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Article:Moors
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[[File:Maler der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 002.jpg|thumb|right|Depiction of Moors in Iberia. Taken from the ''[[Tale of Bayad and Riyad]]'']]
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[[File:Maler der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 002.jpg|thumb|right|Depiction of Muslims in Iberia. Taken from the ''[[Tale of Bayad and Riyad]]'']]
   
The '''Moors''' were the [[Middle Ages|medieval]] [[Muslim]] <ref>''The Story of the Moors in Spain(Illustrated)''. Stanley Lane-Poole, Arthur Gilman. Introduction by John G Jackson:"In ancient times, Africans in general were called Ethiopian; in medieval times most Africans were called Moors; in modern times some Africans were called Negroes."</ref>inhabitants of [[Morocco]], western [[Algeria]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Mauritania]], the [[Iberian Peninsula]], [[Sicily]], and [[Malta]].
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The '''Moors''' were the [[Middle Ages|medieval]] [[Muslim]] inhabitants of [[Maghreb]], the [[Iberian Peninsula]], [[Septimania]], [[Sicily]] and [[Malta]].
 
The Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 and called the territory [[Al-Andalus]], an area which at different times comprised [[Gibraltar]], most of [[Spain]] and [[Portugal]], and parts of [[France]]. There was also a Moorish presence in what is now Southern [[Italy]], primarily in [[Sicily]]. They occupied [[Mazara del Vallo|Mazara]] on Sicily in 827<ref>{{Cite web |title=Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities: Mazara del Vallo Case study report |url= http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/regional_social_economic_impacts/mazara_del_vallo_en.pdf |year= 2010 |publisher= [[European Commission]] |page = 2 |quote = ''In the year 827, Mazara was occupied by the Arabs, who made the city an important commercial harbor. That period was probably the most prosperous in the history of Mazara.'' |accessdate= 28 September 2012}}</ref> and in 1224 were expelled to the [[Muslim settlement of Lucera|settlement of Lucera]], which was destroyed in 1300. The religious difference of the Moorish Muslims led to a centuries-long conflict with the [[Christendom|Christian kingdoms of Europe]] called the [[Reconquista]]. The [[Fall of Granada]] in 1492 saw the end of the Muslim rule in Iberia.
 
   
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The Moors called their Iberian territory [[Al-Andalus]], an area comprising [[Gibraltar]], much of what is now [[Spain]] and [[Portugal]], and part of [[France]]. There was also a Moorish presence in present-day southern [[Italy]] after they occupied [[Mazara del Vallo|Mazara]] in 827<ref>{{Cite web |title=Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities: Mazara del Vallo Case study report |url= http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/regional_social_economic_impacts/mazara_del_vallo_en.pdf |year= 2010 |publisher= [[European Commission]] |page = 2 |quote = ''In the year 827, Mazara was occupied by the Muslims, who made the city an important commercial harbour. That period was probably the most prosperous in the history of Mazara.'' |accessdate= 28 September 2012}}</ref> until their last [[Muslim settlement of Lucera|settlement of Lucera]] was destroyed in 1300. The religious difference of the Moorish Muslims led to a centuries-long conflict with the [[Christendom|Christian kingdoms of Europe]] called the [[Reconquista]]. The [[Fall of Granada]] in 1492 saw the end of the Muslim rule in Iberia.
 
[[File:Alhambra14.jpg|thumb|Depiction of three Moorish knights found on [[Alhambra]]'s Ladies Tower]]
 
[[File:Alhambra14.jpg|thumb|Depiction of three Moorish knights found on [[Alhambra]]'s Ladies Tower]]
 
[[File:Castillia.jpg|thumb|Castillian ambassadors attempting to convince Almohad king [[Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada]] to join their alliance (contemporary depiction from ''The Cantigas de Santa Maria'')]]
 
[[File:Castillia.jpg|thumb|Castillian ambassadors attempting to convince Almohad king [[Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada]] to join their alliance (contemporary depiction from ''The Cantigas de Santa Maria'')]]
The term "Moors" has also been used in Europe in a broader sense to refer to Muslims,<ref name="Menocal, Maria Rosa 2002 page 241">Menocal, Maria Rosa (2002). "Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain". Little, Brown, & Co. ISBN 0-316-16871-8 page 241</ref> especially those of [[Arab people|Arab]] or [[African people|African]] descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial years the Dutch introduced the name "Moor", in Sri Lanka. The [[Bengali Muslims]] were called Moor.<ref>Pieris, P.E. "Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796". American Ceylon Mission Press, Tellippalai Ceylon 1918</ref>
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The term "Moors" has also been used in Europe in a broader sense to refer to Muslims, especially those of [[Maghrebian people|Maghrebian]] or [[African people|African]] descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people. Medieval and early modern Europeans applied the name to the [[Berbers]], North African , [[Muladi|Muslim Iberians]]<ref>[http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/program/neareast/andalusia/pdf/10.pdf Ross Brann, "The Moors?"],{{Dead link|date=September 2012}} ''Andalusia'', New York University. Quote: "Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later [[Mudéjar]] and [[Morisco]] sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture."</ref> and West [[Black African|Africans]] from [[Mali]] and [[Niger]] who had been absorbed into the [[Almoravid dynasty]].<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=1F9HPuDkySsC&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=Moors,+Almoravid,+Niger&source=bl&ots=kKjzYYWa8C&sig=ejbZuTEop2SnnUV8Lpwh_D_rEOo&hl=en&ei=sNbTSsWdHomj8Ab-pdD9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CA0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Moors%2C%20Almoravid%2C%20Niger&f=false Ivan Van Sertima, ''Golden Age of the Moor''], Volume 11{{Page needed|date=May 2012}}</ref> Scholars observed in 1911 that "The term 'Moors' has no real [[ethnological]] value."<ref>[http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Moors "Moors"], ''Britannica Encyclopedia'' (1911), p. 811.</ref>
Moors are not a distinct or [[ethnonym|self-defined]] people.<ref>[http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/12049/1/Ramos_umd_0117E_12042.pdf Ross Brann, "The Moors?"], ''Andalusia'', New York University. Quote: "Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later [[Mudéjar]] and [[Morisco]] sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture."</ref> Medieval and early modern Europeans applied the name to the [[Berbers]], North African [[Arab]]s, [[Muladi|Muslim Iberians]], and [[black people|Sub-Saharan Africans]].<ref>{{cite journal|title=Imaging the Moor in Medieval Portugal|author=Josiah Blackmore|pages=27-43|journal=Diacritics|volume=36|number=3/4|date=Fall-Winter 2006|url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/20204140|quote=[[Gomes Eanes de Zurara|Zurara]] refers to the Sub-Sarahan Africans inhabiting these lands [below the [[Senegal River]]] alternately as ''negros'' (blacks), ''guinéus'' (Guineans), or ''mouros'' (Moors).}}</ref>
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The Moors of [[al-Andalus]] of the [[Late Middle Ages|late Medieval]] after the [[Umayyad conquest of Hispania]] in the early 8th century were initially Berbers and some Arab but later came to be predominantly Iberian Christian converts to Islam, known by the Muslims as ''[[Muladi|Muwalladun]]'' or ''Muladi''.
   
The Moors came from the [[North Africa|North African]] country of [[Morocco]] and crossed the [[Straight of Gibraltar]] to get into the Iberian Peninsula. The Moors of [[Al-Andalus]] of the [[Late Middle Ages|late Medieval]] after the [[Umayyad conquest of Hispania]] in the early 8th century were initially [[Arab people|Arabs]] and [[Berber people|Berbers]] but later came to include people of mixed heritage, and Iberian Christian converts to Islam, known by the Arabs as ''[[Muladi|Muwalladun]]'' or ''Muladi''.<ref>Menocal, Maria Rosa (2002). "Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain" page 16 http://www.barnesandnoble.com/sample/read/9780316092791</ref><ref>Richard A Fletcher: Moorish Spain. University of California Press, 2006. page 1. http://books.google.com/books?id=wrMG-LfuU7oC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false</ref>
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The maximum extent of Berber-Arab rule stretched as far as modern-day [[France]] and much of [[southern Europe]], [[Mauritania]], [[West African]] countries, and the [[Senegal River]].
   
Earlier, the [[Ancient Rome|Classical Romans]] interacted with (and later conquered) parts of [[Mauretania]], a state that covered northern portions of modern Morocco and much of north western and central [[Algeria]] during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in [[Classical literature]] as the ''[[Mauri (people)|Mauri]]''. Today such groups inhabit [[Mauritania]] and parts of [[Algeria]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Morocco]], [[Niger]] and [[Mali]].<ref>[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Moor&allowed_in_frame=0 Online Etymology Dictionary.]</ref> In the [[languages of Europe]], a number of associated ethnic groups have been historically designated as "Moors". In the modern Iberian Peninsula, "Moor" is sometimes colloquially applied to any person from North Africa, but some people consider this usage of the term [[pejorative]],<ref name="Menocal, Maria Rosa 2002 page 241"/> whether in the Spanish version "moro", or in the Portuguese version "mouro".
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Earlier, the [[Ancient Rome|Classical Romans]] interacted with (and later conquered) parts of [[Mauretania]], a state that covered northern portions of modern [[Morocco]] and much of north western and central [[Algeria]] during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in [[Classical literature]] as the ''[[Mauri (people)|Mauri]]''. Today such groups inhabit [[Mauritania]] and parts of [[Algeria]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Maghreb]], [[Niger]] and [[Mali]].<ref>[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Moor&allowed_in_frame=0 Online Etymology Dictionary.]</ref> In the [[languages of Europe]], a number of associated ethnic groups have been historically designated as "Moors". In modern Iberia, the term is applied to people of [[maghrebian people|Maghreb ethnicity]]. "Moor" is sometimes colloquially applied to any person from North Africa, but some people consider this usage of the term [[pejorative]], especially its Spanish version "moro".
   
 
==Name==
 
==Name==
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===Etymology===
 
===Etymology===
 
{{further|Mauri people|Mauretania}}
 
{{further|Mauri people|Mauretania}}
[[File:Eugène Delacroix - The Sultan of Morocco and his Entourage - WGA06208.jpg|thumb|200px|Sultan [[Abderrahmane of Morocco|Abd al-Rahman]] of Morocco by the walls of Marrakesh, as painted by [[Eugène Delacroix]], 1845]]
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[[File:Eugène Delacroix - The Sultan of Morocco and his Entourage - WGA06208.jpg|thumb|200px|Sultan [[Abderrahmane of Maghreb|Abd al-Rahman]] of Maghreb by the walls of Marrakesh, as painted by [[Eugène Delacroix]], 1845]]
 
In [[Latin language|Latin]], the word ''Maurus'' (plural ''Mauri'') is in origin an ethnonym, the name of the [[Mauri people]] who were also eponymous of the [[Mauretania]] province of the Roman empire on the northwestern fringe of Africa.
 
In [[Latin language|Latin]], the word ''Maurus'' (plural ''Mauri'') is in origin an ethnonym, the name of the [[Mauri people]] who were also eponymous of the [[Mauretania]] province of the Roman empire on the northwestern fringe of Africa.
 
The Latin form of the name is adapted from [[Greek ethnography]], where the people was known ''Mauroi'' (Μαῦροι).
 
The Latin form of the name is adapted from [[Greek ethnography]], where the people was known ''Mauroi'' (Μαῦροι).
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From denoting a specific Berber people in western [[Ancient Libya|Libya]], the name acquired more general meaning in the Romance languages during the medieval period, partly developing a general meaning of "Muslim", partly (much like "[[Saracens]]") taking a religious meaning of "infidels" in the context of the [[Crusades]] and the [[Reconquista]].
 
From denoting a specific Berber people in western [[Ancient Libya|Libya]], the name acquired more general meaning in the Romance languages during the medieval period, partly developing a general meaning of "Muslim", partly (much like "[[Saracens]]") taking a religious meaning of "infidels" in the context of the [[Crusades]] and the [[Reconquista]].
   
Beside its usage in historical context, ''Moor'' and ''Moorish'' ([[Italian language|Italian]] and Spanish: ''moro'', [[French language|French]]: ''maure'', [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]]: ''mouro'', [[Romanian language|Romanian]]: ''maur'') is used to designate an ethnic group speaking the ''[[Hassaniya]]'' Arabic dialect. They inhabit [[Mauritania]] and parts of [[Algeria]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Tunisia]], [[Morocco]], [[Niger]] and [[Mali]]. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are also known as the ''Azawagh Arabs'', after the [[Azawagh]] region of the Sahara.<ref>For an introduction to the culture of the ''Azawagh Arabs'', see: Rebecca Popenoe, ''Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People''. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6</ref>
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Beside its usage in historical context, ''Moor'' and ''Moorish'' ([[Italian language|Italian]] and Spanish: ''moro'', [[French language|French]]: ''maure'', [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]]: ''mouro'', [[Romanian language|Romanian]]: ''maur'') is used to designate an ethnic group speaking the ''[[Hassaniya]]'' Arabic dialect. They inhabit [[Mauritania]] and parts of [[Algeria]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Tunisia]], [[Maghreb]], [[Niger]] and [[Mali]]. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are also known as the ''Azawagh Arabs'', after the [[Azawagh]] region of the Sahara.<ref>For an introduction to the culture of the ''Azawagh Arabs'', see: Rebecca Popenoe, ''Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People''. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0-415-28096-6</ref>
   
In Spain, modern colloquial Spanish use of the term "Moro" is derogatory for [[Moroccans]] in particular<ref>{{cite book|last=Simms|first=Karl|title=Translating sensitive texts: linguistic aspects|year=1997|publisher=Rodopi|isbn=978-90-420-0260-9|pages=144|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=t4y7EHgCn8kC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Warwick Armstrong|first=James Anderson|title=Geopolitics of European Union enlargement: the fortress empire|year=2007|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-33939-1|pages=83|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=0pmkrY29qkIC&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Wessendorf|first=Susanne|title=The multiculturalism backlash: European discourses, policies and practices|year=2010|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-55649-1|pages=171|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=wUaHVimJkT0C&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Tariq Modood, Anna Triandafyllidou|first=Ricard Zapata-Barrero|title=Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship: a European approach|year=2006|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-35515-5|pages=143|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=7OAAV5eEmy4C&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Bekers|first=Elisabeth|title=Transcultural modernities: narrating Africa in Europe|year=2009|publisher=Rodopi|isbn=978-90-420-2538-7|pages=14|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=N4_on188WJwC&dq}}</ref> and [[North African]]s in general.
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In Spain, modern colloquial Spanish use of the term "Moro" is derogatory for [[Maghrebian people|Maghrebians]]in particular<ref>{{cite book|last=Simms|first=Karl|title=Translating sensitive texts: linguistic aspects|year=1997|publisher=Rodopi|isbn=978-90-420-0260-9|pages=144|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=t4y7EHgCn8kC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Warwick Armstrong|first=James Anderson|title=Geopolitics of European Union enlargement: the fortress empire|year=2007|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-33939-1|pages=83|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=0pmkrY29qkIC&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Wessendorf|first=Susanne|title=The multiculturalism backlash: European discourses, policies and practices|year=2010|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-55649-1|pages=171|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=wUaHVimJkT0C&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Tariq Modood, Anna Triandafyllidou|first=Ricard Zapata-Barrero|title=Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship: a European approach|year=2006|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-35515-5|pages=143|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=7OAAV5eEmy4C&dq}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Bekers|first=Elisabeth|title=Transcultural modernities: narrating Africa in Europe|year=2009|publisher=Rodopi|isbn=978-90-420-2538-7|pages=14|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=N4_on188WJwC&dq}}</ref> and [[North African]]s in general.
 
Similarly, in modern, colloquial [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], the term "Mouro" was primarily used as a designation for North Africans and secondarily as a derogatory and ironic term by northern [[Portuguese People|Portuguese]] to refer to the inhabitants of the southern parts of the country ([[Lisbon]], [[Alentejo]] and [[Algarve]]). However, this designation has gained more acceptance in the South.
 
Similarly, in modern, colloquial [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], the term "Mouro" was primarily used as a designation for North Africans and secondarily as a derogatory and ironic term by northern [[Portuguese People|Portuguese]] to refer to the inhabitants of the southern parts of the country ([[Lisbon]], [[Alentejo]] and [[Algarve]]). However, this designation has gained more acceptance in the South.
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In the [[Philippines]], a former [[Spanish Empire|Spanish colony]], many residents call the local Muslim population in the Southern islands ''Moros''. They also self-identify that way (see [[Muslim Filipino]]). The term was introduced by the Spanish colonizers. Within the context of [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese colonization]], in [[Sri Lanka]] ([[Portuguese Ceylon]]), Muslims of Arab origin are called ''Moors'' (see [[Sri Lankan Moors]]).
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In the [[Philippines]], a former [[Spanish Empire|Spanish colony]], many residents call the local Muslim population in the Southern islands ''Moros''. They also self-identify that way (see [[Muslim Filipino]]). The term was introduced by the Spanish colonizers. Within the context of [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese colonization]], in [[Sri Lanka]] ([[Portuguese Ceylon]]), Muslims of North african origin are called ''Moors'' (see [[Sri Lankan Moors]]).
 
[[File:Moritos.jpg|thumb|left|A performance of ''[[Moros y cristianos]]'' (Moors and Christians) in Mexico]]
 
[[File:Moritos.jpg|thumb|left|A performance of ''[[Moros y cristianos]]'' (Moors and Christians) in Mexico]]
   
''[[wikt:moreno|Moreno]]'' can mean ''dark-skinned'' in Spain and Portugal, as well as in Brazil. Also in Spanish, ''morapio'' is a humorous name for "wine", especially that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, ''moro'' ("Moor") came to have a broader meaning, applied to both [[Moro (ethnic group)|Moro]]s of [[Mindanao]] in the [[Philippines]], and the [[morisco]]s of [[Granada]]. ''Moro'' is refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", ''moreno'', etc. It was used as a nickname; for instance, the [[Milan]]ese Duke [[Ludovico Sforza]] was called ''Il Moro'' because of his dark complexion.
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''[[wikt:moreno|Moreno]]'' can mean ''dark-skinned'' in Spain and Portugal, as well as in Brazil. Also in Spanish, ''morapio'' is a humorous name for "wine", especially that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, ''moro'' ("Moor") came to have a broader meaning, applied to both [[Moro (ethnic group)|Moro]]s of [[Mindanao]] in the [[Philippines]], and the [[morisco]]s of [[Granada]]. ''Moro'' is refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", ''moreno'', etc. It was used as a nickname; for instance, the [[Milan]]ese Duke [[Ludovico Sforza]] was called ''Il Moro'' because of his dark complexion.
   
 
In Portugal and Spain, ''mouro'' (feminine,'' moura'') may also refer to supernatural beings known as [[Enchanted Moura|enchanted ''moura'']], where "moor" implies 'alien' and 'non-Christian'; These beings were siren-like fairies with golden or reddish hair and a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=QA4vXSPmO3EC&oi=fnd&pg=PA16&dq=moura+encantada+rubios&ots=CgqouPRhzu&sig=3uihq_ZWUHv9guQpHPuM1hjWpBs#PPA18,M1pg18 Xosé Manuel González Reboredo, ''Leyendas Gallegas de Tradición Oral'' (Galician Legends of the Oral Tradition)], Galicia: Editorial Galaxia, 2004, p. 18, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010 {{es icon}}</ref> From this root, the name moor is also applied to unbaptized children, meaning not [[Christian]].<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=uQ88AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=PORTUGAL:+A+BOOK+OF+FOLK-WAYS#PPA77,M1 Rodney Gallop, ''Portugal: A Book of Folkways''], Cambridge University Press (CUP), 1936; reprint CUP Archives, 1961, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010.</ref><ref>[http://www.csarmento.uminho.pt/docs/ndat/rg/RG100_11.pdf Francisco Martins Sarmento, "A Mourama"], in ''Revista de Guimaraes'', No. 100, 1990, Centro de Estudos de Património, Universidade do Minho, accessed 12 Jul 2010 {{pt icon}}</ref> In [[Basque language|Basque]], ''[[mairu]]'' means moor and also refers to a mythical people.<ref>[http://www1.euskadi.net/morris/resultado.asp Euskadi.net] {{es icon}}</ref>{{Dead link|date=July 2010}}
 
In Portugal and Spain, ''mouro'' (feminine,'' moura'') may also refer to supernatural beings known as [[Enchanted Moura|enchanted ''moura'']], where "moor" implies 'alien' and 'non-Christian'; These beings were siren-like fairies with golden or reddish hair and a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=QA4vXSPmO3EC&oi=fnd&pg=PA16&dq=moura+encantada+rubios&ots=CgqouPRhzu&sig=3uihq_ZWUHv9guQpHPuM1hjWpBs#PPA18,M1pg18 Xosé Manuel González Reboredo, ''Leyendas Gallegas de Tradición Oral'' (Galician Legends of the Oral Tradition)], Galicia: Editorial Galaxia, 2004, p. 18, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010 {{es icon}}</ref> From this root, the name moor is also applied to unbaptized children, meaning not [[Christian]].<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=uQ88AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=PORTUGAL:+A+BOOK+OF+FOLK-WAYS#PPA77,M1 Rodney Gallop, ''Portugal: A Book of Folkways''], Cambridge University Press (CUP), 1936; reprint CUP Archives, 1961, Googlebooks, accessed 12 Jul 2010.</ref><ref>[http://www.csarmento.uminho.pt/docs/ndat/rg/RG100_11.pdf Francisco Martins Sarmento, "A Mourama"], in ''Revista de Guimaraes'', No. 100, 1990, Centro de Estudos de Património, Universidade do Minho, accessed 12 Jul 2010 {{pt icon}}</ref> In [[Basque language|Basque]], ''[[mairu]]'' means moor and also refers to a mythical people.<ref>[http://www1.euskadi.net/morris/resultado.asp Euskadi.net] {{es icon}}</ref>{{Dead link|date=July 2010}}
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When the Portuguese arrived in the early 16th century, they labelled the Muslims in the island as Moors as they saw them resembling the Moors in North Africa. The Sri Lankan government to this day identifies the Muslims in Sri Lanka as "Ceylon Moors"<ref>A. Hussein 'From where did the moors come from?', http://www.lankalibrary.com/cul/muslims/moors.htm {{verify credibility|date=January 2013}}</ref>
 
When the Portuguese arrived in the early 16th century, they labelled the Muslims in the island as Moors as they saw them resembling the Moors in North Africa. The Sri Lankan government to this day identifies the Muslims in Sri Lanka as "Ceylon Moors"<ref>A. Hussein 'From where did the moors come from?', http://www.lankalibrary.com/cul/muslims/moors.htm {{verify credibility|date=January 2013}}</ref>
   
The [[Goan Muslims]] - a minority community who follow [[Islam]] in the western [[India]]n coastal state of [[Goa]] are commonly referred as ''Moir'' ({{lang-knn|मैर}}) by [[Goan Catholics]] and [[Hindu]]s.{{Ref label|a|a|none}}. ''Moir'' is derived from the [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]] word ''mouro'' (Moors).
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The [[Goan Muslims]] - a minority community who follow [[Islam]] in the western [[India]]n coastal state of [[Goa]] are commonly referred as ''Moir'' ({{lang-knn|मैर}}) by [[Goan Catholics]] and [[Hindu]]s.{{Ref label|a|a|none}}. They ''Moir'' is derived from the [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]] word ''mour'' (Moors).
   
 
==Moors of Iberia==
 
==Moors of Iberia==
 
{{Further|Umayyad conquest of Hispania|Al-Andalus}}
 
{{Further|Umayyad conquest of Hispania|Al-Andalus}}
[[File:Reconquista4.jpg|right|thumb|The Moroccan army of the Almohad king Umar al-Murtada and Christian allies, readying for battle in the city of Marrakech]]
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[[File:Army almohad.jpg|thumb|The Moroccan army of almohad king Umar al-Murtada and Christian allies, readying for battle in the city of Marrakech]]
 
[[File:Spanish reconquista.gif|thumb|300px|Progress of the [[Reconquista]] (790–1300)]]
 
[[File:Spanish reconquista.gif|thumb|300px|Progress of the [[Reconquista]] (790–1300)]]
In 711 [[Common Era|CE]], the now Islamic Moors came from the [[North Africa]]n country [[Morocco]] and crossed the [[Strait of Gibraltar]] to get into the [[Iberian Peninsula]] and in a series of raids conquered [[Visigoths|Visigothic]] [[Christian]] [[Hispania]].<ref>Richard A Fletcher: Moorish Spain. 1992. page 1. http://books.google.com/books?id=wrMG-LfuU7oC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false</ref>
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In 711 [[Common Era|CE]], the now Islamic Moors conquered [[Visigoths|Visigothic]] [[Christian]] [[Hispania]]. Their [[general]], [[Tariq ibn-Ziyad]], brought most of Iberia under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. They moved northeast across the [[Pyrenees]] Mountains, but were defeated by the [[Franks|Frank]] [[Charles Martel]] at the [[Battle of Tours|Battle of Poitiers]] in 732.
Their [[general]], [[Tariq ibn-Ziyad]], brought most of Iberia under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. They moved northeast across the [[Pyrenees]] Mountains, but were defeated by the [[Franks|Frank]] [[Charles Martel]] at the [[Battle of Tours|Battle of Poitiers]] in 732.
 
   
 
[[File:Escudo de Alcanadre-La Rioja.svg|thumb|left|150px|Coat of arms of [[Alcanadre]], [[La Rioja (Spain)|La Rioja]], Spain. Depicting severed heads of the Moors]]
 
[[File:Escudo de Alcanadre-La Rioja.svg|thumb|left|150px|Coat of arms of [[Alcanadre]], [[La Rioja (Spain)|La Rioja]], Spain. Depicting severed heads of the Moors]]
The Moorish state fell into [[civil war|civil conflict]] in the 750s. The Moors ruled in North Africa and in most of the [[Iberian peninsula]] for several decades. They were resisted in areas in the northwest (such as [[Asturias]], where they were defeated at the battle of [[Covadonga]]) and the largely [[Basque Country (historical territory)|Basque regions]] in the Pyrenees. Though the number of Moor colonists was small, many [[Muladi|native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam]]. According to Ronald Segal, by 1000, some 5 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants, most of them descended from indigenous Iberian converts, were Muslim. There were also West [[Black people|Africans]] from [[Mali]] and [[Niger]] who had been absorbed into the [[Almoravid dynasty]], which was a [[Berber people|Berber]] dynasty and a part of the Iberian Peninsula during [[Al-Andalus]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Ivan Van Sertima|title=The Golden Age of the Moor|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1F9HPuDkySsC&pg=PA175|year=1992|publisher=Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-1-4128-1536-9|page=175}}</ref>{{Better source|reason=Ivan Van Seritima is not incorrect on this point, but he is known for Pseudohistory, a better source is needed|date=December 2013}}<ref>Ronald Segal, ''Islam's Black Slaves'' (2003), Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-903809-81-9</ref>
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The Moorish state fell into [[civil war|civil conflict]] in the 750s. The Moors ruled in North Africa and in most of the [[Iberian peninsula]] for several decades. They were resisted in areas in the northwest (such as [[Asturias]], where they were defeated at the battle of [[Covadonga]]) and the largely [[Basque Country (historical territory)|Basque regions]] in the Pyrenees. Though the number of Moor colonists was small, many [[Muladi|native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam]]. According to Ronald Segal, by 1000, some 5 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants, most of them descended from indigenous converts, were Muslim.<ref>Ronald Segal, ''Islam's Black Slaves'' (2003), Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-903809-81-9</ref>
   
In a process of decline, the Al Andalus had broken up into a number of Islamic-ruled [[fiefdoms]], or ''[[taifas]]'', which were partly consolidated under the [[Caliphate of Córdoba]].
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In a process of decline, the Al Andalus had broken up into a number of Islamic-ruled [[fiefdoms]], or ''[[taifas]]'', which were partly consolidated under the [[Caliphate of Córdoba]].{{Citation needed|date=July 2009}}
[[File:Mouwahidoune.jpg|thumb|Moorish army of [[Almanzor]] during the [[Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz (917)|Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz]], from ''Cantigas de Alfonso X el Sabio'']]
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[[File:Mouwahidoune.jpg|thumb|Moorish army of [[Almanzor]] during the [[Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz]], from ''Cantigas de Alfonso X el Sabio'']]
 
The [[Kingdom of Asturias|Asturias]], a small northwestern Christian Iberian kingdom, initiated the Reconquista (the "reconquest") soon after the Islamic conquest in the 8th century. Christian states based in the north and west slowly extended their power over the rest of Iberia. [[Kingdom of Navarre|Navarre]], [[Kingdom of Galicia|Galicia]], [[Kingdom of León|León]], [[Kingdom of Portugal|Portugal]], [[Kingdom of Aragon|Aragón]], ''[[Marca Hispanica]]'', and [[Crown of Castile|Castile]] began a process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several centuries under the flag of [[Reconquista]].
 
The [[Kingdom of Asturias|Asturias]], a small northwestern Christian Iberian kingdom, initiated the Reconquista (the "reconquest") soon after the Islamic conquest in the 8th century. Christian states based in the north and west slowly extended their power over the rest of Iberia. [[Kingdom of Navarre|Navarre]], [[Kingdom of Galicia|Galicia]], [[Kingdom of León|León]], [[Kingdom of Portugal|Portugal]], [[Kingdom of Aragon|Aragón]], ''[[Marca Hispanica]]'', and [[Crown of Castile|Castile]] began a process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several centuries under the flag of [[Reconquista]].
 
[[File:PLATE1BX.jpg|thumb|Reconstruction of costumes of Moorish [[nobility]] from a German book published in 1880]]
 
[[File:PLATE1BX.jpg|thumb|Reconstruction of costumes of Moorish [[nobility]] from a German book published in 1880]]
In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of [[Alfonso VIII of Castile]] drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. The Portuguese side of the ''Reconquista'' ended in 1249 with the conquest of the [[Algarve]] ([[Arabic language|Arabic]] الغرب — ''[[Al'Garb Al'Andalus|Al-Gharb]]'') under [[Afonso III of Portugal|Afonso III]]. He was the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title "[[List of Portuguese monarchs|King of Portugal and the Algarve]]".
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In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of [[Alfonso VIII of Castile]] drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. The Portuguese side of the ''Reconquista'' ended in 1249 with the conquest of the [[Algarve]] ([[Arabic language|Arabic]] الغرب — ''[[Al'Garb Al'Andalus|Al-Gharb]]'') under [[Afonso III of Portugal|Afonso III]]. He was the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title "[[List of Portuguese monarchs|King of Portugal and the Algarve]]".
   
The Moorish [[Kingdom of Granada]] continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in [[Granada]] surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of [[Ferdinand II of Aragon]] and [[Isabella I of Castile]], the [[Catholic Monarchs]]). They forced the remaining Jews to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so. To exert social and religious control, in 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the [[Spanish Inquisition|Inquisition in Spain]]. Granada's Muslim population [[Morisco rebellions in Granada|rebelled in 1499]]. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the [[Treaty of Granada (1491)|Treaty of Granada]] (1491). In 1501 Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada's Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled.
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The Moorish [[Kingdom of Granada]] continued for three more centuries in southern Iberia. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in [[Granada]] surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of [[Ferdinand II of Aragon]] and [[Isabella I of Castile]], the [[Catholic Monarchs]]). They forced the remaining Jews to leave Spain, convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so. To exert social and religious control, in 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand agreed to allow the [[Spanish Inquisition|Inquisition in Spain]]. Granada's Muslim population [[Morisco rebellions in Granada|rebelled in 1499]]. The revolt lasted until early 1501, giving the Castilian authorities an excuse to void the terms of the [[Treaty of Granada (1491)|Treaty of Granada]] (1491). In 1501 Castilian authorities delivered an ultimatum to Granada's Muslims: they could either convert to Christianity or be expelled.
   
 
The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called ''[[marrano]]s'' and ''[[morisco]]s''. However, in 1567 King [[Philip II of Spain|Philip II]] directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] language. In reaction, there was a [[Morisco rebellions in Granada|Morisco uprising]] in the [[Alpujarras]] from 1568 to 1571. In the years from 1609 to 1614, the government expelled Moriscos. The historian Henri Lapeyre estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants.<ref>See ''History of [[Al-Andalus]]''.</ref>
 
The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly. They were respectively called ''[[marrano]]s'' and ''[[morisco]]s''. However, in 1567 King [[Philip II of Spain|Philip II]] directed Moriscos to give up their Arabic names and traditional dress, and prohibited the use of the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] language. In reaction, there was a [[Morisco rebellions in Granada|Morisco uprising]] in the [[Alpujarras]] from 1568 to 1571. In the years from 1609 to 1614, the government expelled Moriscos. The historian Henri Lapeyre estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants.<ref>See ''History of [[Al-Andalus]]''.</ref>
 
[[File:ChristianAndMuslimPlayingChess.JPG|thumb|190px|Christian and Moor playing chess, from ''The [[Book of Games]]'' of [[Alfonso X]], c. 1285]]
 
[[File:ChristianAndMuslimPlayingChess.JPG|thumb|190px|Christian and Moor playing chess, from ''The [[Book of Games]]'' of [[Alfonso X]], c. 1285]]
Many Muslims converted to Christianity and remained permanently in Iberia. This is indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants.".<ref>[http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297%2808%2900592-2 Adams et al., "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula"], ''Cell'', 2008. Quote: "Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile."</ref><ref>[http://www.upf.edu/enoticies/home_upf_en/1206.html Elena Bosch, "The religious conversions of Jews and Muslims have had a profound impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula"], University of , 2008, Quote: "The study shows that religious conversions and the subsequent marriages between people of different lineage had a relevant impact on modern populations both in Spain, especially in the Balearic Islands, and in Portugal."</ref>
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Many Muslims converted to Christianity and remained permanently in Iberia. This is indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants.".<ref>[http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297%2808%2900592-2 Adams et al., "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula"], ''Cell'', 2008. Quote: "Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile."</ref><ref>[http://www.upf.edu/enoticies/home_upf_en/1206.html Elena Bosch, "The religious conversions of Jews and Muslims have had a profound impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula"], University of , 2008, Quote: "The study shows that religious conversions and the subsequent marriages between people of different lineage had a relevant impact on modern populations both in Spain, especially in the Balearic Islands, and in Portugal."</ref>
   
 
In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just to Iberia, but also eastward, through India, the [[Malayan peninsula]], and [[Indonesia]] up to the [[Philippines]]. This was one of the major islands of an [[archipelago]] which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the [[New World]]. By 1521, the ships of [[Ferdinand Magellan|Magellan]]{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}} and other Spanish explorers had reached that island archipelago, which they named ''[[Philippines|Las Islas Filipinas]]'', after [[Philip II of Spain]]. In Mindanao, the Spaniards named the [[kris]]-bearing people as [[Moro people|Moros]] or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines, this ethnic group of people in Mindanao, who are generally [[Filipino Muslim|Muslims]], are called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as ''Moros'' persists in the modern [[Spanish language]] spoken in Spain, and as ''Mouros'' in the modern [[Portuguese language]]. See [[Reconquista]], and [[Maure]].
 
In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just to Iberia, but also eastward, through India, the [[Malayan peninsula]], and [[Indonesia]] up to the [[Philippines]]. This was one of the major islands of an [[archipelago]] which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the [[New World]]. By 1521, the ships of [[Ferdinand Magellan|Magellan]]{{Citation needed|date=May 2012}} and other Spanish explorers had reached that island archipelago, which they named ''[[Philippines|Las Islas Filipinas]]'', after [[Philip II of Spain]]. In Mindanao, the Spaniards named the [[kris]]-bearing people as [[Moro people|Moros]] or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines, this ethnic group of people in Mindanao, who are generally [[Filipino Muslim|Muslims]], are called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as ''Moros'' persists in the modern [[Spanish language]] spoken in Spain, and as ''Mouros'' in the modern [[Portuguese language]]. See [[Reconquista]], and [[Maure]].
   
According to historian [[Richard A. Fletcher]],<ref>Richard Fletcher. ''Moorish Spain'' p. 10. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-520-08496-4</ref> 'the number of [[Arab]]s who settled in Iberia was very small. "Moorish" Iberia does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e. [[Berber people|Berbers]] from Algeria and Morocco.'
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According to historian [[Richard A. Fletcher]],<ref>Richard Fletcher. ''Moorish Spain'' p. 10. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-520-08496-4</ref> 'the number of [[Arab]]s who settled in Iberia was very small. "Moorish" Iberia does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e. [[Berber people|Berbers]] from Algeria and Maghreb.'
   
 
The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this [[Caliphate of Córdoba]] is regarded as tolerant in its acceptance of Christians, Muslims and [[Jew]]s living in the same territories.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} The Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Iberia fell under the rule of the [[Almohad dynasty]] in 1153. This second stage inaugurated an era of Moorish rulers guided by a version of Islam that left behind the tolerant practices of the past.<ref>[http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=412&letter=G&search=Granada Granada] by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, ''[[Jewish Encyclopedia]]''. 1906 ed.</ref>
 
The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this [[Caliphate of Córdoba]] is regarded as tolerant in its acceptance of Christians, Muslims and [[Jew]]s living in the same territories.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} The Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Iberia fell under the rule of the [[Almohad dynasty]] in 1153. This second stage inaugurated an era of Moorish rulers guided by a version of Islam that left behind the tolerant practices of the past.<ref>[http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=412&letter=G&search=Granada Granada] by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, ''[[Jewish Encyclopedia]]''. 1906 ed.</ref>
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<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Othellopainting.jpg|[[Othello (character)|Othello, the Moor]] and [[Desdemona]], his [[Republic of Venice|Venetian]] wife, from [[William Shakespeare]]'s play ''[[Othello]]''
 
 
File:Batalla del Puig por Marzal de Sas (1410-20).jpg|"[[Battle of the Puig|Batalla del Puig]]" (c. 1410-1420), depicting a battle from the Reconquista
 
File:Batalla del Puig por Marzal de Sas (1410-20).jpg|"[[Battle of the Puig|Batalla del Puig]]" (c. 1410-1420), depicting a battle from the Reconquista
File:Tariq-ibn-Ziyad---w.jpg|[[Tariq ibn-Ziyad]] was the Moor general who led the conquest of [[Visigothic Kingdom|Visigothic Spain]] in the early 8th century
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File:Moor Painting.jpg|Moors playing chess, from ''Comentarios de la cosas de Aragon''
File:Moors_from_Andalusia_playing_chess.jpg|Moors in Spain playing chess, from the ''[[Libro de los juegos|Book of Games]]''
 
 
File:Jaume I, Cantigas de Santa Maria, s.XIII.jpg|The Moors request permission from [[James I of Aragon]]
 
File:Jaume I, Cantigas de Santa Maria, s.XIII.jpg|The Moors request permission from [[James I of Aragon]]
 
File:Wild Men and Moors (Detail 11 of 12).jpg|"Wild Men and Moors" tapestry, c. 1400
 
File:Wild Men and Moors (Detail 11 of 12).jpg|"Wild Men and Moors" tapestry, c. 1400
 
File:Christian and Muslim playing ouds Catinas de Santa Maria by king Alfonso X.jpg|Christian and Moor playing [[lute]]s, 13th century
 
File:Christian and Muslim playing ouds Catinas de Santa Maria by king Alfonso X.jpg|Christian and Moor playing [[lute]]s, 13th century
File:Maler der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 003.jpg|Riyad the Moor receiving a letter from Shanul in [[Hadith Bayad wa Riyad]]
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File:El rey chico de Granada.jpg|[[Muhammad XII of Granada]], last Moorish sultan in Spain
File:El rey chico de Granada.jpg|[[Muhammad XII of Granada]], last Muslim sultan in Spain
 
 
File:Leo africanus.jpg|[[Leo Africanus]], born in Granada
 
File:Leo africanus.jpg|[[Leo Africanus]], born in Granada
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
 
==Moors of Sicily==
 
==Moors of Sicily==
{{See also|History of Islam in southern Italy|left|Arab-Norman culture}}
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{{See also|History of Islam in southern Italy|Arab-Norman culture}}
 
[[File:MuslimMusiciansAtTheCourtOfRoger.JPG|thumb|150px|Muslim musicians at the court of the Norman King [[Roger II of Sicily]]]]
 
[[File:MuslimMusiciansAtTheCourtOfRoger.JPG|thumb|150px|Muslim musicians at the court of the Norman King [[Roger II of Sicily]]]]
The first Muslim conquest of Sicily and parts of southern Italy lasted 75 years (827–902). By 827, Sicily was almost entirely in control of the [[Aghlabids]] with the exception of some minor strongholds in the rugged interior until 909 when it was then replaced by Shiite Fatimids. Four years later, the Fatimid governor was ousted from Palermo when the island declared its independence under Emir Ahmed ibn-Kohrob.
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The first Muslim conquest of Sicily and parts of southern Italy lasted 75 years (827–902). By 827, Sicily was almost entirely in control of the [[Aghlabids]] with the exception of some minor strongholds in the rugged interior until 909 when it was then replaced by Shiite Fatimids. Four years later, the Fatimid governor was ousted from Palermo when the island declared its independence under Emir Ahmed ibn-Kohrob.
   
 
In 1038, a Byzantine army under George Maniaces crossed the strait of Messina. This included a corps of Normans which saved the situation in the first clash against the Muslims from Messina. After another decisive victory in the summer of 1040, Maniaces halted his march to lay siege to [[Syracuse, Sicily|Syracuse]]. Despite his conquest of the latter, Maniaces was removed from his position, and the subsequent Muslim counter-offensive reconquered all the cities captured by the Byzantines.
 
In 1038, a Byzantine army under George Maniaces crossed the strait of Messina. This included a corps of Normans which saved the situation in the first clash against the Muslims from Messina. After another decisive victory in the summer of 1040, Maniaces halted his march to lay siege to [[Syracuse, Sicily|Syracuse]]. Despite his conquest of the latter, Maniaces was removed from his position, and the subsequent Muslim counter-offensive reconquered all the cities captured by the Byzantines.
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The Norman [[Robert Guiscard]], son of Tancred, invaded Sicily in 1060. The island was split between three Arab emirs, and the Christian population in many parts of the island rose up against the ruling Muslims. One year later, Messina fell, and in 1072, Palermo was taken by the Normans. The loss of the cities, each with a splendid harbor, dealt a severe blow to Muslim power on the island. Eventually all of Sicily was taken. In 1091, Noto in the southern tip of Sicily and the island of Malta, the last Arab strongholds, fell to the Christians.
 
The Norman [[Robert Guiscard]], son of Tancred, invaded Sicily in 1060. The island was split between three Arab emirs, and the Christian population in many parts of the island rose up against the ruling Muslims. One year later, Messina fell, and in 1072, Palermo was taken by the Normans. The loss of the cities, each with a splendid harbor, dealt a severe blow to Muslim power on the island. Eventually all of Sicily was taken. In 1091, Noto in the southern tip of Sicily and the island of Malta, the last Arab strongholds, fell to the Christians.
   
Islamic authors would marvel at the tolerance of the [[Normans|Norman]] kings of Sicily. [[Ibn al-Athir]] wrote: "They [the Muslims] were treated kindly, and they were protected, even against the [[Franks]]. Because of that, they had great love for king Roger."<ref>{{cite book|last=Aubé|first=Pierre|title=Les empires normands d’Orient|year=2006|publisher= Editions Perrin|page=168|isbn=2-262-02297-6}}</ref>
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Islamic authors would marvel at the tolerance of the [[Normans|Norman]] kings of Sicily. [[Ibn al-Athir]] wrote: "They [the Muslims] were treated kindly, and they were protected, even against the [[Franks]]. Because of that, they had great love for king Roger."<ref>{{cite book|last=Aubé|first=Pierre|title=Les empires normands d’Orient|year=2006|publisher= Editions Perrin|page=168|isbn=2-262-02297-6}}</ref>
   
 
Many repressive measures were introduced by [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|Frederick II]] to please the popes who were intolerant of Islam in the heart of Christendom. This resulted in a rebellion by Sicilian Muslims, which in turn triggered organized resistance and systematic reprisals and marked the final chapter of Islam in Sicily. The Muslim problem characterized Hohenstaufen rule in Sicily under Henry VI and his son Frederick II. The complete eviction of Muslims and the annihilation of Islam in Sicily was completed by the late 1240s when the final deportations to [[Lucera]] took place.
 
Many repressive measures were introduced by [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|Frederick II]] to please the popes who were intolerant of Islam in the heart of Christendom. This resulted in a rebellion by Sicilian Muslims, which in turn triggered organized resistance and systematic reprisals and marked the final chapter of Islam in Sicily. The Muslim problem characterized Hohenstaufen rule in Sicily under Henry VI and his son Frederick II. The complete eviction of Muslims and the annihilation of Islam in Sicily was completed by the late 1240s when the final deportations to [[Lucera]] took place.
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== Architecture ==
 
== Architecture ==
 
{{Main|Moorish architecture}}
 
{{Main|Moorish architecture}}
[[File:Mosque of Cordoba Spain.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Interior of the [[Mezquita]], [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]]]]
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[[File:Mosque of Cordoba Spain.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Interior of the [[Mezquita]], [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]]]]
   
 
Moorish architecture is the [[articulation (architecture)|articulated]] [[Islamic architecture]] of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant between 711 and 1492. The best surviving examples are La [[Mezquita]] in [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]] and the [[Alhambra]] palace (mainly 1338–1390),<ref name="curl">Curl p. 502.</ref> and also the [[Giralda]] in 1184.<ref name="Pev">Pevsner, ''The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture''.</ref> Other notable examples include the ruined palace city of [[Medina Azahara]] (936–1010), the church (former mosque) San Cristo de la Luz in [[Toledo, Spain|Toledo]], the [[Aljafería]] in [[Saragossa]] and baths at for example [[Ronda]] and [[Alhama de Granada]].
 
Moorish architecture is the [[articulation (architecture)|articulated]] [[Islamic architecture]] of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant between 711 and 1492. The best surviving examples are La [[Mezquita]] in [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]] and the [[Alhambra]] palace (mainly 1338–1390),<ref name="curl">Curl p. 502.</ref> and also the [[Giralda]] in 1184.<ref name="Pev">Pevsner, ''The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture''.</ref> Other notable examples include the ruined palace city of [[Medina Azahara]] (936–1010), the church (former mosque) San Cristo de la Luz in [[Toledo, Spain|Toledo]], the [[Aljafería]] in [[Saragossa]] and baths at for example [[Ronda]] and [[Alhama de Granada]].
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==Moors in heraldry==
 
==Moors in heraldry==
{{main|Maure}}
 
 
[[File:CanyngesArmsTombRedcliffe.jpg|thumb|200px|Arms of the great Bristol merchant and shipper [[William II Canynges]](d.1474), as depicted on his canopied tomb in [[St Mary Redcliffe]] Church, showing the ''couped'' heads of three Moors wreathed at the temples]]
 
[[File:CanyngesArmsTombRedcliffe.jpg|thumb|200px|Arms of the great Bristol merchant and shipper [[William II Canynges]](d.1474), as depicted on his canopied tomb in [[St Mary Redcliffe]] Church, showing the ''couped'' heads of three Moors wreathed at the temples]]
 
Moors—or more frequently their heads, often crowned—appear with some frequency in medieval European [[heraldry]]. The term ascribed to them in [[Anglo-Norman language|Anglo-Norman]] ''[[blazon]]'' (the language of English heraldry) is ''maure'', though they are also sometimes called ''moore'', ''blackmoor'', ''blackamoor'' or ''negro''.<ref>{{cite web | title=Man | work= A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry | last=Parker | first=James | url=http://www.heraldsnet.org/saitou/parker/Jpglossm.htm#Man | accessdate=2012-01-23}}</ref> [[Maure]]s appear in European heraldry from at least as early as the 13th century,<ref name=VAM>{{cite web | title=Africans in medieval & Renaissance art: the Moor's head | url=http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/africans-in-medieval-and-renaissance-art-moors-head/ | publisher=Victoria and Albert Museum | accessdate=2012-01-23}}</ref> and some have been attested as early as the 11th century in [[Italy]],<ref name=VAM /> where they have persisted in the local heraldry and [[vexillology]] well into modern times in [[Corsica]] and [[Sardinia]].
 
Moors—or more frequently their heads, often crowned—appear with some frequency in medieval European [[heraldry]]. The term ascribed to them in [[Anglo-Norman language|Anglo-Norman]] ''[[blazon]]'' (the language of English heraldry) is ''maure'', though they are also sometimes called ''moore'', ''blackmoor'', ''blackamoor'' or ''negro''.<ref>{{cite web | title=Man | work= A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry | last=Parker | first=James | url=http://www.heraldsnet.org/saitou/parker/Jpglossm.htm#Man | accessdate=2012-01-23}}</ref> [[Maure]]s appear in European heraldry from at least as early as the 13th century,<ref name=VAM>{{cite web | title=Africans in medieval & Renaissance art: the Moor's head | url=http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/africans-in-medieval-and-renaissance-art-moors-head/ | publisher=Victoria and Albert Museum | accessdate=2012-01-23}}</ref> and some have been attested as early as the 11th century in [[Italy]],<ref name=VAM /> where they have persisted in the local heraldry and [[vexillology]] well into modern times in [[Corsica]] and [[Sardinia]].
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==Population==
 
==Population==
   
Populations in Carthage circa 200 BC and northern Algeria 1500 BC were diverse.{{Citation needed|date=July 2013}} As a group, they plotted closest to the populations of Northern Egypt and intermediate to Northern Europeans and tropical Africans: "the data supported the comments from ancient authors observed by classicists: everything from fair-skinned blonds to peoples who were dark-skinned 'Ethiopian' or part Ethiopian in appearance."<ref>G. Mokhtar. ''General History of Africa: Ancient Civilizations of Africa'', p. 427.</ref> Modern evidence shows a similar diversity among present North Africans. Moreover, this diversity of phenotypes and peoples was probably due to ''[[in situ]]'' differentiation, not foreign influxes.{{Citation needed|date=July 2013}} Foreign influxes are thought to have had an impact on population make-up, but did not replace the indigenous Berber population.<ref>"Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa", ''American Journal of Physical Anthropology'', 83:35-48 (1990).</ref>
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Populations in Carthage circa 200 BC and northern Algeria 1500 BC were diverse.{{Citation Needed|date=July 2013}} As a group, they plotted closest to the populations of Northern Egypt and intermediate to Northern Europeans and tropical Africans: "the data supported the comments from ancient authors observed by classicists: everything from fair-skinned blonds to peoples who were dark-skinned 'Ethiopian' or part Ethiopian in appearance."<ref>G. Mokhtar. ''General History of Africa: Ancient Civilizations of Africa'', p. 427.</ref> Modern evidence shows a similar diversity among present North Africans. Moreover, this diversity of phenotypes and peoples was probably due to ''[[in situ]]'' differentiation, not foreign influxes.{{Citation Needed|date=July 2013}} Foreign influxes are thought to have had an impact on population make-up, but did not replace the indigenous Berber population.<ref>"Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa", ''American Journal of Physical Anthropology'', 83:35-48 (1990).</ref>
   
 
== Notable Moors ==
 
== Notable Moors ==
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* Stanley Lane-Poole, ''The History of the Moors in Spain''.
 
* Stanley Lane-Poole, ''The History of the Moors in Spain''.
 
* J. A. (Joel Augustus) Rogers. ''Nature Knows No Color Line: research into the Negro ancestry in the white race''. New York: 1952.
 
* J. A. (Joel Augustus) Rogers. ''Nature Knows No Color Line: research into the Negro ancestry in the white race''. New York: 1952.
* Ronald Segal. ''Islam's Black Slaves: the other Black diaspora. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 2001.
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* Ronald Segal. ''Islam's Black Slaves: the other Black diaspora. NY: Farrar Strauss Giroux, 2001.
 
* Ivan Van Sertima, ed. The Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992. (Journal of African civilizations, vol. 11).
 
* Ivan Van Sertima, ed. The Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992. (Journal of African civilizations, vol. 11).
 
* Frank Snowden. Before Color Prejudice: the ancient view of blacks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1983.
 
* Frank Snowden. Before Color Prejudice: the ancient view of blacks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1983.
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* [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/391449/Moor Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia] (2006)
 
* [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/391449/Moor Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia] (2006)
 
* [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Moors Moors], Classic Encyclopedia (1911)
 
* [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Moors Moors], Classic Encyclopedia (1911)
* [http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/morocco/literature/amine2.html Khalid Amine, Moroccan Shakespeare: From Moors to Moroccans]. Paper presented at an International Conference Organized by The Postgraduate School of Critical Theory and Cultural Studies, University of Nottingham, and The British Council, Morocco, 12–14 April 2001.
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* [http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/Maghreb/literature/amine2.html Khalid Amine, Moroccan Shakespeare: From Moors to Moroccans]. Paper presented at an International Conference Organized by The Postgraduate School of Critical Theory and Cultural Studies, University of Nottingham, and The British Council, Maghreb, 12–14 April 2001.
 
* [http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/africans-in-medieval-and-renaissance-art-moors-head/ Africans in Medieval & Renaissance Art: The Moor's Head], [[Victoria and Albert Museum]] (n.d)
 
* [http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/africans-in-medieval-and-renaissance-art-moors-head/ Africans in Medieval & Renaissance Art: The Moor's Head], [[Victoria and Albert Museum]] (n.d)
 
* Sean Cavazos-Kottke. [http://www.folger.edu/eduLesPlanDtl.cfm?lpid=573 Othello's Predecessors: Moors in Renaissance Popular Literature]: (outline). [[Folger Shakespeare Library]], 1998.
 
* Sean Cavazos-Kottke. [http://www.folger.edu/eduLesPlanDtl.cfm?lpid=573 Othello's Predecessors: Moors in Renaissance Popular Literature]: (outline). [[Folger Shakespeare Library]], 1998.
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