy enough to snarl traffic and break down trees and power lines. Annual precipitation and humidity are lower in the Piedmont than in the mountains or the coast, but even at its lowest, the average is {{convert|40|in|sigfig=3|abbr=on}} per year.
The [[Appalachian Mountains]] are the coolest area of the state, with daytime temperatures averaging in the low 40s and upper 30s&nbsp;°F (6–3&nbsp;°C) for highs in the winter and falling into the low 20s&nbsp;°F (−5&nbsp;°C) or lower on winter nights. Relatively cool summers have temperatures rarely rising above {{convert|80|°F|0}}. Average snowfall in many areas exceeds {{convert|30|in|cm|0|abbr=on}} per year, and can be heavy at the higher elevations. For example, during the [[Blizzard of 1993]] more than {{convert|60|in|cm|0|abbr=on}} of snow fell on [[Mount Mitchell]] over a period of three days. Additionally, Mount Mitchell has received snow in every month of the year.
Severe weather occurs regularly in North Carolina. On average, a [[hurricane]] hits the state once a decade. Destructive hurricanes that have struck the state include [[Hurricane Fran]], [[Hurricane Floyd]], and [[Hurricane Hazel]], the strongest storm to make landfall in the state as a [[Saffir-Simpson Scale|Category 4]] in 1954. [[Hurricane Isabel]] stands out as the most damaging of the 21st century.<ref>John Hairr, ''The Great Hurricanes of North Carolina'' (2008) pp 139–150</ref> Tropical storms arrive every 3 or 4 years. In addition, many hurricanes and tropical storms graze the state. In some years, several hurricanes or tropical storms can directly strike the state or brush across the coastal areas. Only Florida and Louisiana are hit by hurricanes more often. Although many people believe that hurricanes menace only coastal areas, the rare hurricane which moves inland quickly enough can cause severe damage. In 1989 [[Hurricane Hugo]] caused heavy damage in [[Charlotte]] and even as far inland as the [[Blue Ridge Mountains]] in the northwestern part of the state. On average, North Carolina has 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year, with some storms becoming severe enough to produce hail, [[flash flood]]s, and damaging winds.
North Carolina averages fewer than 20&nbsp;tornadoes per year. Many of these are produced by hurricanes or tropical storms along the coastal plain. Tornadoes from thunderstorms are a risk, especially in the eastern part of the state. The western Piedmont is often protected by the mountains breaking storms up as they try to cross over them. The storms will often reform farther east. Also a weather feature known as "[[cold air damming]]" occurs in the western part of the state. This can also weaken storms but can also lead to major ice events in winter."<ref>{{cite web|title=NOAA National Climatic Data Center|url=|accessdate=October 24, 2006}}</ref>
In April 2011, [[Mid-April 2011 Southern United States tornado outbreak|one of the worst]] tornado outbreaks in North Carolina's history occurred. 25 confirmed tornadoes touched down, mainly in the Eastern Piedmont, killing at least 24 people. Damages in the capital of Raleigh alone were over $115&nbsp;million.<ref name="115MillionDamage">{{cite web | url= | title=NC residents band together after killer storms | publisher=News & Observer | date=April 21, 2011 | accessdate=April 22, 2011}}{{dead link|date=July 2011}}</ref><ref name="25Tornados">{{cite web | url= | title=Tornado outbreak is NC's most active on record | publisher=News & Observer | date=April 22, 2011 | accessdate=April 22, 2011}}{{dead link|date=July 2011}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|
| colspan="13" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%;background:#E8EAFA;"|Monthly normal high and low temperatures ([[Fahrenheit]]) for various North Carolina cities.
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:17px;"| City
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jan
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Feb
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Mar
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Apr
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| May
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jun
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jul
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Aug
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Sep
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Oct
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Nov
! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Dec
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Asheville<ref name = "NOAA Asheville/Charlotte">
{{cite web
|url =
|title = NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data
|publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
|accessdate = December 16, 2011}}</ref>
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 47/27
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 51/30
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 59/35
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 68/43
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 75/51
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 81/60
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 84/64
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 83/63
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 77/56
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 68/45
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 59/36
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 49/29
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Boone<ref name="NOAA Boone">{{cite web
| url =
| title = NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data
| accessdate = December 4, 2012
| publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]] }}</ref>
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 42/21
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 45/23
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 52/29
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 61/37
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 69/46
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 76/54
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 79/58
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 78/57
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 72/50
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 63/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 54/31
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 45/24
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Cape Hatteras<ref name = "NOAA Cape Hatteras">
{{cite web
|url =
|title = NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data
|publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
|accessdate = April 14, 2012}}</ref>
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 52/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 54/40
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 59/45
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 66/53
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 74/61
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 81/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 85/74
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 84/73
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 80/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 72/60
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 64/51
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 56/43
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Charlotte<ref name = "NOAA Asheville/Charlotte"/>
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 51/30
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 55/33
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 63/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 72/47
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 79/56
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 86/64
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 89/68
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 88/67
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 81/60
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 72/49
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 62/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 53/32
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Fayetteville<ref name = "NOAA Raleigh"/>
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 52/31
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 56/32
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 64/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 73/47
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 80/56
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 87/65
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 90/70
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 89/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 83/63
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 74/49
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 63/40
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 54/32
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Greensboro<ref name = "NOAA Raleigh">
{{cite web
|url =
|title = NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data
|publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
|accessdate = February 8, 2012}}</ref>
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 48/30
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 52/32
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 61/39
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 70/47
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 78/56
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 85/65
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 88/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 86/68
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 80/61
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 70/49
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 61/40
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 51/32
! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Raleigh<ref name = "NOAA Raleigh"/>
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 51/30
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 54/32
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 63/40
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 72/48
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 80/57
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 87/66
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 90/70
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 88/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 82/62
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 73/50
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 64/41
| style="text-align:center; background:#f8f3ca; color:#000;"| 54/32
! style="background:#c5dfe1; color:#000; height:16px;"| Wilmington<ref name = "NOAA Wilmington">{{cite web
|url =
|title = NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data
|publisher = [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]
|accessdate = February 26, 2012}}</ref>
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 56/36
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 60/38
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 66/44
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 74/52
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 81/60
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 87/69
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 90/73
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 88/71
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 84/66
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 76/55
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 68/45
| style="text-align:center; background:#c5dfe1; color:#000;"| 59/38
{{Main|History of North Carolina}}
[[File:North carolina algonkin-rituale01.jpg|thumb|Ceremony of Secotan warriors in North Carolina. Watercolour painted by English colonist [[John White (colonist and artist)|John White]] in 1585.]]
[[File:Our Savage Manteo.jpg|thumb|right| A plaque to commemorate the first Indigenous person who was converted to Christianity, [[Manteo (Croatan)|Manteo]] at the Roanoke Colony.]]
[[File:Dr. M.T. Pope.jpg|thumb|upright|Dr. M.T. Pope (after whom the [[Pope House Museum]] was named), a prominent citizen of [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]], 1900]]
[[File:North-Carolina-Museum-of-History-20080321.jpeg|thumb|The [[North Carolina Museum of History]], Raleigh]]
Spanish colonial forces were the first Europeans to make a permanent settlement in the area, when the [[Juan Pardo (explorer)|Juan Pardo]]-led Expedition built Fort San Juan in 1567. This was sited at [[Joara]], a [[Mississippian culture]] regional [[chiefdom]] in the western interior. Present-day [[Morganton, North Carolina|Morganton]] developed near there. The fort lasted only 18 months; the natives killed all but one of the 120 men Pardo had stationed at a total of six forts in the area.<ref>[ Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict"], ''American Archaeologist'', Spring 2008, p.14. Retrieved June 26, 2008.</ref>
North Carolina became one of the English [[Thirteen Colonies]], and, with the territory of [[South Carolina]], was originally known as [[Province of Carolina]]. The northern and southern parts of the original Province separated in 1729. Originally settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the seacoast settlements, but by 1718 the pirates had been captured and executed. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted [[Scotch-Irish American|Scotch-Irish]], [[Quaker]], [[English-American|English]] and [[German American|German]] immigrants. The colonists generally supported the [[American Revolution]], as the number of Loyalists were fewer than in some other colonies.
During Colonial times, [[Edenton, North Carolina|Edenton]] served as the state capital, beginning in 1722, and [[New Bern]] was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of [[Tryon Palace]], which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor, [[William Tryon]], began in 1767 and was completed in 1771. In 1788 [[Raleigh]] was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast. Officially established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named for Sir [[Walter Raleigh]], sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Capitol History |accessdate=May 16, 2013 |author=North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources}}</ref>
North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington; an additional 10,000 served in local militia units under such leaders as General [[Nathanael Greene]].<ref>Milton Ready, ''The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina'' (U. of South Carolina Press, 2005) pp 116, 120</ref> There was some military action, especially in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains into the [[Washington District, North Carolina|Washington District]] (later known as [[Tennessee]]) but, following the Revolution, in 1789 the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands. It ceded them to the national government so that the [[Northwest Territory]] could be organized and managed nationally.
After 1800, cotton and [[tobacco]] became important export crops. The eastern half of the state, especially the [[Tidewater (geographic term)|Tidewater]], developed a [[slave society]] based on a [[plantation]] system and [[slave]] labor. Many [[free people of color]] migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population was free people of color, who numbered slightly more than 10,000. The western areas were dominated by white families, especially Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of [[Jeffersonian Democracy|Jeffersonian]] and [[Jacksonian Democracy]] with a strong Whig presence, especially in the West. After [[Nat Turner]]'s slave rebellion in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote.
On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the [[Confederate States of America|Confederate states]] to declare secession from the [[Union (American Civil War)|Union]], 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession. Some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military; 20,000 were killed in battle, the most of any state in the Confederacy, and 21,000 died of disease. The state government was reluctant to support the demands of the national government in Richmond, and the state was the scene of only small battles.
With the end of the war in 1865, the [[Reconstruction Era in the United States|Reconstruction Era]] began. The United States abolished slavery without compensation to the slaveholders, or reparations to the [[freedmen]]. A [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]] coalition of black Freedmen, northern [[Carpetbaggers]], and local [[Scalawags]] controlled state government for three years. The white conservative Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1870, in part by [[Ku Klux Klan]] violence and physical intimidation at the polls to suppress black voting. Republicans were elected as governor until 1876, when the [[Red Shirts (Southern United States)|Red Shirts]], a paramilitary organization that arose in 1874 and was allied with the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]], helped suppress black voting. More than 150 blacks were killed in electoral violence in 1876.
Democrats were elected to the legislature and governor's office, but the [[Populist Party (United States)|Populists]] attracted voters displeased with them. In 1896 a biracial, Populist-Republican Fusionist coalition gained the governor's office. The Democrats regained control of the legislature in 1896, and passed laws to impose [[Jim Crow]] and racial [[Racial segregation|segregation]] of public facilities. Voters of North Carolina's 2nd congressional district elected a total of four African-American US Congressmen through these years of the late nineteenth century.
Political tensions were so high that a small group of white Democrats in 1898 planned to take over the [[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]] government if their candidates were not elected. In the [[Wilmington Insurrection of 1898]], more than 1500 white men attacked the black newspaper and neighborhood, killed numerous men, and ran off the white Republican mayor and aldermen. They installed their own people, and elected [[Alfred M. Waddell]] as mayor, in the only coup d'état in United States history.<ref name="Commission">[ "Chapter 5"], ''1898 Wilmington Race Riot Commission Report'', North Carolina Dept. of Cultural Resources</ref>
In 1899 the state legislature passed a new constitution with requirements for [[poll taxes]] and [[literacy tests]] for voter registration; it effectively [[Disfranchisement after Reconstruction era|disfranchised]] most blacks in the state.<ref name="Pildes">[ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", ''Constitutional Commentary'', Vol.17, 2000, p. 27]. Retrieved March 10, 2008</ref> Exclusion from voting had wide effects: it meant that blacks could not qualify to serve on juries or in any local office. After a decade of [[white supremacy]], many people forgot that North Carolina had ever had thriving middle-class blacks.<ref>Pildes (2000), "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", pp.12–13</ref> They essentially had no political voice in the state until after the federal [[Civil Rights Act of 1964]] and [[Voting Rights Act of 1965]] were passed to enforce their constitutional rights. It was not until 1992 that another African American was elected as a US Representative from North Carolina.
As in the rest of the former Confederate states, North Carolina had become a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party. Impoverished by the Civil War, the state continued with an economy based on tobacco, cotton and agriculture. Towns and cities remained few in the east. A major industrial base emerged in the late 19th century in the western counties of the Piedmont based on cotton mills established at the [[fall line]]. Railroads were built to connect the new industrializing cities. The state was the site of the first successful controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air flight, by the [[Wright brothers]], near [[Kitty Hawk, North Carolina|Kitty Hawk]] on December 17, 1903. In the first half of the 20th century, many African Americans left the area to go North for better opportunities, in the [[Great Migration (African American)|Great Migration]]. Their departure changed the demographics of many areas.
North Carolina was hard hit by the [[Great Depression in the United States|Great Depression]], but the [[New Deal]]'s farm programs of [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] for cotton and tobacco significantly helped the farmers. After World War II, the state's economy grew rapidly, highlighted by the growth of such cities as Charlotte, Raleigh, and Durham in the Piedmont. Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill form the [[Research Triangle]], a major area of universities and advanced scientific and technical research. In the 1990s, Charlotte became a major regional and national banking center.
By the 1970s, spurred in part by the increasingly leftward tilt of national Democrats, conservative whites began to vote for Republican national candidates, and gradually for more Republicans on the local level. Since the 1965 Civil Rights Act under[[Lyndon Johnson]], blacks have affiliated with and consistently elected officials of the Democratic Party.
===Native Americans, lost colonies, and permanent settlement===
{{See also|Native Americans in the United States|Joara|Roanoke Island}}
[[File:The Carte of all the Coast of Virginia by Theodor de Bry 1585 1586.jpg|thumb|left|Map of the coast of [[Virginia]] and North Carolina, drawn 1585–1586 by [[Theodor de Bry]], based on map by [[John White (colonist and artist)|John White]] of the [[Roanoke Colony]]]]
North Carolina was inhabited for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of [[prehistoric]] [[indigenous peoples|indigenous]] cultures. Before 200 AD, they were building [[Earthworks (archaeology)|earthwork mounds]], which were used for ceremonial and religious purposes. Succeeding peoples, including those of the ancient [[Mississippian culture]] established by 1000 AD in the Piedmont, continued to build or add on to such mounds. In the 500–700 years preceding European contact, the Mississippian culture built large, complex cities and maintained far-flung regional trading networks. Its largest city was [[Cahokia]], located in present-day Illinois near the Mississippi River.
Historically documented tribes in the North Carolina region include the [[Carolina Algonquian]]-speaking tribes of the coastal areas, such as the [[Chowanoke]], [[Roanoke (tribe)|Roanoke]], [[Pamlico]], [[Machapunga]], [[Coree]], [[Cape Fear Indians]], and others, who were the first encountered by the English; the [[Iroquoian]]-speaking [[Meherrin]], [[Cherokee]] and [[Tuscarora (tribe)|Tuscarora]] of the interior; and Southeastern [[Siouan]] tribes, such as the [[Cheraw (tribe)|Cheraw]], [[Waxhaws|Waxhaw]], [[Saponi]], [[Waccamaw Siouan|Waccamaw]], and [[Catawba (tribe)|Catawba]].
Spanish [[explorer]]s traveling inland in the 16th century met [[Mississippian culture]] people at [[Joara]], a regional [[chiefdom]] near present-day [[Morganton, North Carolina|Morganton]]. Records of [[Hernando de Soto]] attested to his meeting with them in 1540. In 1567 Captain [[Juan Pardo (explorer)|Juan Pardo]] led an expedition to claim the area for the Spanish colony, as well as establish another route to protect silver mines in Mexico. Pardo made a winter base at Joara, which he renamed ''Cuenca''. The expedition built Fort San Juan and left 30 men, while Pardo traveled further, and built and garrisoned five other forts. He returned by a different route to [[Mission Santa Elena|Santa Elena]] on [[Parris Island, South Carolina]], then a center of [[Spanish Florida]]. In the spring of 1568, natives killed all but one of the soldiers and burned the six forts in the interior, including the one at Fort San Juan. Although the Spanish never returned to the interior, this marked the first European attempt at colonization of the interior of what became the United States. A 16th-century journal by Pardo's scribe Bandera and [[archaeological]] findings since 1986 at Joara have confirmed the settlement.<ref>{{cite web|author=Patrick Gibbs |url= |first1=David G. |last1=Moore |first2=Robin A. |last2=Beck, Jr. |first3= Christopher B. |last3=Rodning |title=Joara and Fort San Juan: culture contact at the edge of the world |volume=78, No. 229, | |date=March 2004 |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref><ref>Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict" [ Warren Wilson College], ''American Archaeologist'', Spring 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.</ref>
[[File:Croatoan.jpg|thumb|right|[[John White (colonist and artist)|John White]] returns to find the colony abandoned]]
In 1584, [[Elizabeth I]] granted a charter to [[Sir Walter Raleigh]], for whom the state capital is named, for land in present-day North Carolina (then [[Virginia]]).<ref>{{cite book
|title=Tanglewood Park
|location=Orlando, Florida
|isbn=0-15-333476-2 }}</ref> Raleigh established two colonies on the coast in the late 1580s, but both failed. It was the second American territory which the English attempted to colonize. The demise of the "[[Roanoke Colony|Lost Colony]]" of [[Roanoke Island]] remains one of the most widely debated mysteries of American history. [[Virginia Dare]], the first English child to be born in North America, was born on Roanoke Island on August 18, 1587. [[Dare County, North Carolina|Dare County]] is named for her.
As early as 1650, colonists from the Virginia colony moved into the area of [[Albemarle Sound]]. By 1663, King [[Charles II of England]] granted a charter to start a new colony on the North American continent; it generally established North Carolina's borders. He named it ''Carolina'' in honor of his father [[Charles I of England|Charles I]].<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=North Carolina State Library – North Carolina History | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> By 1665, a second charter was issued to attempt to resolve territorial questions. In 1710, due to disputes over governance, the Carolina colony began to split into North Carolina and [[South Carolina]]. The latter became a crown colony in 1729.
When a series of [[smallpox]] epidemics swept the South in the 1700s, they caused high fatalities among the Native Americans, who had no [[immunity (medical)|immunity]] to the new disease (it had become [[endemic]] in Europe).<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Cherokee Indians | |date=November 16, 1919 |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> According to the historian Russell Thornton, "The 1738 epidemic was said to have killed one-half of the [[Cherokee]], with other tribes of the area suffering equally."<ref>Russell Thornton (1990) ''[ American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492],'' University of Oklahoma Press. p.79. ISBN 0-8061-2220-X</ref>
===Colonial period and Revolutionary War===
{{See also|Province of Carolina|Province of North Carolina|American Revolutionary War}}
[[File:Tryon Palace.JPG|thumb|Reconstructed royal governor's mansion [[Tryon Palace]] in [[New Bern, North Carolina|New Bern]]]]
After the Spanish in the 16th century, the first permanent European settlers of North Carolina were English colonists who migrated south from [[Virginia]]. The latter had grown rapidly and land was less available. [[Nathaniel Batts]] was documented as one of the first of these Virginian migrants. He settled south of the [[Chowan River]] and east of the [[Great Dismal Swamp]] in 1655.<ref>Fenn and Wood, ''Natives and Newcomers'', pp. 24–25</ref> By 1663, this northeastern area of the [[Province of Carolina]], known as the [[Albemarle Settlements]], was undergoing full-scale English settlement.<ref>Powell, ''North Carolina Through Four Centuries'', p. 105</ref> During the same period, the English monarch [[Charles II of England|Charles II]] gave the province to the [[Lords Proprietors]], a group of noblemen who had helped restore Charles to the throne in 1660. The new province of "Carolina" was named in honor and memory of King [[Charles I of England|Charles I]] (Latin: ''Carolus''). In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony. Except for the [[John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville|Earl Granville]] holdings, it became a royal colony seventeen years later.<ref name="autogenerated1">Lefler and Newsome, (1973)</ref>
Differences in the settlement patterns of eastern and western North Carolina, or the [[South Carolina Lowcountry|Low Country]] and uplands, affected the political, economic, and social life of the state from the eighteenth until the 20th century. The Tidewater in eastern North Carolina was settled chiefly by immigrants from rural England and the [[Scottish Highlands]]. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled chiefly by [[Ulster Scots people|Scots-Irish]], English and [[Germans|German]] Protestants, the so-called "[[cohee]]". Arriving during the mid-to-late 18th century, the Scots-Irish from what is today Northern Ireland were the largest non-English immigrant group before the Revolution; English indentured servants were overwhelmingly the largest immigrant group prior to the Revolution.<ref>{{cite web|author= Bethune, Lawrence E |title= Scots to Colonial North Carolina Before 1775 |work= Lawrence E. Bethune's M.U.S.I.C.s Project |url= }}</ref><ref name="">{{cite web|url= |title=Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3a – Persons Who Reported a Single Ancestry Group for Regions, Divisions and States|format=PDF |accessdate=May 11, 2012}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite web|url= |title=Table 1. '&#39;Type of Ancestry Response for Regions, Divisions and States: 1980 |format=PDF |accessdate=May 11, 2012}}</ref><ref name=""/><ref name="ReferenceA"/><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Indentured Servitude in Colonial America | |accessdate=May 11, 2012}}</ref> During the [[American Revolutionary War]], the English and Highland Scots of eastern North Carolina tended to remain loyal to the British Crown, because of longstanding business and personal connections with Great Britain. The English, Welsh, Scots-Irish and German settlers of western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Britain.
Most of the English colonists had arrived as [[indentured servant]]s, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage. In the early years the line between indentured servants and African [[slave]]s or laborers was fluid. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong status. Most of the [[free people of color|free colored]] families formed in North Carolina before the Revolution were descended from unions or marriages between free white women and enslaved or free African or African-American men. Because the mothers were free, their children were born free. Many had migrated or were descendants of migrants from colonial Virginia.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Paul Heinegg, '&#39;Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware'&#39; | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]], planters imported more slaves and the state's restrictions on slavery hardened. It became a racial caste. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco.
On April 12, 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the [[Continental Congress]] to vote for independence from the British Crown, through the [[Halifax Resolves]] passed by the [[North Carolina Provincial Congress]]. The dates of both of these events are memorialized on the [[Flag of North Carolina|state flag]] and [[Seal of North Carolina|state seal]].<ref name="NCSeal">{{cite web|title=The Great Seal of North Carolina||url=|accessdate=September 12, 2006}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> Throughout the Revolutionary War, fierce [[guerrilla warfare]] erupted between bands of pro-independence and pro-British colonists. In some cases the war was also an excuse to settle private grudges and rivalries. A major American victory in the war took place at [[King's Mountain]] along the North Carolina–South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780 a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today the State of [[Tennessee]]) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 British troops led by Major [[Patrick Ferguson]]. Most of the British soldiers in this battle were Carolinians who had remained loyal to the British Crown (they were called "Tories" or Loyalists). The American victory at Kings Mountain gave the advantage to colonists who favored American independence, and it prevented the British Army from recruiting new soldiers from the Tories.
[[File:Battle of Guiliford Courthouse 15 March 1781.jpg|thumb|left|1st Maryland Regiment holding the line at the [[Battle of Guilford]].]]
The road to [[Yorktown, Virginia|Yorktown]] and America's independence from [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]] led through North Carolina. As the [[British Army]] moved north from victories in [[Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston]] and [[Camden, South Carolina]], the Southern Division of the [[Continental Army]] and local militia prepared to meet them. Following General [[Daniel Morgan]]'s victory over the British Cavalry Commander [[Banastre Tarleton]] at the [[Battle of Cowpens]] on January 17, 1781, southern commander [[Nathanael Greene]] led British Lord [[Charles Cornwallis]] across the heartland of North Carolina, and away from the latter's base of supply in Charleston, South Carolina. This campaign is known as "The Race to the Dan" or "The Race for the River."<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
In the [[Battle of Cowan's Ford]], Cornwallis met resistance along the banks of the [[Catawba River]] at Cowan's Ford on February 1, 1781 in an attempt to engage General Morgan's forces during a tactical withdrawal.<ref>Stonestreet, Ottis C. IV, ''The Battle of Cowan's Ford: General Davidson's Stand on the Catawba River and its place in North Carolina History'' (CreateSpace Publishing 2012) ISBN 978-1-4680-7730-8 p. 3.</ref> Morgan had moved to the northern part of the state to combine with General Greene's newly recruited forces. Generals Greene and Cornwallis finally met at the [[Battle of Guilford Courthouse]] in present-day [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]] on March 15, 1781. Although the [[Kingdom of Great Britain|British]] troops held the field at the end of the battle, their casualties at the hands of the numerically superior Continental Army were crippling. Following this "[[Pyrrhic victory]]", Cornwallis chose to move to the Virginia coastline to get reinforcements, and to allow the [[Royal Navy]] to protect his battered army. This decision would result in Cornwallis' eventual defeat at [[Yorktown, Virginia]] later in 1781. The Patriots' victory there guaranteed American independence.
===Antebellum period===
On November 21, 1789, North Carolina became the twelfth state to ratify the [[United States Constitution|Constitution]]. In 1840, it completed the [[North Carolina State Capitol|state capitol]] building in Raleigh, still standing today. Most of North Carolina's slave owners and large [[plantations]] were located in the eastern portion of the state. Although North Carolina's plantation system was smaller and less cohesive than those of Virginia, Georgia or South Carolina, significant numbers of planters were concentrated in the counties around the port cities of Wilmington and Edenton, as well as suburban planters around the cities of Raleigh, Charlotte and Durham in the Piedmont. Planters owning large estates wielded significant political and socio-economic power in antebellum North Carolina, which was a slave society. They placed their interests above those of the generally non-slave holding "yeoman" farmers of western North Carolina. In mid-century, the state's rural and commercial areas were connected by the construction of a 129-mile (208&nbsp;km) wooden plank road, known as a "farmer's railroad", from [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville]] in the east to [[Bethania, North Carolina|Bethania]] (northwest of [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]]).<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
[[File:Map North Carolina roads and railroads 1854.jpg|thumb|[[Map]] of the roads and railroads of North Carolina, 1854]]
Besides slaves, there were a number of [[free people of color]] in the state. Most were descended from free African Americans who had migrated along with neighbors from [[Virginia]] during the 18th century. The majority were the descendants of unions in the working classes between white women, indentured servants or free, and African men, indentured, slave or free.<ref>[ Paul Heinegg, ''Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware''], 2005</ref> After the [[American Revolutionary War|Revolution]], [[Religious Society of Friends|Quakers]] and [[Mennonite]]s worked to persuade slaveholders to free their slaves. Some were inspired by their efforts and the language of the Revolution, to arrange for [[manumission]] of their slaves. The number of free people of color rose markedly in the first couple of decades after the Revolution.<ref>John Hope Franklin, ''Free Negroes of North Carolina, 1789–1860'', Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941, reprint, 1991</ref>
On October 25, 1836 construction began on the [[Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad]]<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=NC Business History – Railroads | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> to connect the port city of [[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]] with the state capital of [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]. In 1849 the North Carolina Railroad was created by act of the legislature to extend that railroad west to [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]], [[High Point, North Carolina|High Point]], and [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]. During the Civil War, the Wilmington-to-Raleigh stretch of the railroad would be vital to the Confederate war effort; supplies shipped into Wilmington would be moved by rail through Raleigh to the Confederate capital of [[Richmond, Virginia]].
During the antebellum period, North Carolina was an overwhelmingly rural state, even by Southern standards. In 1860 only one North Carolina town, the port city of [[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]], had a population of more than 10,000. [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]], the state capital, had barely more than 5,000 residents.
While slaveholding was slightly less concentrated than in some Southern states, according to the 1860 census, more than 330,000 people, or 33% of the population of 992,622, were enslaved African Americans.<ref name="census">[ Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia]{{dead link|date=July 2011}}. Retrieved March 21, 2008.</ref> They lived and worked chiefly on plantations in the eastern [[Tidewater (geographic term)|Tidewater]]. In addition, 30,463 [[free people of color]] lived in the state.<ref name="census"/> They were also concentrated in the eastern coastal plain, especially at port cities such as Wilmington and [[New Bern]], where a variety of jobs were available. Free African Americans were allowed to vote until 1835, when the state revoked their suffrage in restrictions following the slave rebellion of 1831 led by [[Nat Turner]]. Southern slave codes criminalized willful killing of a slave in most cases.<ref name="slaves">{{cite book |last=Morris |first=Thomas D. |title=''Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619-1860'' |url= |publisher=University of North Carolina Press|year=1999|page=172| isbn=0807864307}}</ref>
===American Civil War===
{{Main|North Carolina in the American Civil War}}
{{Further|American Civil War}}
[[File:Battle of Fort Fisher.jpg|thumb|right|Union captures [[Fort Fisher]], 1865.]]
In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state, in which about one-third of the population was enslaved. This was a smaller proportion than many Southern states. The state did not vote to join the [[Confederate States of America|Confederacy]] until President [[Abraham Lincoln]] called on it to invade its sister-state, [[South Carolina]], becoming the last or second to last state to officially join the Confederacy. The title of "last to join the Confederacy" has been disputed because Tennessee informally seceded on May 7, 1861, making North Carolina the last to secede on May 20, 1861.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Center for Civic Education – Lincoln Bicentennial with Supplemental Lesson: Timeline | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Highlights: Secession | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> However, the Tennessee legislature did not formally vote to secede until June 8, 1861.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Today in History: June 8 | |date=April 9, 1959 |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref>
North Carolina was the site of few battles, but it provided at least 125,000 troops to the Confederacy— far more than any other state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops died: more than half of disease, the remainder due to battlefield wounds, and starvation. North Carolina also supplied about 15,000 Union troops.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Civil War Facts About North Carolina | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> Elected in 1862, Governor [[Zebulon Baird Vance]] tried to maintain state autonomy against Confederate President [[Jefferson Davis]] in [[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond]].
[[File:Silent Sam.jpg|thumb|left|[[Confederate States of America|Confederate]] soldier [[Silent Sam]], [[University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]] by [[John Wilson (sculptor)|John Wilson]]]]
After secession, some North Carolinians had refused to support the Confederacy. Some of the yeomen farmers in the state's mountains and western Piedmont region remained neutral during the Civil War, while some covertly supported the [[Union (American Civil War)|Union]] cause during the conflict. Approximately 2,000 North Carolinians from western North Carolina enlisted in the [[Union Army]] and fought for the North in the war. Two additional Union Army regiments were raised in the coastal areas of the state, which were occupied by Union forces in 1862 and 1863. Numerous slaves escaped to Union lines, where they became essentially free.
Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually all the major battles of the [[Army of Northern Virginia]], the Confederacy's most famous army. The largest battle fought in North Carolina was at [[Battle of Bentonville|Bentonville]], which was a futile attempt by Confederate General [[Joseph E. Johnston|Joseph Johnston]] to slow Union General [[William Tecumseh Sherman]]'s advance through the Carolinas in the spring of 1865.<ref name="autogenerated1" /> In April 1865, after losing the [[Battle of Morrisville]], Johnston surrendered to Sherman at [[Bennett Place]], in what is today [[Durham, North Carolina|Durham]]. This was the last major Confederate Army to surrender. North Carolina's port city of [[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]] was the last Confederate port to fall to the Union, in February 1865 after the Union won the nearby [[Second Battle of Fort Fisher]], its major defense downriver.
[[File:2008-08-16 Bennett Place historic site.jpg|thumb|right|[[Bennett Place]] historic site in [[Durham, North Carolina|Durham]].]]
The first Confederate soldier to be killed in the Civil War was Private Henry Wyatt from North Carolina, in the [[Battle of Big Bethel]] in June 1861. At the [[Battle of Gettysburg]] in July 1863, the 26th North Carolina Regiment participated in [[Pickett's Charge|Pickett/Pettigrew's Charge]] and advanced the farthest into the Northern lines of any Confederate regiment. During the [[Battle of Chickamauga]], the 58th North Carolina Regiment advanced farther than any other regiment on Snodgrass Hill to push back the remaining Union forces from the battlefield. At [[Appomattox Court House National Historical Park|Appomattox Court House]] in Virginia in April 1865, the 75th North Carolina Regiment, a cavalry unit, fired the last shots of the Confederate [[Army of Northern Virginia]] in the Civil War. For many years, North Carolinians proudly boasted that they had been "First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettysburg and Chickamauga, and Last at Appomattox."
|1790= 393751
|1800= 478103
|1810= 556526
|1820= 638829
|1830= 737987
|1840= 753419
|1850= 869039
|1860= 992622
|1870= 1071361
|1880= 1399750
|1890= 1617949
|1900= 1893810
|1910= 2206287
|1920= 2559123
|1930= 3170276
|1940= 3571623
|1950= 4061929
|1960= 4556155
|1970= 5082059
|1980= 5881766
|1990= 6628637
|2000= 8049313
|2010= 9535471
|footnote=Source: 1910–2010<ref>{{cite web|author=Resident Population Data |url= |title=Resident Population Data – 2010 Census | |accessdate=December 22, 2012}}</ref>
{{main|Demographics of North Carolina}}
The [[United States Census Bureau]] estimates that the population of North Carolina was 9,752,073 on July 1, 2012, a 2.3% increase since the [[2010 United States Census]].<ref name=PopEstUS>{{cite web|url=|title=Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012|format=[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2012 Population Estimates|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date=December 2012|accessdate=December 22, 2012}}</ref> Of the people residing in North Carolina, 58.5% were born in North Carolina, 33.1% were born in another US state, 1.0% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 7.4% were born in another country.<ref>[ American FactFinder – Results<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
As of 2011, 49.8% of North Carolina's population younger than age 1 were minorities (note: children born to [[white hispanic]]s are counted as minority group).<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot|last=Exner|first=Rich|date=June 3, 2012|work=[[The Plain Dealer]]}}</ref>
===Race and ethnicity===
'''Demographics of North Carolina''' covers the varieties of ethnic groups that reside in North Carolina, along with the relevant trends.
<br />The state's racial composition in the 2010 Census:<ref>{{cite web|title=2010 Census|url=|publisher=US Census|accessdate=August 21, 2011}}</ref>
* [[White American|White]]: 68.5% (65.3% [[non-Hispanic white]], 3.2% [[White Hispanic]])
* [[black people|Black]] or [[African American]]: 21.5%
* [[Asian American]]: 2.2%
* [[Native Hawaiian]] and [[Pacific Islander|other Pacific Islander]]: 0.1%
* [[race in the United States|Some other race]]: 4.3%
* [[Multiracial American]]: 2.2%
* [[Latino American|Latino]] and [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanic American]] of any race: 8.4%
As of 2010, 89.66% (7,750,904) of North Carolina residents age 5 and older spoke [[English language|English]] at home as a [[primary language]], while 6.93% (598,756) spoke [[Spanish language|Spanish]], 0.32% (27,310) [[French language|French]], 0.27% (23,204) [[German language|German]], and [[Chinese language|Chinese]] (which includes [[Standard Chinese|Mandarin]]) was spoken as a [[main language]] by 0.27% (23,072) of the population over the age of five. In total, 10.34% (893,735) of North Carolina's population age 5 and older spoke a [[mother language]] other than English.<ref name="MLA Data">{{cite web|url= |title=North Carolina|publisher=[[Modern Language Association]]|accessdate=August 16, 2013}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"
|+ '''Top 14 Non-English Languages Spoken in North Carolina'''
! Language !! Percentage of population<br /><small>(as of 2010)</small><ref name="MLA Data"/>
| [[Spanish language|Spanish]] || 6.93%
| [[French language|French]] || 0.32%
| [[German language|German]] || 0.27%
| [[Chinese language|Chinese]] (including [[Standard Chinese|Mandarin]]) || 0.27%
| [[Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]] || 0.24%
| [[Arabic language|Arabic]] || 0.17%
| [[Korean language|Korean]] || 0.16%
| [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]] || 0.13%
| [[Hindi language|Hindi]] || 0.12%
| [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]], [[Russian language|Russian]], and [[Hmong language|Hmong]] (tied) || 0.11%
| [[Italian language|Italian]] and [[Japanese language|Japanese]] (tied)|| 0.08%
North Carolina, like other [[Southern United States|Southern]] states, has traditionally been overwhelmingly [[Protestant]]. By the late 19th century, the largest Protestant denomination was the [[Baptist]] denomination. While the Baptists have maintained the majority in this part of the country (known as the [[Bible Belt]]), the population in North Carolina practices a wide variety of faiths, including [[Islam]], [[Judaism]], [[Baha'i]], [[Buddhism]], and [[Hinduism]]. The state also has a special history with the [[Moravian Church]], as settlers of this faith (largely of German origin) found a home in the [[Winston-Salem]] area in the 18th and 19th centuries. [[Presbyterians]], historically Scots-Irish, have had a strong presence in [[Charlotte]] and [[Scotland County, North Carolina|Scotland County]].
Currently, the rapid influx of [[Northern United States|northerners]] and immigrants from Latin America is steadily increasing the number of [[Roman Catholics]] and [[Judaism|Jews]] in the state, as well as general religious diversity. The second-largest Protestant denomination in North Carolina after Baptist traditions is [[Methodism]], which is strong in the northern Piedmont, especially in populous [[Guilford County]]. There are also a substantial number of [[Quakers]] in [[Guilford County]] and northeastern North Carolina. Many universities and colleges in the state have been founded on religious traditions and some currently maintain that affiliation, including:
*[[Wake Forest University]] (Baptist)
*[[Belmont Abbey College]] (Catholic)
*[[Bennett College for Women]] (United Methodist Church)
*[[Catawba College]] (United Church of Christ)
*[[Chowan University]] (Baptist)
*[[Davidson College]] (Presbyterian)
*[[Duke University]] (Historically Methodist)
*[[Elon University]] (United Church of Christ)
*[[Greensboro College]] (Methodist)
*[[Guilford College]] (Religious Society of Friends [Quakers])
*[[High Point College]] (United Methodist Church)
*[[Lees-McRae College]] (Presbyterian)
*[[Lenoir-Rhyne College]] (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America)
*[[Livingstone College]] (African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church)
*[[Louisburg College]] (United Methodist Church)
*[[Mars Hill College]] (Christian)
*[[Methodist University]] (United Methodist Church)
*[[Montreat College]] (Christian)
*[[Mount Olive College]] (Baptist)
*[[North Carolina Wesleyan College]] (United Methodist Church)
*[[Peace College]] (Presbyterian)
*[[Pfeiffer University]] (Methodist)
*[[Queens University of Charlotte]] (Presbyterian)
*[[St. Andrews Presbyterian College]] (Presbyterian)
*[[St. Augustine's University|Saint Augustine's College]] (Episcopalian Church)
*[[Salem College]] (Historically Moravian [Protestant])
*[[Shaw University]] (Baptist)
*[[Wake Forest University]] (Baptist)
*[[Warren Wilson College]] (Historically Presbyterian)
*[[Wingate University]] (Historically Judeo-Christian)<ref></ref>
The state also has several major seminaries, including [[Duke University Divinity School]] in [[Durham]], the [[Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary]] in [[Wake Forest, North Carolina|Wake Forest]], and the [[Hood Theological Seminary]] (AME Zion) in [[Salisbury]].
The religious affiliations of the people of North Carolina, as of 2001, are shown below:<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=American Religious Identification Survey |work=Exhibit 15 |publisher=The Graduate Center, City University of New York |accessdate=January 9, 2009}}</ref>
*[[Christianity|Christian]]: 79%
**[[Protestantism|Protestant]]: 57%
***[[Baptist]]: 38%
***[[Methodism|Methodist]]: 9%
***[[Presbyterianism|Presbyterian]]: 3%
***[[Lutheranism|Lutheran]]: 2%
***Other Protestant: 5%
**[[Roman Catholicism in the United States|Roman Catholic]]: 10%
**Other Christian such as [[Non-denominational Christianity|Non-denominational]], [[Pentecostalism|Pentecostal]], and the [[LDS Church]]: 12%
*[[Judaism]]: 1%
*Other religions: 3%
*Non-religious: 10%
*Refused to answer: 7%
===Largest cities, 2012===
In 2013, the US Census Bureau released 2012 population estimate counts for North Carolina's cities with populations above 70,000.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=City & Towns Totals: Vintage 2011 – U.S Census Bureau | |accessdate=August 23, 2012}}</ref>
{{Bar graph
| title = Largest cities, 2012 Census Estimates
| data_max = 1,000,000
| bar_width = 60
| width_units = em
| table_style = font-size: 95%
| label_type = City
| data_type = Population
| label1 = [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]
| data1 = 775,202
| label2 = [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]
| data2 = 423,179
| label3 = [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]]
| data3 = 277,080
| label4 = [[Durham, North Carolina|Durham]]
| data4 = 239,358
| label5 = [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]]
| data5 = 238,156
| label6 = [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville]]
| data6 = 202,103
| label7 = [[Cary, North Carolina|Cary]]
| data7 = 145,693
| label8 = [[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]]
| data8 = 109,922
| label9 = [[High Point, North Carolina|High Point]]
| data9 = 106,573
| label10 = [[Greenville, North Carolina|Greenville]]
| data10 = 87,242
| label11 = [[Asheville, North Carolina|Asheville]]
| data11 = 85,712
| label12 = [[Concord, North Carolina|Concord]]
| data12 = 81,981
| label13 = [[Gastonia, North Carolina|Gastonia]]
| data13 = 72,723
| label14 = [[Jacksonville, North Carolina|Jacksonville]]
| data14 = 70,801
===Largest combined statistical areas===
[[File:Charlotte Skyline 2011 - Ricky W.jpg|thumb|[[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]] skyline]]
North Carolina has three major [[Combined Statistical Areas]] with populations of more than 1.6 million ([[U.S. Census Bureau]] 2012 estimates):<ref name="U.S. Census Bureau">{{cite web|url= |title=Population Estimates 2012 Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau |date= |accessdate=March 14, 2013}}</ref>
*'''[[Charlotte metropolitan area|Metrolina]]''': ''Charlotte–Gastonia–Salisbury, North Carolina-South Carolina'' – population 2,452,619<ref name="U.S. Census Bureau"/>
*'''The [[Research Triangle|Triangle]]''': ''Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, North Carolina'' – population 1,998,808<ref name="U.S. Census Bureau"/>
*'''The [[Piedmont Triad|Triad]]''': ''Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, North Carolina'' – population 1,611,243<ref name="U.S. Census Bureau"/>
{{main|Economy of North Carolina}}
{{See also|North Carolina locations by per capita income}}
According to a recent Forbes article written in 2013 Employment in the "Old North State" has gained many different industry sectors. See the following article summary: science, technology, energy and math, or STEM, industries in the area surrounding North Carolina's capital has grown 17.9 percent since 2001, placing Raleigh-Cary at No. 5 among the 51 largest metro areas in the country where technology is booming. In 2010 North Carolina's total gross state product was $424.9&nbsp;billion.<ref name=stategdp>{{cite web|title=GDP by State|url=|publisher=Greyhill Advisors|accessdate=September 7, 2011}}</ref> In 2011 the civilian labor force was at around 4.5&nbsp;million with employment near 4.1&nbsp;million. The working population is employed across the major employment sectors. The '''economy of North Carolina''' covers 15 metropolitan areas.<ref name=glance>[ Economy at a Glance]. For North Carolina. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011.</ref> In 2010, North Carolina was chosen as the third best state for business by Forbes Magazine, and the second best state by Chief Executive Officer Magazine.<ref>{{cite web|title=Site Selection Rankings|url=|publisher=Greyhill Advisors|accessdate=October 17, 2011}}</ref>
{{main|Transportation in North Carolina}}
{{Expand section|date=June 2012}}
[[File:Balloonduck.png|thumb|A North Carolina license plate.]]
Transportation systems in North Carolina consists of air, water, road, rail, and public transportation. North Carolina has the second largest state highway system in the country as well as the largest ferry system on the east coast.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=NC Department of Transportation Article: North Carolina's Future Rides on Us |publisher=NC Department of Transportation|accessdate=September 22, 2012}}</ref>
In 2011, the American State Litter Scorecard awarded North Carolina a high BEST rating for having some of America's cleanest public spaces and highways, and positive environmental conduct practices by citizens. North Carolina was the only state in the [[Southern United States]] to receive this Scorecard honor.<ref>S. Spacek. "2011 American State Litter Scorecard: New Rankings for an Increasingly Environmentally Concerned Populous"</ref>
==Politics and government==
{{main|Politics and government of North Carolina}}
[[File:NC Legislature.JPG|thumb|right|[[North Carolina State Legislative Building]]]]
The government of North Carolina is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. These consist of the [[North Carolina Council of State|Council of State]] (led by the [[Governor of North Carolina|Governor]]), the [[bicameral]] legislature (called the [[North Carolina General Assembly|General Assembly]]), and the state court system (headed by the [[North Carolina Supreme Court]]). The [[North Carolina Constitution|state constitution]] delineates the structure and function of the state government. North Carolina has 13 seats in the [[U.S. House of Representatives]] and two seats in the [[U.S. Senate]]. Recent changes in North Carolina politics include the change to a majority [[North Carolina Republican Party|Republican]] legislature after the 2010 elections.
North Carolina has recently become a Southern Swing State in recent years. The state has primarily voted Republican in presidential elections with the exception of 2008, when [[Barack Obama]] won. Romney won North Carolina in 2012, In 2012 the state also elected its first Republican Governor and Lieutenant Governor, [[Pat McCrory]] and [[Dan Forest]], in more than two decades while also giving the Republicans veto-proof majorities in both the State House of Representatives and State Senate. Several U.S. House of Representatives seats also flipped control, with the Republicans controlling nine seats to the Democrats' four.
===Primary and secondary education===
{{See also|List of school districts in North Carolina|List of high schools in North Carolina}}
Elementary and secondary public schools are overseen by the [[North Carolina Department of Public Instruction]]. The [[North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction]] is the secretary of the [[North Carolina State Board of Education]], but the board, rather than the superintendent, holds most of the legal authority for making public education policy. In 2009, the board's chairman also became the "chief executive officer" for the state's school system.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=North Carolina Public Schools | |accessdate=January 31, 2012}}</ref><ref>[ News & Observer: Perdue's choice to lead state's school system takes office]{{dead link|date=July 2011}}</ref> North Carolina has 115 public school systems,<ref name="SchoolQF">{{cite web|url= |title=NC Public School Facts | |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref> each of which is overseen by a local school board. A county may have one or more systems within it. The largest school systems in North Carolina are the [[Wake County Public School System]], [[Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools]], [[Guilford County Schools]], [[Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools]], and [[Cumberland County Schools]].<ref>[ North Carolina School District Demographics]. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.</ref> In total there are 2,425 public schools in the state, including 99 [[Charter school (North Carolina)|charter schools]].<ref name="SchoolQF"/>
===Colleges and universities===
{{Further2|[[List of colleges and universities in North Carolina]]}}
In 1795, North Carolina opened the first public university in the United States—the University of North Carolina (currently named the [[University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]]). More than 200 years later, the [[University of North Carolina system]] encompasses 17 [[public university|public universities]] including [[North Carolina State University]], the [[University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]], the [[University of North Carolina at Greensboro]], [[East Carolina University]], [[Western Carolina University]], the [[University of North Carolina at Asheville]], the [[University of North Carolina at Charlotte]], the [[University of North Carolina at Pembroke]], [[UNC Wilmington]], [[UNC School of the Arts]], and [[Appalachian State University]]. The system also supports several well-known historically African-American colleges and universities such as [[North Carolina A&T State University]], [[North Carolina Central University]], [[Winston-Salem State University]], [[Elizabeth City State University]], and [[Fayetteville State University]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Our 17 Institutions|url=|accessdate=January 5, 2012|author=The University of North Carolina}}</ref> Along with its public universities, North Carolina has 58 public [[community college]]s in its [[North Carolina Community College System|community college system]].The largest university in North Carolina is currently [[North Carolina State University]] with more than 34,000 students.<ref>{{cite web|title=About NC State:Discovery begins at NC State|url=|accessdate=January 5, 2012|author=NCSU}}</ref> North Carolina is home to many excellent universities as well as dozens of community colleges as well as private universities.
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| caption1 = [[Duke Chapel]] at Duke University
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| image2 = 2008-07-11 UNC-CH Old Well in the sun.jpg
| width2 = 145
| caption2 = [[Old Well]] at UNC-Chapel Hill
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| width3 = 99
| caption3 = [[Memorial Bell Tower]] at NC State
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| caption4 = [[Wait Chapel]] at Wake Forest University
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| caption5 = The Joyner Library clock tower at [[East Carolina University]]
| alt5 =
North Carolina is also home to many well-known private colleges and universities including: [[Duke University]], [[Wake Forest University]], [[Pfeiffer University]], [[Lees-McRae College]], [[Davidson College]], [[Barton College]], [[North Carolina Wesleyan College]], [[Elon University]], [[Guilford College]] (the first coeducational institution of higher learning in the South), [[Salem College]] (the first school for young women in the South), [[Shaw University]] (the first [[HBCU|historically black college or university]] in the South), [[John Wesley College (North Carolina)]] (the oldest undergraduate theological education institution in North Carolina), [[Meredith College]], [[Methodist University]], [[Belmont Abbey College]] (the only Catholic college in the Carolinas), [[Campbell University]], [[Mount Olive College]], [[Montreat College]], [[High Point University]], and [[Lenoir-Rhyne University]] (the only Lutheran university in North Carolina).
{{Main|Sports in North Carolina}}
North Carolina is home to three [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|major league]] sports franchises: the [[Carolina Panthers]] of the [[National Football League]] and the [[Charlotte Bobcats]] of the [[National Basketball Association]] are based in Charlotte, while the Raleigh-based [[Carolina Hurricanes]] play in the [[National Hockey League]]. While North Carolina has no [[Major League Baseball]] team, it does have numerous minor league baseball teams, with the highest level of play coming from the [[Triple-A (baseball)|AAA]]-affiliated [[Charlotte Knights]] and [[Durham Bulls]]. Additionally, North Carolina has minor league teams in other team sports including [[soccer]], [[ice hockey]], and [[arena football]].
In addition to professional team sports, North Carolina has a strong affiliation with [[NASCAR]] and stock car racing, with [[Charlotte Motor Speedway]] in [[Concord, North Carolina|Concord]] hosting two [[Sprint Cup Series]] races every year. Charlotte also hosts the [[NASCAR Hall of Fame]], while Concord is the home of several top-flight racing teams including [[Hendrick Motorsports]], [[Roush Fenway Racing]], [[Richard Petty Motorsports]], [[Stewart-Haas Racing]], and [[Earnhardt Ganassi Racing]]. Numerous other tracks around North Carolina host races from low-tier NASCAR circuits as well.
Golf is a popular summertime leisure activity, and North Carolina has hosted several important professional golf tournaments. [[Pinehurst Resort]] in [[Pinehurst, North Carolina|Pinehurst]] has hosted a [[PGA Championship]], [[Ryder Cup]], and two [[U.S. Open (golf)|U.S. Open]] tournaments. The [[Wells Fargo Championship]] is a regular stop on the [[PGA Tour]] and is held at [[Quail Hollow Club]] in Charlotte, while the [[Wyndham Championship]] is played annually in Greensboro.
[[College athletics in the United States|College sports]] are also popular in North Carolina, with 18 schools competing at the [[Division I (NCAA)|Division I]] level. The [[Atlantic Coast Conference]] (ACC) is headquartered in [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]], and both the [[ACC Championship Game|ACC Football Championship Game]] (Charlotte) and the [[ACC Men's Basketball Tournament]] (Greensboro) were most recently held in North Carolina. [[College basketball]] in particular is very popular, buoyed by the [[Tobacco Road]] rivalries. The [[Belk Bowl]] is a post-season [[college football]] game held annually in Charlotte's [[Bank of America Stadium]], featuring teams from the ACC and [[Big East Conference (1979–2013)|Big East]] conferences. Additionally, the state has hosted the NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four on two occasions, in Greensboro in 1974 and in Charlotte in 1994.
In the Charlotte area, amenities include [[Carowinds]] amusement park, [[Charlotte Motor Speedway]], [[U.S. National Whitewater Center]], and the Discovery Place. Nearby [[Concord, North Carolina|Concord]] has the [[Concord Mills]] Mall and [[Great Wolf Lodge]].
In the [[Conover, North Carolina|Conover]] – [[Hickory, North Carolina|Hickory]] area, [[Hickory Motor Speedway]], RockBarn Golf and Spa, home of the [[Greater Hickory Classic at Rock Barn]]; [[Catawba County]] Firefighters Museum, and SALT Block attract many tourists to Conover. Hickory which has [[Valley Hills Mall]].
[[File:Biltmore Estate 14.jpg|left| thumb|The [[Biltmore Estate]], [[Asheville, North Carolina|Asheville]]]] Every year the [[Appalachian Mountains]] attract several million tourists to the Western part of the state, including the historic [[Biltmore Estate]].
[[File:Baby lowland gorilla courtesy of North Carolina Zoo.jpg|left | thumb|Baby lowland gorilla courtesy of North Carolina Zoo]]The [ Piedmont Triad], or center of the state, is home to Krispy Kreme, [ Mayberry], Texas Pete, [ Lexington Barbecue] and [ Moravian cookies]. The internationally acclaimed [ North Carolina Zoo] in [ Asheboro] attracts visitors to its animals, plants, and a 57-piece art collection along five miles of shaded pathways in the world's largest land area natural habitat park. [[MerleFest]] in [[Wilkesboro, North Carolina|Wilkesboro]] attracts more than 80,000 people to its four-day music festival; and [ Wet 'n Wild Emerald Pointe] in [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]] is another attraction.
The [[Outer Banks]] and surrounding beaches attract millions of people to the Atlantic beaches every year.
[[File:Blue Ridge NC.jpg|thumb|The [[Blue Ridge Mountains]] of the Shining Rock Wilderness Area]]
[[File:Swimmer at Carolina Beach, NC IMG 4439.JPG|thumb|A lone swimmer at [[Carolina Beach, North Carolina|Carolina Beach]] (2012)]]
North Carolina provides a large range of recreational activities, from swimming at the beach<ref>[]. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.</ref> to [[skiing]] in the mountains. North Carolina offers [[Autumn leaf color|fall colors]], freshwater and saltwater fishing, hunting, [[birdwatching]], [[agritourism]], [[All-terrain vehicle|ATV]] trails, [[Hot air ballooning|ballooning]], [[rock climbing]], [[biking]], hiking, [[skiing]], [[boating]] and sailing, [[camping]], [[canoeing]], [[caving]] (spelunking), gardens, and [[arboretum]]s. North Carolina has [[theme park]]s, [[aquarium]]s, museums, [[historic site]]s, [[lighthouse]]s, elegant theaters, [[concert hall]]s, and [[fine dining]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=What To Do Across North Carolina||year=2006|accessdate=December 18, 2006 |archiveurl = <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = December 1, 2006}}</ref>
North Carolinians enjoy outdoor recreation utilizing numerous local bike paths, 34 [[List of North Carolina state parks|state parks]], and 14 [[National Park Service|national parks]]. [[National Park Service]] units include the [[Appalachian National Scenic Trail]], the [[Blue Ridge Parkway]], [[Cape Hatteras National Seashore]], [[Cape Lookout National Seashore]], [[Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site]] at [[Flat Rock, Henderson County, North Carolina|Flat Rock]], [[Fort Raleigh National Historic Site]] at [[Manteo, North Carolina|Manteo]], [[Great Smoky Mountains National Park]], [[Guilford Courthouse National Military Park]] in [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]], [[Moores Creek National Battlefield]] near [[Currie, North Carolina|Currie]] in [[Pender County, North Carolina|Pender County]], the [[Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail]], [[Old Salem|Old Salem National Historic Site]] in [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]], the [[Trail of Tears National Historic Trail]], and [[Wright Brothers National Memorial]] in [[Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina|Kill Devil Hills]]. National Forests include [[Uwharrie Mountains|Uwharrie National Forest]] in central North Carolina, [[Croatan National Forest]] in [[Eastern North Carolina]], [[Pisgah National Forest]] in the northern mountains, and [[Nantahala National Forest]] in the southwestern part of the state.
==Arts and culture==
{{Main|Culture of North Carolina}}
North Carolina has rich traditions in art, music, and cuisine. The nonprofit arts and culture industry generates $1.2 billion in direct economic activity in North Carolina, supporting more than 43,600 full-time equivalent jobs and generating $119 million in revenue for local governments and the state of North Carolina.<ref>{{cite web|title=North Carolina Arts Council|url=}}</ref> North Carolina established the [[North Carolina Museum of Art]] as the first major museum collection in the country to be formed by state legislation and funding<ref>{{cite web|title=North Carolina Museum of Art Museum Backgrounder|url=}}</ref> and continues to bring millions into the NC economy.<ref>{{cite web|title=N.C. Museum of Art: Rembrandt Exhibit Pumped $13 Million Into Wake County Economy|url=|work=SGR Today}}</ref> Also see this [[list of museums in North Carolina]].
One of the more famous arts communities in the state is [ Seagrove], the handmade pottery capital of the U.S. where artisans create handcrafted pottery inspired by the same traditions that began in this community more than 200 years ago. With nearly [ 100 shops and galleries] scattered throughout the area, you will find everything from traditional tableware to folk and collectible art pieces and historical reproductions.
{{Main|Music of North Carolina}}
North Carolina boasts a large number of noteworthy [[list of jazz musicians]], some among the most important in the history of the genre. These include: [[John Coltrane]], ([[Hamlet, North Carolina|Hamlet]], [[High Point, North Carolina|High Point]]); [[Thelonious Monk]] ([[Rocky Mount, North Carolina|Rocky Mount]]); [[Billy Taylor]] ([[Greenville, North Carolina|Greenville]]); [[Woody Shaw]] ([[Laurinburg, North Carolina|Laurinburg]]); [[Lou Donaldson]] ([[Durham, North Carolina|Durham]]); [[Max Roach]] ([[Newland, North Carolina|Newland]]); [[Tal Farlow]] ([[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]]); [[Albert Heath|Albert]], [[Jimmy Heath|Jimmy]] and [[Percy Heath]] ([[Wilmington, North Carolina|Wilmington]]); [[Nina Simone]] ([[Tryon, North Carolina|Tryon]]); and [[Billy Strayhorn]] ([[Hillsborough, North Carolina|Hillsborough]]).
[[File:Fiddlin' Bill Hensley, mountain fiddler, Asheville, North Carolina (LOC).jpg|thumb|Fiddlin' Bill Hensley, mountain fiddler, [[Asheville, North Carolina|Asheville]], 1937]]
North Carolina is also famous for its tradition of [[old-time music]], and many recordings were made in the early 20th century by folk song collector [[Bascom Lamar Lunsford]]. Musicians such as the [[North Carolina Ramblers]] helped solidify the sound of [[country music]] in the late 1920s, while the influential [[bluegrass music|bluegrass]] musician [[Doc Watson]] also came from North Carolina. Both North and South Carolina are a hotbed for traditional rural [[blues]], especially the style known as the [[Piedmont blues]]. [[Ben Folds Five]] originated in [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]], and [[Ben Folds]] still records and resides in [[Chapel Hill, North Carolina|Chapel Hill]].
The British band [[Pink Floyd]] is named, in part, after Chapel Hill bluesman [[Floyd Council]].
The [[Research Triangle]] area has long been a well-known center for [[Folk music|folk]], rock, [[Heavy metal music|metal]], jazz and [[punk rock|punk]].<ref name="richie">{{cite book|last=Unterberger|first=Richie|title=Music USA: The Rough Guide|publisher=The Rough Guides|year=1999|isbn=1-85828-421-X}}</ref> [[James Taylor]] grew up around Chapel Hill and his 1968 song "[[Carolina in My Mind]]" has been called an unofficial anthem for the state.<ref>{{cite news | url=,2859475&dq=carolina-in-my-mind+anthem | title=Hey, James Taylor – You've got a ... bridge? | work=[[Rome News-Tribune]] | date=May 21, 2002 | accessdate=June 28, 2009}}</ref><ref name="nando100206">{{cite news | url= | title=You must forgive him if he's ... | author=Hoppenjans, Lisa | work=[[The News & Observer]] | date=October 2, 2006 | accessdate=June 28, 2009}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url= | title=James Taylor to play 5 free NC concerts for Obama | author=Waggoner, Martha | agency=[[Associated Press]] |work=USA Today | date=October 17, 2008 | accessdate=June 28, 2009}}</ref> Other famous musicians from North Carolina include [[J. Cole]], [[Shirley Caesar]], [[Roberta Flack]], [[Clyde McPhatter]], [[Nnenna Freelon]], [[Jimmy Herring]], [[Michael Houser]], [[Eric Church]], [[Randy Travis]], [[Ryan Adams]], [[Ronnie Milsap]] and [[The Avett Brothers]].
[[Heavy metal music|Metal]] and [[Punk rock|punk]] acts such as [[Corrosion of Conformity]], [[Between the Buried and Me]], and [[Nightmare Sonata]] are native to North Carolina.
Also, EDM producer [[Porter Robinson]] hails from [[Chapel Hill, North Carolina|Chapel Hill]].
North Carolina is also the home state of more ''[[American Idol]]'' finalists than any other state. [[Clay Aiken]] (season two), [[Fantasia Barrino]] (season three), [[Kellie Pickler]] (season five), [[Bucky Covington]] (season five), [[Chris Daughtry]] (season five), [[Anoop Desai]] (season eight), and [[Scotty McCreery]] (season ten) all hail from the state.
In the mountains, the [[Brevard Music Center]] hosts choral, orchestral and solo performances during its annual summer schedule.
Also, see the [[North Carolina Music Hall of Fame]].
North Carolina has a variety of shopping choices. [[SouthPark Mall (Charlotte, North Carolina)|SouthPark Mall]] in [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]] is currently the largest in the Carolinas and [[Tennessee]] with almost 2.0&nbsp;million square feet. Other major malls in Charlotte include [[Northlake Mall (Charlotte)|Northlake Mall]] and [[Carolina Place Mall]] in nearby suburb [[Pineville, North Carolina|Pineville]]. Other major malls throughout the state include [[Hanes Mall]] in [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]], [[Crabtree Valley Mall]], [[North Hills (Raleigh)|North Hills Mall]], and [[Triangle Town Center]] in [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]], [[Friendly Center]] and [[Four Seasons Town Centre]] in [[Greensboro, North Carolina|Greensboro]], [[Oak Hollow Mall]] in [[High Point, North Carolina|High Point]], [[Concord Mills]] in [[Concord, North Carolina|Concord]], [[Valley Hills Mall]] in [[Hickory, North Carolina|Hickory]], [[The Streets at Southpoint]] and [[Northgate Mall (Durham)|Northgate Mall]] in [[Durham, North Carolina|Durham]].
===Cuisine and agriculture===
[[File:Lexington Barbecue Festival - Rides.jpg|thumb|2008 [[Lexington Barbecue Festival]]]]
A state culinary staple of North Carolina is pork [[barbecue]]. There are strong regional differences and rivalries over the sauces and method of preparation used in making the barbecue. The common trend across Western North Carolina is the use of Premium Grade Boston Butt, which is high in vitamins B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub>, niacin (B<sub>3</sub>), B<sub>6</sub>, and selenium. Western North Carolina pork barbecue uses a tomato-based sauce, and only the pork shoulder (dark meat) is used. Western North Carolina barbecue is commonly referred to as Lexington barbecue after the [[Piedmont Triad]] town of [[Lexington, North Carolina|Lexington]], home of the [[Lexington Barbecue Festival]] which attracts over 100,000 visitors each October.<ref>{{cite book | title = Bob Garner's Guide to North Carolina Barbecue | last = Garner | first = Bob | url = | publisher=John F. Blair, Publisher | year = 2007 | isbn = 978-0-89587-254-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = What is North Carolina-Style BBQ? | url = | last = Craig | first = H. Kent | year = 2006 | | accessdate = February 15, 2010}}</ref> Eastern North Carolina pork barbecue uses a [[vinegar]] and red pepper based sauce and the "whole hog" is cooked, thus integrating both white and dark meat.
[[Krispy Kreme]], an international chain of doughnut stores, was started in North Carolina; the company's headquarters are in [[Winston-Salem, North Carolina|Winston-Salem]]. [[Pepsi-Cola]] was first produced in 1898 in [[New Bern, North Carolina|New Bern]]. A regional [[soft drink]], [[Cheerwine]], was created and is still based in the city of Salisbury. Despite its name, the hot sauce [[Texas Pete]] was created in North Carolina; its headquarters are also in Winston-Salem. The [[Hardee's]] fast-food chain was started in [[Rocky Mount, North Carolina|Rocky Mount]]. Another fast-food chain, [[Bojangles']], was started in [[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]], and has its corporate headquarters there. A popular North Carolina restaurant chain is [[Golden Corral]]. Started in 1973, the chain was founded in [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville]], with headquarters located in [[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]. Popular [[Pickled cucumber|pickle]] brand [[Mount Olive Pickle Company]] was founded in [[Mount Olive, North Carolina|Mount Olive]] in 1926. [[Cook Out (restaurant)|Cook Out]], a popular fast food chain featuring burgers, hot dogs, and milkshakes in a wide variety of flavors, was founded in Greensboro in 1989 and has begun expanding outside of North Carolina.
Over the last decade, North Carolina has become a cultural epicenter and haven for internationally prize-winning wine (Noni Bacca Winery), internationally prized cheeses (Ashe County), "L'institut International aux Arts Gastronomiques: Conquerront Les Yanks les Truffes, January 15, 2010" international hub for truffles (Garland Truffles), and beer making as tobacco land has been converted to grape orchards while state laws regulating alcohol content in beer allowed a jump in ABV from 6% to 15%. The Yadkin Valley in particular has become a strengthening market for grape production while the city of [[Asheville, North Carolina|Asheville]] recently won the recognition of being named 'Beer City USA.' [[Asheville, North Carolina|Asheville]] boasts the largest [[North Carolina breweries#Breweries|breweries]] per capita of any city in the United States. Recognized and marketed brands of beer in North Carolina include Highland Brewing, Duck Rabbit Brewery, Mother Earth Brewery, Weeping Radish Brewery, Big Boss Brewing, Foothills Brewing, Carolina Brewing Company, Lonerider Brewing, and White Rabbit Brewing Company.
[[Tobacco]] was one of the first major industries to develop after the [[American Civil War|Civil War]]. Many farmers grew some tobacco, and the invention of the cigarette made the product especially popular. Winston-Salem is the birthplace of [[R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company]] (RJR), founded by [[R. J. Reynolds]] in 1874 as one of 16 tobacco companies in the town. By 1914 it was selling 425 million packs of Camels a year. Today it is the second-largest tobacco company in the U.S. (behind [[Altria Group]]). RJR is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc. which in turn is 42% owned by [[British American Tobacco]].<ref>Nannie M. Tilley, ''The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company'' (2009)</ref>
===Ships named for the state===
[[File:U.S.S. North Carolina.jpg|thumb|225x225px]]
{{Further|USS North Carolina}}
Several ships have been named after the state. Most famous is the {{USS|North Carolina|BB-55|6}}, a World War II [[battleship]]. The ship served in several battles against the forces of Imperial Japan in the [[Pacific Ocean theater of World War II|Pacific theater]] during the [[World War II|war]]. Now decommissioned, it is part of the USS ''North Carolina'' Battleship Memorial in Wilmington. Another {{USS|North Carolina|SSN-777|6}}, a nuclear attack [[submarine]], was commissioned in Wilmington, North Carolina on May 3, 2008.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=USS North Carolina 'brought to life' again |date=May 3, 2008 |accessdate=February 4, 2010 |publisher=[[WRAL-TV]]}}</ref>
===State parks===
{{main|List of North Carolina state parks}}
The state maintains a group of [[protected area]]s known as the '''North Carolina State Park System''', which is managed by the North Carolina Division of Parks & Recreation (NCDPR), an agency of the [[North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources|North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR)]].
===State symbols===
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{{Main|List of North Carolina state symbols}}
* '''[[List of U.S. state mottoes|State motto]]''': ''[[Esse quam videri]]'' ("To be, rather than to seem") (1893)
* '''[[List of U.S. state songs|State song]]''': "[[The Old North State (song)|The Old North State]]" (1927)
* '''[[List of U.S. state flowers|State flower]]''': [[Cornus florida|Dogwood]] (1941)
* '''[[List of U.S. state birds|State bird]]''': [[Northern Cardinal|Cardinal]] (1943)
* '''[[List of U.S. state colors|State colors]]''': the red and blue of the [[Flag of North Carolina|N.C.]] and [[Flag of the United States|U.S.]] flags (1945)
* '''State toast''': "[[North Carolina State Toast|The Tar Heel Toast]]" (1957)
* '''[[List of U.S. state trees|State tree]]''': [[Longleaf Pine]] (1963)
* '''[[List of U.S. state shells|State shell]]''': [[Scotch bonnet (shell)|Scotch bonnet]] (1965)
* '''[[List of U.S. state mammals|State mammal]]''': [[Eastern Gray Squirrel]] (1969)
* '''[[List of U.S. state fish|State salt water fish]]''': [[Red drum|Red Drum]] (also known as the Channel bass) (1971)
* '''[[List of U.S. state insects|State insect]]''': [[Western honey bee|European honey bee]] (1973)
* '''[[List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones|State gemstone]]''': [[Emerald]] (1973)
* '''[[List of U.S. state reptiles|State reptile]]''': [[Eastern Box Turtle]] (1979)
* '''[[List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones|State rock]]''': [[Granite]] (1979)
* '''[[List of U.S. state beverages|State beverage]]''': Milk (1987)
* '''[[List of U.S. state ships|State historical boat]]''': [[Shad boat]] (1987)
* '''State language''': English (1987)
* '''State dog''': [[Plott Hound]] (1989)
* '''State military academy''': [[Oak Ridge Military Academy]] (1991)
* '''[[List of U.S. state tartans|State tartan]]''': [[Carolina Tartan]] (1991)<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Secretary of State of North Carolina |accessdate=July 24, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[List of U.S. state foods|State vegetable]]''': [[Sweet potato]] (1995)
* '''[[List of U.S. state foods|State red berry]]''': [[Garden strawberry|Strawberry]] (2001)
* '''[[List of U.S. state foods|State blue berry]]''': [[Blueberry]] (2001)
* '''[[List of U.S. state foods|State fruit]]''': [[Scuppernong]] grape (2001)
* '''[[List of U.S. state flowers|State wildflower]]''': [[Lilium michauxii|Carolina Lily]] (2003)
* '''State Christmas tree''': [[Fraser Fir]] (2005)
* '''State carnivorous plant''': [[Venus Flytrap]] (2005)
* '''[[List of U.S. state dances|State folk dance]]''': [[Clogging]] (2005)
* '''[[List of U.S. state dances|State popular dance]]''': [[Carolina shag]] (2005)
* '''State birthplace of traditional pottery''': [[Seagrove (NC)|the Seagrove area]] (2005)
* '''State sport''': [[NASCAR]] (2011)<ref>{{cite web|title=NASCAR made North Carolina's official state sport|url=||accessdate=January 26, 2012}}</ref>
===Armed forces installations===
[[ News Photo 110323-A-3108M-004 - U.S. Army paratroopers participate in an advanced rifle marksmanship course at Fort Bragg N.C. on March 23 2011. The paratroopers are assigned.jpg|thumb|Troopers of the 82nd Airborne Division training on [[Fort Bragg]], March 2011]]
[[Fort Bragg, North Carolina|Fort Bragg]], near [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville]] and [[Southern Pines, North Carolina|Southern Pines]], is a large and comprehensive military base and is the headquarters of the [[XVIII Airborne Corps]], [[U.S. 82nd Airborne Division|82nd Airborne Division]], and the [[U.S. Army Special Operations Command]]. Serving as the air wing for Fort Bragg is [[Pope Air Force Base|Pope Field]], also located near Fayetteville.
Located in [[Jacksonville, North Carolina|Jacksonville]], [[Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune]] which, when combined with nearby bases [[MCAS Cherry Point|Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point]], [[Marine Corps Air Station New River|MCAS New River]], [[Camp Geiger]], [[Camp Gilbert H. Johnson|Camp Johnson]], [[Stone Bay]] and Courthouse Bay, makes up the largest concentration of Marines and sailors in the world. [[MCAS Cherry Point]] is home of the [[2nd Marine Aircraft Wing]]. Located in [[Goldsboro, North Carolina|Goldsboro]], [[Seymour Johnson Air Force Base]] is home of the [[4th Fighter Wing]] and [[916th Air Refueling Wing]]. One of the busiest air stations in the [[United States Coast Guard]] is located at the [[Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City|Coast Guard Air Station]] in [[Elizabeth City, North Carolina|Elizabeth City]]. Also stationed in North Carolina is the [[Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point]] in [[Southport]].
==See also==
{{portal|North Carolina}}
*[[Index of North Carolina-related articles]]
*[[Outline of North Carolina]] &ndash; organized list of topics about North Carolina
==Further reading==
* Clay, James, and Douglas Orr, eds., ''North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State'' 1971
* Christensen, Rob. The Paradox of Tar Heel Politics (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2008).
* Cooper, Christopher A., and H. Gibbs Knotts, eds. The New Politics of North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008)
* Crow; Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise; ''Writing North Carolina History'' [ (1979) onine]
* Fleer; Jack D. ''North Carolina Government & Politics'' [ (1994) online] political science textbook
* Hawks; Francis L. ''History of North Carolina'' 2 vol 1857
* Kersey, Marianne M., and Ran Coble, eds., ''North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy'', 2d ed., (Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1989).
* Lefler; Hugh Talmage. ''A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History'' [ (1963) online]
* Lefler, Hugh Talmage, and Albert Ray Newsome, ''North Carolina: The History of a Southern State'' (1954, 1963, 1973), standard textbook
* Link, William A. ''North Carolina: Change and Tradition in a Southern State'' (2009), 481pp history by leading scholar
* Luebke, Paul. ''Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities'' (1990).
* Powell William S. ''Dictionary of North Carolina Biography.'' Vol. 1, A-C; vol. 2, D-G; vol. 3, H-K. 1979–88.
* Powell, William S. ''North Carolina Fiction, 1734–1957: An Annotated Bibliography'' 1958
* Powell, William S. ''North Carolina through Four Centuries'' (1989), standard textbook
* Powell, William S. and Jay Mazzocchi, eds. ''Encyclopedia of North Carolina'' (2006) 1320pp; 2000 articles by 550 experts on all topics; ISBN 0-8078-3071-2. The best starting point for most research.
* Ready, Milton. ''The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina'' (2005) [ excerpt and text search]
* WPA Federal Writers' Project. ''North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State.'' 1939. famous [[Works Progress Administration|WPA]] guide to every town
'''Primary sources'''
*Hugh Lefler, ''North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries (University of North Carolina Press, numerous editions since 1934)
*H. G. Jones, ''North Carolina Illustrated, 1524–1984'' (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
*''North Carolina Manual'', published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.
*The Religion in North Carolina Digital Collection: A grant-funded project to provide digital access to publications of and about religious bodies in North Carolina. Partner institutions at [[Duke University]], [[UNC-Chapel Hill]], and [[Wake Forest University]], contributed the largest portion of the items in this collection, but the collection is enriched by unique materials from libraries and archives throughout North Carolina. The materials in this collection include local church histories, periodicals, clergy biographies, cookbooks, event programs, directories, and much more.
==External links==
{{Sister project links|voy=North Carolina}}
*[ Wineries, Restaurants and Tourism in the state]
*[ North Carolina State Guide, from the Library of Congress]
*[ The Guardian: "US nearly detonated atomic bomb over North Carolina – secret document"]
;Government and education
*[ North Carolina state government]
*[ North Carolina state library]
*[ Energy & Environmental Data for North Carolina]
*[ USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of North Carolina]
*[ North Carolina facts from US Department of Agriculture ERS]
*[ North Carolina Court System official site]
*[ North Carolina facts from US Census Bureau]
*[ NC ECHO – North Carolina Exploring Cultural Heritage Online]
*[ North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]
*[ Green 'N' Growing: The History of Home Demonstration and 4-H Youth Development in North Carolina] – hosted by NCSU Libraries Special Collections Research Center
*[ NC Office of Archives and History]
*[ Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina]
*[ Driving Through Time: The Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina]
*[ The Religion in North Carolina Digital Collection]
|title = <span style="font-size:11pt;">Topics related to North Carolina</span> <br /> ''The Tar Heel State''
|list =
{{North Carolina|expanded}}
{{Confederate States of America}}
{{United States political divisions}}
{{United States topics}}
{{Geographic location
| Northwest = {{flag|Kentucky}}
| North = {{flag|Virginia}}
| Northeast =
| West = {{flag|Tennessee}}
| Centre = '' North Carolina'': [[Outline of North Carolina|Outline]] • [[Index of North Carolina-related articles|Index]]
| East = Atlantic Ocean
| Southwest = {{flag|Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia}}
| South = {{flag|South Carolina}}
| Southeast =
|preceded = New York
|office = [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood|Order of states as they ratified the Constitution or gained statehood]]
|years = Ratified [[Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on November 21, 1789 (12th)
|succeeded = [[Rhode Island]]
{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2013}}
[[Category:North Carolina| ]]
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
[[Category:Spanish colonization of the Americas]]
[[Category:State of Franklin]]
[[Category:States and territories established in 1789]]
[[Category:States of the Confederate States of America]]
[[Category:States of the United States]]
[[Category:Southern United States]]
{{Link GA|es}}
{{Link FA|de}}
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