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Article:2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
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{{Redirect|2011 Miyagi earthquake|the aftershock that occurred on 7 April|April 2011 Miyagi earthquake}}
 
{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2011}}
 
 
<!-- Please try to follow the [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami]] article as a blueprint for how to shape this disaster article. -->{{pp-move-indef}}
 
{{Infobox earthquake
 
| title = 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
 
| image = SH-60B helicopter flies over Sendai.jpg
 
| image alt = An aerial view of tsunami damage in Tōhoku
 
| imagecaption = An aerial view of damage in the Sendai region with black smoke coming from the [[Nippon Oil]] Sendai oil refinery
 
| map = Tsunami map Tohoku2011.svg
 
| map alt =
 
| caption = Peak tsunami wave height summits, color-coded with red representing most severe
 
| image name =
 
| map2 =
 
| mapsize =
 
| date = 11 March 2011
 
| origintime = 14:46:23 [[Japan Standard Time|JST]] ([[UTC+09:00]])
 
| duration = 6&nbsp;minutes<ref name="Asahi-ERI-Takashi" />
 
| magnitude = 9.0 [[Moment magnitude scale|(M<sub>w</sub>)]]<ref name="USGS9.0" /><ref name="New Scientist" />
 
| depth = {{Convert|30|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}
 
| location = {{Coord|38.322|N|142.369|E|type:event_scale:50000000|display=inline,title}}
 
| type = [[Megathrust earthquake]]
 
| countries affected = Japan (primary)<br>[[Pacific Rim]] (tsunami, secondary)
 
| damage = Tsunami wave, flooding, landslides, fires, building and infrastructure damage, nuclear incidents including radiation releases
 
| intensity = [[Mercalli intensity scale|IX - Violent]]
 
| PGA = 2.99 ''[[peak ground acceleration|g]]''
 
| tsunami =Up to {{Convert|40.5|m|ft|abbr=on}}<br>in [[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]], [[Iwate Prefecture|Iwate]], [[Tōhoku region|Tōhoku]]
 
| landslide =no
 
| foreshocks = 7
 
| aftershocks = 10,583 (as of 2 March 2014)<!-- It means "Different number of maximum seismic intensity of the aftershock earthquake table one or more seismic intensity", the total(総計) listed at the end includes the main shock. --><ref>[http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/2011_03_11_tohoku/yukan1.pdf 震度1以上の余震の最大震度別地震回数表(3月11日~)] on 3 March 2014. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 10 March 2014.</ref>
 
| casualties = {{2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami casualties dead}}<br> {{2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami casualties injured}} <br>{{2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami casualties missing}}<!--casualties section in body-->}}
 
 
The {{Nihongo|'''2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku'''|東北地方太平洋沖地震|Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin}} was a [[moment magnitude scale|magnitude]] 9.0 (M<sub>w</sub>) [[submarine earthquake|undersea]] [[megathrust earthquake]] off the coast of [[Japan]] that occurred at 14:46 [[Japan Standard Time|JST]] (05:46 [[UTC]]) on Friday 11 March 2011,<ref name="USGS9.0">{{cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/ |title= Magnitude 9.03 – Near The East Coast Of Honshu, Japan|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]] (USGS) |accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xgj6FuHC|archivedate=5 April 2011}}</ref><ref name="New Scientist">{{Cite journal|url=http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2011/03/powerful-japan-quake-sparks-ts.html|title=Japan's quake updated to magnitude 9.0 |edition= Short Sharp Science |journal=[[New Scientist]]|date=11 March 2011|first=Michael|last=Reilly|accessdate=11 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xgjBRle0|archivedate=5 April 2011}}</ref><ref name=USGS>{{cite news|title=New USGS number puts Japan quake at 4th largest|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/03/14/501364/main20043126.shtml|newspaper=[[CBS News]]|agency=Associated Press|date=14 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xgjFTgf4|archivedate=5 April 2011}}</ref> with the [[epicentre]] approximately {{Convert|70|km|mi|0}} east of the [[Oshika Peninsula]] of [[Tōhoku region|Tōhoku]] and the [[hypocenter]] at an underwater depth of approximately {{Convert|30|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}.<ref name="USGS9.0"/><ref name="BBC1">{{Cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12709598|work=BBC News |title=Tsunami hits north-eastern Japan after massive quake|date=11 March 2011|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7SSocBe | archivedate=11 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The earthquake is also often referred to in Japan as the {{Nihongo|'''Great East Japan Earthquake'''|東日本大震災|Higashi nihon daishinsai}}<ref>[http://cais.gsi.go.jp/YOCHIREN/activity/191/191.e.html Abstract of the 191th meeting of CCEP] - website of the Japanese [[Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction]]</ref><ref name="kantei0401">{{cite web |url=http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/kan/statement/201104/01kaiken_e.html| title= Press Conference by Prime Minister Naoto Kan |publisher=[[Prime Minister of Japan]] and His Cabinet|accessdate=1 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MOXMvL | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url =http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110402a6.html|work=The Japan Times |title=Kan names quake at pep talk| date=2 April 2011|accessdate=2 April 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xgiq5T7u|archivedate=5 April 2011}}</ref><ref name="fn_1" group="fn" /> and also known as the '''2011 Tohoku earthquake''',<ref>[http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2727&from=rss_home USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan’s 2011 Tohoku Earthquake to 9.03] - website of the [[United States Geological Survey]]</ref> and the '''3.11 Earthquake'''. It was the most powerful [[List of earthquakes in Japan|earthquake ever recorded to have hit Japan]], and the fifth [[Largest earthquakes by magnitude|most powerful earthquake in the world]] since modern record-keeping began in 1900.<ref name=USGS /><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/13/japan-tsunami-earthquake-power-cuts|title=Tsunami, earthquake, nuclear crisis – now Japan faces power cuts|last=Branigan|first=Tania|date=13 March 2011|work=The Guardian |location=London |accessdate=15 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xDAT05x0|archivedate=15 March 2011}}</ref><ref name="3news">{{Cite news|url=http://www.3news.co.nz/Japan-quake---7th-largest-in-recorded-history/tabid/417/articleID/201998/Default.aspx|title=Japan quake – 7th largest in recorded history|accessdate=11 March 2011|date=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOn8fYs | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The earthquake triggered powerful [[tsunami]] waves that reached heights of up to {{Convert|40.5|m|ft|0}} in [[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]] in Tōhoku's [[Iwate Prefecture]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/daily/english/13_04.html |title=March 11th tsunami a record 40.5 metres high NHK |publisher=.nhk.or.jp |date=13 August 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728013451/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/daily/english/13_04.html| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="yomiuri">[[Yomiuri Shimbun]] evening edition 2-11-04-15 page 15, nearby Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港)(Google map E39 31 57.8, N 142 3 7.6) 2011-04-15, [http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20110415-OYT1T00389.htm 大震災の津波、宮古で38.9 m…明治三陸上回る] by okayasu Akio (岡安 章夫) {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aMlkNh|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> and which, in the [[Sendai]] area, travelled up to {{Convert|10|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} inland.<ref name="roland buerk">{{cite news|author=Roland Buerk|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12709598 |title= Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east |publisher=BBC |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7SSocBe | archivedate=11 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The earthquake moved [[Honshu]] (the main island of Japan) {{Convert|2.4|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} east and shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between {{Convert|10|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} and {{Convert|25|cm|in|0|abbr=on}},<ref name=DW>{{Cite news|title=Quake shifted Japan by over two meters|url=http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,14909967,00.html|work=[[Deutsche Welle]]|date=14 March 2011|accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xBeYFfOD | archivedate=14 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /><ref name="Chai" /> and generated sound waves detected by the low orbiting [[GOCE]] satellite.<ref name="cbc.ca">http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/1-tonne-goce-satellite-falls-to-earth-sunday-night-1.2419729</ref>
 
 
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On 10 February 2014, a Japanese [[National Police Agency (Japan)|National Police Agency]] report confirmed {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties dead}} {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties injured}} and {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties missing}} across twenty [[Prefectures of Japan|prefectures]], as well as 127,290 buildings totally collapsed, with a further 272,788 buildings 'half collapsed', and another 747,989 buildings partially damaged.<ref name="npajproperty">[http://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures... February 10, 2014"] National Police Agency of Japan. Retrieved 17 February 2014.</ref> The earthquake and tsunami also caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse.<ref name="roland buerk"/><ref>Saira Syed – [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12756379 "Japan quake: Infrastructure damage will delay recovery"] – 16 March 2011 – ''BBC News'' – Retrieved 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xF8vSig6|date=17 March 2011}}</ref> [[Japanese Prime Minister]] [[Naoto Kan]] said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan."<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/13/japan.quake/index.html?iref=NS1|title=Japanese PM: 'Toughest' crisis since World War II|publisher=CNN|date=13 March 2011 |accessdate=12 March 2012| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOp7djK | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Around 4.4&nbsp;million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5&nbsp;million without water.<ref name="waterfoodheat">{{Cite news|title=Millions Of Stricken Japanese Lack Water, Food, Heat|url=http://www.npr.org/2011/03/14/134527591/millions-of-stricken-japanese-lack-water-food-heat|publisher=[[NPR]]|accessdate=16 March 2011|author=NPR Staff and Wires|date=14 March 2011|quote=Nearly 1.5&nbsp;million households had gone without water since the quake struck.| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOlpZ9p | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
The tsunami caused [[2011 Japanese nuclear accidents|nuclear accidents]], primarily the [[International Nuclear Event Scale|level 7]] [[nuclear meltdown|meltdown]]s at three reactors in the [[Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster|Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant]] complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents.<ref name="autogenerated2">{{cite web|author=the CNN Wire Staff |url=http://www.ktvz.com/news/28143212/detail.html |title=Japan: 3 Nuclear Reactors Melted Down – News Story – KTVZ Bend |publisher=Ktvz.com |date=6 June 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014644/http://www.ktvz.com/news/28143212/detail.html| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/06/06/japan.nuclear.meltdown/index.html |title=3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms |publisher=CNN |accessdate=6 June 2011 |date=7 June 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110609013543/http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/06/06/japan.nuclear.meltdown/index.html| archivedate= 9 June 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Many electrical generators were taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors [[Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster|suffered explosions]] due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure. Residents within a {{Convert|20|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and a {{Convert|10|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} radius of the [[Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant]] were evacuated. In addition, the U.S. recommended that its citizens evacuate up to {{Convert|80|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of the plant.<ref name=usevac>{{cite news|title=US breaks with Japan over power plant warnings|url=http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory?id=13149441#.T15CaoEu15Y|accessdate=12 March 2012|agency=''Associated Press''|date=16 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6&nbsp;billion.<ref>{{cite news|author=Molly Hennessy-Fiske|work=Los Angeles Times |date=13 March 2011|accessdate=13 March 2011|title=Japan earthquake: Insurance cost for quake alone pegged at $35&nbsp;billion, AIR says|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgw-japan-quake-insurance-20110314,0,866931.story| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xANKSW3Y | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[Bank of Japan]] offered [[Japanese yen|¥]]15&nbsp;trillion (US$183&nbsp;billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20110314/wl_nm/us_japan_quake|title=New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant|last=Uranaka|first=Taiga|author2=Kwon, Ki Joon|date=14 March 2011|agency=Reuters |accessdate=15 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xD9XGJub|archivedate=15 March 2011}}</ref>
 
The [[World Bank]]'s estimated economic cost was US$235&nbsp;billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in world history.<ref>{{cite web|last=Zhang|first=Bo|title=Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History|url=http://www.accuweather.com/blogs/news/story/47459/top-5-most-expensive-natural-d.asp|work=AccuWeather.com|publisher=News & Video|accessdate=29 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOslCyp | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Victoria Kim|work=Los Angeles Times|date=21 March 2011|accessdate=21 March 2011|title=Japan damage could reach $235&nbsp;billion, World Bank estimates|url=http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fgw-japan-quake-world-bank-20110322,0,3799976.story| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOqplDu | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
==Earthquake==
 
 
{{Location map+|Japan|width=225|float=right|border=yes|caption=Map showing the epicenter of the earthquake|places=
 
{{Location map~|Japan|lat=38.322|long=142.369|mark=Bullseye1.png|marksize=40|position=top}}
 
{{Location map~|Japan|lat=35.7|long=139.715|label=Tokyo|position=left|mark=Green pog.svg}}
 
{{Location map~|Japan|lat=38.26|long=140.87|label=Sendai|position=left|mark=Green pog.svg}}}}
 
[[File:C0001xgp wcmt smt.gif|thumb|USGS centroid moment tensor solution of the main tremor showing a visual representation of [[focal mechanism]]]]
 
The 9.0 [[Moment magnitude scale|magnitude]] ([[Moment magnitude scale|M<sub>W</sub>]]) [[submarine earthquake|undersea]] [[megathrust earthquake]] occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 [[Japan Standard Time|JST]] (05:46 UTC) in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32&nbsp;km (19.9&nbsp;mi),<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/11/japan-earthquake-tsunami-questions-answers Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why|World news]. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2011-04-03. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5x7mIOCfm|date=12 March 2011}}</ref> with its [[epicenter]] approximately 72&nbsp;km (45&nbsp;mi) east of the [[Oshika Peninsula]] of [[Tōhoku region|Tōhoku]], Japan, lasting approximately six minutes.<ref name="Asahi-ERI-Takashi">{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/science/update/0317/TKY201103170129.html |title= 震災の揺れは6分間 キラーパルス少なく 東大地震研 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |date=17 March 2011 |accessdate=18 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MQJnhj | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="USGS9.0" /> The earthquake was initially reported as 7.9&nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> by the USGS before it was quickly upgraded to 8.8 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub>, then to 8.9 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub>,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/11/japan-quake-usgs-idUSN1120429420110311 |title=UPDATE 3-USGS upgrades Japan quake to 8.9 magnitude |agency=Reuters |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=18 March 2011 |first=Anthony |last=Boadle| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MUMCsU | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and then finally to 9.0 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub>.<ref name="New Scientist" /><ref name="USGS-9.0-Update">{{cite web|url=http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2727|title=USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan’s 2011 Tohoku Earthquake to 9.0|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]] (USGS)|date=14 March 2011|accessdate=18 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xC2zNlat | archivedate=14 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Sendai]] was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 130&nbsp;km (81&nbsp;mi) from the epicenter; the earthquake occurred 373&nbsp;km (232&nbsp;mi) from [[Tokyo]].<ref name="USGS9.0" />
 
 
The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large [[foreshock]]s, with hundreds of [[aftershock]]s reported. The first major foreshock was a 7.2&nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> event on 9 March, approximately 40&nbsp;km (25&nbsp;mi) from the epicenter of the 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0&nbsp;M<sub>W</sub>.<ref name="USGS9.0" /><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110315-japan-earthquake-tsunami-big-one-science/|title=Japan Earthquake Not the "Big One"?|last=Lovett|first=Richard A.|date=14 March 2011|work=[[National Geographic News]]|accessdate=15 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xDGM2J50|archivedate=15 March 2011}}</ref> Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.0&nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> aftershock was reported at 15:06 JST (6:06 UTC), succeeded by a 7.4 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> at 15:15 JST (6:16 UTC) and a 7.2 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> at 15:26 JST (6:26 UTC).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://tenki.jp/earthquake/detail-3612.html |title=地震情報 – 2011年3月10日 15時6分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MROEAe | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}{{cite web|url=http://tenki.jp/earthquake/detail-3616.html |title=地震情報 – 2011年3月11日 15時15分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MROEAe | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}{{cite web|url=http://tenki.jp/earthquake/detail-3618.html |title=地震情報 – 2011年3月11日 15時26分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MROEAe | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 &nbsp;M<sub>W</sub> or greater have occurred since the initial quake,<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.jma.go.jp/en/quake/quake_singendo_index.html |title=Earthquake Information |accessdate=11 March 2011 |publisher=Japan Meteorological Agency| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7vVCywI | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> including one on 26 October 2013 (local time) of magnitude 7.3.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2013/10/25/earthquake_strikes_near_fukushima_region_of_japan.html |title=Earthquake strikes near Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant; no reports of damage |agency=AP|date=2013-10-25|accessdate=2013-10-25|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20131025232609/http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2013/10/25/earthquake_strikes_near_fukushima_region_of_japan.html |archivedate=2013-10-25 |quote=A 7.3-magnitude earthquake struck early Saturday morning off Japan's east coast [...] Japan's meteorological agency said the quake was an aftershock of the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck the same area in 2011.}}</ref> Aftershocks follow [[Aftershocks#Omori's Law|Omori's Law]], which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. The aftershocks will thus taper off in time, but could continue for years.<ref name=CBSMcNutt />
 
 
One minute before the earthquake was felt in Tokyo, the [[Earthquake Early Warning (Japan)|Earthquake Early Warning]] system, which includes more than 1,000 [[seismometer]]s in Japan, sent out warnings of impending strong shaking to millions. It is believed that the early warning by the [[Japan Meteorological Agency]] (JMA) saved many lives.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Alert+sounded+minute+before+tremor+struck/4425621/story.html|title=Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck|last=Foster|first=Peter|work=The Daily Telegraph |location=UK |accessdate=11 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5x74xLDTb|archivedate=11 March 2011}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/35090/?p1=A3|title=80 Seconds of Warning for Tokyo|last=Talbot|first=David|work=MIT Technology Review|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MUGrLQ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first [[P wave]] was detected, or about 31 seconds after the earthquake occurred. However, the estimated intensities were smaller than the actual ones in some places in Kanto and Tohoku regions. This was thought to be because of smaller estimated earthquake magnitude, smaller estimated fault plane, shorter estimated fault length, not having considered the shape of the fault, etc.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eqh.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~masumi/ecastweb/110311/indexj.htm |title=Ecast Report No.19 |publisher=Eqh.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014646/http://www.eqh.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~masumi/ecastweb/110311/indexj.htm| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> There were also cases where large differences between estimated intensities by the Earthquake Early Warning system and the actual intensities occurred in the aftershocks and triggered earthquakes.<ref>http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1103/29a/eew_hyouka.pdf</ref>
 
 
===Geology===
 
[[File:Map of Sendai Earthquake 2011.jpg|thumb|Map of the Tōhoku earthquake and aftershocks on 11–14 March]]
 
[[File:SeismicAreas JapanTrenchEarthquakes.png|thumb|Hypocentral region boundaries (Source: The Japanese Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion)]]
 
This earthquake occurred where the [[Pacific Plate]] is [[subduction|subducting]] under the plate beneath northern Honshu; which plate is a matter of debate amongst scientists.<ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13">{{Cite news |first=Kenneth|last=Chang|title=Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S. and Alters Earth's Spin |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14seismic.html |work=The New York Times |date=13 March 2011 |accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110316002603/http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14seismic.html| archivedate= 16 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="grauniad">{{cite news|author=Ian Sample |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/11/japan-earthquake-tsunami-questions-answers |title=newspaper: Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why |work=The Guardian |location=London |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=14 March 2011 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7mIOCfm | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no }}</ref> The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9&nbsp;cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate building large amounts of elastic energy. This motion pushes the upper plate down until the accumulated stress causes a seismic slip-rupture event. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several meters.<ref name="grauniad" /> A quake of this magnitude usually has a rupture length of at least 500&nbsp;km (300&nbsp;mi) and generally requires a long, relatively straight fault surface. Because the plate boundary and [[subduction zone]] in the area of the Honshu rupture is not very straight, it is unusual for the magnitude of its earthquake to exceed 8.5; the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists.<ref>{{cite news|last=Maugh |first=Thomas H|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-sci-japan-earthquake-20110310,0,7154967.story |title=Size of Japan's quake surprises seismologists |work=Los Angeles Times |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MUsywX | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[Hypocenter|hypocentral region]] of this earthquake extended from offshore [[Iwate Prefecture]] to offshore [[Ibaraki Prefecture]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20110312/t10014615121000.html |title=地震調査委 想定外の連動地震 NHKニュース |publisher=.nhk.or.jp |accessdate=12 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVeL1VKT|archivedate=11 March 2011}}</ref> The [[Japanese Meteorological Agency]] said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500&nbsp;km (310&nbsp;mi) and a width of 200&nbsp;km (120&nbsp;mi).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=soc&k=2011031100807&j1 |title=時事ドットコム:M8.8、死者300人超=行方不明540人以上−大津波10m・宮城で震度7 |publisher=Jiji.com |accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MVTwjm | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/jishin0311/ |title=気象庁"マグニチュードは9.0" NHKニュース |publisher=.nhk.or.jp |accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVZxTBtQ|archivedate=27 March 2011}}</ref> Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103130302.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):地殻破壊3連鎖、計6分 専門家、余震拡大に警鐘 – 東日本大震災 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MVqKoJ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The earthquake may have had a mechanism similar to that of [[869 Jogan Sanriku earthquake|another large earthquake in 869]] with an estimated [[surface wave magnitude]] ([[Surface wave magnitude|M<sub>s</sub>]]) of 8.6, which also created a large tsunami.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103120239.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):「数キロ内陸まで津波」 東大地震研・佐竹教授 – 東日本大震災 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MWNq78 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Other major earthquakes with tsunamis struck the [[Sanriku Coast]] region [[1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake|in 1896]] and [[1933 Sanriku earthquake|in 1933]].
 
 
In a study of N. Uchida and T. Matsuzawa, it was pointed out that the source area of this earthquake has a relatively high coupling coefficient surrounded by areas of relatively low coupling coefficients in the west, north, and south. From the averaged coupling coefficient of 0.5&ndash;0.8 in the source area and the seismic moment, it was estimated that the slip deficit of this earthquake was accumulated over a period of 260&ndash;880 years, which is consistent with the recurrence interval of such great earthquakes estimated from the tsunami deposit data. The seismic moment of this earthquake accounts for about 93% of the estimated cumulative moment from 1926 to March 2011. Hence, earthquakes with magnitudes about 7 since 1926 in this area only had released part of the accumulated energy. In the area near the trench, the coupling coefficient is high, which could act as the source of the large tsunami.<ref>http://www.aob.geophys.tohoku.ac.jp/download/ronbun/EPS_uchida2011.pdf</ref>
 
 
Most of the foreshocks are interplate earthquakes with thrust-type focal mechanisms. Both interplate and intraplate earthquakes appeared in the aftershocks offshore Sanriku coast with considerable proportions.<ref>"Spatial distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks of
 
the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" by Y. Asano, T. Saito, Y. Ito, K. Shiomi, H. Hirose, T. Matsumoto, S. Aoi, S. Hori, and S. Sekiguchi.</ref>
 
 
The strong ground motion registered at the maximum of 7 on the [[Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale]] in [[Kurihara, Miyagi|Kurihara]], [[Miyagi Prefecture]].<ref name="jma" /> Three other prefectures—[[Fukushima Prefecture|Fukushima]], [[Ibaraki Prefecture|Ibaraki]] and [[Tochigi Prefecture|Tochigi]]—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. Seismic stations in [[Iwate Prefecture|Iwate]], [[Gunma Prefecture|Gunma]], [[Saitama Prefecture|Saitama]] and [[Chiba Prefecture]] measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo.
 
 
In [[Russia]], the main shock could be felt in [[Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk]] (MSK 4) and [[Kurilsk]] (MSK 4). The aftershock at 06:25 UTC could be felt in [[Yuzhno-Kurilsk]] (MSK 5) and Kurilsk (MSK 4).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ceme.gsras.ru/cgi-bin/info_quakee.pl?mode=1&id=165 |title=Quake &#124; info |publisher=Ceme.gsras.ru |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014651/http://www.ceme.gsras.ru/cgi-bin/info_quakee.pl?mode=1&id=165| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
===Energy===
 
[[File:2011 Japan Earthquake Tokyo Tower.jpg|thumb|Damage to the antenna of [[Tokyo Tower]]]]
 
 
This energy of the seismic waves from the earthquake was [[Moment magnitude scale#Radiated seismic energy|surface energy]] (M<sub>e</sub>) {{nowrap|1.9 ± 0.5×10<sup>17</sup>}} [[joule]]s,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/neic_c0001xgp_e.php |title=USGS Energy and Broadband Solution |publisher=Neic.usgs.gov |accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MWpujO | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> which is nearly double that of the 9.1-magnitude [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami]] that killed 230,000 people. If harnessed, the seismic energy from this earthquake would power a city the size of Los Angeles for an entire year.<ref name=CBSMcNutt>{{Cite video|people=Marcia McNutt|title=Energy from quake: if harnessed, could power L.A. for a year|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_C7KKwIMapw|date=12 March 2011|publisher=CBS News via YouTube (Google)|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MqdDhf | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[seismic moment]] (M<sub>0</sub>), which is represents a physical size for the event, was calculated by the USGS at 3.9×10<sup>22</sup> joules,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/neic_c0001xgp_wmt.php |title=USGS.gov: USGS WPhase Moment Solution |publisher=Earthquake.usgs.gov |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x9dgiIL8 | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> slightly less than the 2004 Indian Ocean quake.
 
 
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Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a [[peak ground acceleration]] of 2.99&nbsp;[[g-force|''g'']] (29.33&nbsp;m/s²).<ref>{{cite web|title=Preliminary report of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake |author=Okada Yoshimitsu (President, NIED) |url=http://www.bosai.go.jp/e/pdf/Preliminary_report110328.pdf|publisher=National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) |date=25 March 2011 |accessdate=12 March 2012}}</ref>{{#Tag:ref|The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami has been assigned GLIDE identifier EQ-2011-000028-JPN by the Asian Disaster Reduction Center.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.adrc.asia/view_disaster_en.php?NationCode=392&lang=en&KEY=1497 |title=Asian Disaster Reduction Center(ADRC) |publisher=Adrc.asia |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MsCIA1 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.adrc.asia/project/index.html#glide |title=Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) Information Sharing on Disaster Reduction |publisher=Adrc.asia|accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MtBBY3 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>|name="fn_2"|group="fn"}} The largest individual recording in Japan was 2.7&nbsp;g, in the Miyagi Prefecture, 75&nbsp;km from the epicentre; the highest reading in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 0.16&nbsp;g.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/ekalkan/Tohoku/index.html|title=March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: Preliminary results|author=Erol Kalkan, Volkan Sevilgen|work=United States Geological Survey|date=17 March 2011|accessdate=22 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xb6DokSo | archivedate=31 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
===Geophysical effects===
 
Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2.4&nbsp;m (7.9&nbsp;[[Foot (unit)|ft]]) closer to North America,<ref name=DW /><ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /> making some sections of Japan's landmass wider than before.<ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /> Those areas of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts.<ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /> A 400&nbsp;km (250&nbsp;mi) stretch of coastline dropped vertically by 0.6&nbsp;m (2.0&nbsp;ft), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land.<ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /> One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20&nbsp;m (66&nbsp;ft),<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12732335|title=How the quake has moved Japan|last=Rincon|first=Paul|date=14 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011|work=BBC News | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xBwc3YC9 | archivedate=14 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40&nbsp;m (130&nbsp;ft).<ref>{{Cite news|title=Japan quake fault may have moved 40 metres|url=http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2011/03/giant-quake-was-small-for-its.html|last=Reilly|first=Michael|publisher=New Scientist|date=12 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7qjBk9N | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> On 6 April the Japanese coast guard said that the quake shifted the seabed near the epicenter 24&nbsp;meters (79&nbsp;ft) and elevated the seabed off the coast of Miyagi prefecture by 3&nbsp;meters.<ref>[http://us.mobile.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSTRE73607620110407?irpc=932 Japan seabed shifted 24&nbsp;meters after March quake &#124; Reuters.com] {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MvhQKd|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> A report by the [[Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology]], published in ''[[Science (journal)|Science]]'' on 2 December 2011, concluded that the seabed in the area between the epicenter and the [[Japan Trench]] moved 50 meters east-southeast and rose about 7 meters as a result of the quake. The report also stated that the quake had caused several major landslides on the seabed in the affected area.<ref>[[Jiji Press]], "March temblor shifted seabed by 50 meters", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 3 December 2011, p. 1.</ref>
 
 
[[File:Soil-liquefaction at Shinkiba after after 2011 Tohoku Pacific Ocean offshore earthquake.jpg|thumb|left|[[Soil liquefaction]] in [[Koto, Tokyo|Kōtō]], Tokyo]]
 
 
The Earth's [[Rotation around a fixed axis|axis]] shifted by estimates of between {{Convert|10|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} and {{Convert|25|cm|in|0|abbr=on}}.<ref name=DW /><ref name="NYTimes-Chang2011-03-13" /><ref name="Chai" /> This deviation led to a number of small planetary changes, including the [[Earth's rotation|length of a day]], the [[Axial tilt#Obliquity|tilt of the Earth]], and the [[Chandler wobble]].<ref name="Chai">{{Cite news|url=http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Japan+quake+shifts+earth+axis+centimetres/4426356/story.html|title=Japan's quake shifts earth's axis by 25 centimetres|last=Chai|first=Carmen|date=11 March 2011|work=[[The Gazette (Montreal)|Montreal Gazette]]|publisher=[[Postmedia News]]|accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5x95t0CLU|archivedate=13 March 2011}}</ref> The speed of the Earth's rotation increased, shortening the day by 1.8 [[microsecond]]s due to the redistribution of Earth's mass.<ref name="day length">{{Cite news|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/03/13/scitech/main20042590.shtml|title=Earth's day length shortened by Japan earthquake|date=13 March 2011|publisher=[[CBS News]]|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xA17PHMv | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The axial shift was caused by the redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface, which changed the planet's [[moment of inertia]]. Because of [[conservation of angular momentum]], such changes of [[inertia]] result in small changes to the Earth's rate of rotation.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/23degrees/2011/03/can_an_earthquake_shift_the_ea.html|title=Can an earthquake shift the Earth's axis?|last=Harris|first=Bethan|date=14 March 2011|publisher=BBC News |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xC0a1ZWs | archivedate=14 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> These are expected changes<ref name="Chai" /> for an earthquake of this magnitude.<ref name=DW /><ref name="day length" /> The earthquake also generated sound waves detected by the [[GOCE]] satellite, which thus [[Role of chance in scientific discoveries|serendipitously]] became the first seismograph in orbit.<ref name="cbc.ca"/>
 
 
[[Soil liquefaction]] was evident in areas of [[reclaimed land]] around Tokyo, particularly in [[Urayasu, Chiba|Urayasu]],<ref>Fukue, Natsuko, "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120330f1.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+japantimes+(The+Japan+Times%3A+All+Stories) Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 30 March 2012, p. 3.</ref><ref>Fukue, Natsuko, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110408f3.html Urayasu still dealing with liquefaction]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 8 April 2011, p. 4. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xrXvNqLX|date=11 April 2011}}</ref> [[Chiba, Chiba|Chiba City]], [[Funabashi, Chiba|Funabashi]], [[Narashino, Chiba|Narashino]] (all in [[Chiba Prefecture]]) and in the [[Koto, Tokyo|Koto]], [[Edogawa, Tokyo|Edogawa]], [[Minato, Tokyo|Minato]], [[Chūō, Tokyo|Chūō]], and [[Ōta, Tokyo|Ōta]] Wards of Tokyo. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees.<ref>''[[Yomiuri Shimbun]]'', "Liquefaction Damage Widespread", 10 April 2011.</ref> Nearby [[Haneda Airport]], built mostly on reclaimed land, was not damaged. [[Odaiba]] also experienced liquefaction, but damage was minimal.<ref>[[Bloomberg L.P.]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110324n2.html Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 24 March 2011, p. 3. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MwHCYB|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
[[Shinmoedake]], a volcano in [[Kyushu]], erupted three days after the earthquake. The volcano had previously erupted in January 2011; it is not known if the later eruption was linked to the earthquake.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgw-japan-quake-volcano-20110314,0,2486939.story|title=Volcano in southern Japan erupts|last=Hennessy-Fiske|first=Molly|date=13 March 2011|work=Los Angeles Times |accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xAFMNiQh|archivedate=13 March 2011}}</ref> In [[Antarctica]], the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the [[Whillans Ice Stream]] to slip by about 0.5&nbsp;m (1.6&nbsp;ft).<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20245-japan-quake-shifts-antarctic-glacier.html|title=Japan quake shifts Antarctic glacier|last=Ananthaswamy|first=Anil|date=15 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xDBTxHjf | archivedate=15 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Shindomap 2011-03-11 Tohoku earthquake.png|thumb|Map of [[Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale|seismic intensity]] observations resulting from mainshock]]
 
The first sign international researchers had that the earthquake caused such a dramatic change in the Earth’s rotation came from the United States Geological Survey which monitors Global Positioning Satellite stations across the world. The Survey team had several GPS monitors located near the scene of the earthquake. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost {{convert|4|m|abbr=on}}. This motivated government researchers to look into other ways the earthquake may have had large scale effects on the planet. Scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory did some calculations and determined that the Earth’s rotation was changed by the earthquake to the point where the days are now 1.8 [[microsecond]]s shorter.<ref>{{cite web |last=Gross |first=Richard |date=19 March 2011 |title=Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth’s Axis |publisher=NPR online |url=http://www.npr.org/2011/03/18/134658880/Japan-Earthquake-May-Have-Changed-Earths-Axis}}</ref>
 
 
Dr. Richard Gross, one of the head researchers working for NASA, explained that the way the Earth rotates is not very smooth, like an old car wobbling on its axle. The earthquake's effect was as if a person took a hammer and whacked the car's axle, causing it to shift and the car to drive differently. The powerful earthquake hit the Earth’s axle, causing it to spin in a slightly different way.<ref>{{cite news |last=Kenneth |first=Chang |date=13 March 2011 |title=Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S. and Alters Earth’s Spin |url= http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14seismic.html?_r=1 |publisher=Nytimes.com}}</ref>
 
 
===Aftershocks===
 
{{further|List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake}}
 
 
Japan has experienced over 1000 aftershocks since the earthquake, with 80 registering over magnitude 6.0&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub> and several of which have been over magnitude 7.0&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub>. A magnitude 7.4&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub> at 15:08(JST), 7.9&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub> at 15:15 and a 7.7&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub> quake at 15:26 all occurred on 11 March.<ref>[http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0002ksa/ Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN] {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MxQDPs|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[[List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake]]</ref> A month later, a [[April 2011 Miyagi earthquake|major aftershock]] struck offshore on 7 April with a magnitude of 7.1&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub>. Its epicenter was underwater, 66&nbsp;km (41&nbsp;mi) off the coast of Sendai. The [[Japan Meteorological Agency]] assigned a magnitude of 7.4 M<sub>JMA</sub>, while the [[U.S. Geological Survey]] lowered it to 7.1 M<sub>w</sub>.<ref>{{cite news|last=The CNN Wire Staff|title=Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan|url=http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/04/07/japan.quake/index.html?hpt=T1&iref=BN1|publisher=CNN|accessdate=7 April 2011|date=7 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xpZoe7C3 | archivedate=9 April 2011| deadurl=no| date=8 April 2011}}</ref> At least four people were killed, and electricity was cut off across much of northern Japan including the loss of external power to [[Higashidōri Nuclear Power Plant]] and [[Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/world/230989/four-dead-as-new-tremor-hits-japan-disaster-zone |title=Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone |work=Bangkok Post |date=8 April 2011 |accessdate=8 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2011/fukushima070411.html Fukushima Nuclear Accident Update Log], [[IAEA]], 7 April 2011 {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aBJR1u|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[[NHK]], "Strong aftershock kills four", 12 April 2011.</ref> Four days later on 11 April, another [[April 2011 Fukushima earthquake|magnitude 7.1 M<sub>w</sub> aftershock]] struck Fukushima, causing additional damage and killing a total of three people.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usc0002n9v.php |title=Magnitude 6.6 – EASTERN HONSHU, JAPAN |publisher=Earthquake.usgs.gov |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014632/http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usc0002n9v.php| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-11/world/japan.quake_1_fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-plant-tsunami-quake|title=At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake|publisher=[[CNN World News]]|author=CNN Wire Staff|date=11 April 2011|accessdate=23 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110602012159/http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-11/world/japan.quake_1_fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-plant-tsunami-quake| archivedate= 2 June 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> On 7 December 2012 a [[2012 Kamaishi earthquake|large aftershock of magnitude 7.3&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub>]] caused a minor tsunami, and again on 26 October 2013 small tsunami waves were recorded after a 7.1&nbsp;M<sub>w</sub> aftershock.<ref>http://www.asahi.com/articles/TKY201310250777.html</ref>
 
 
As of 16 Mar 2012 aftershocks continued, totaling 1887 events over magnitude 4.0; a regularly updated map showing all shocks of magnitude 4.5 and above near or off the east coast of Honshu in the last seven days<ref>{{cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Maps/10/140_35.php |title=USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over |publisher=Earthquake.usgs.gov |date=2 December 2009 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014636/http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Maps/10/140_35.php| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> showed over 20 events.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/honshu_11mar2011.shtml |title=Tohoku, Japan 2011 Tsunami |publisher=ngdc.noaa.gov |date= |accessdate=22 August 2013}}</ref>
 
As of 6 December 2013 there have been a total of 776 aftershocks of 5.0M or greater, 112 of 6.0M or greater, and 8 over 7.0 M as reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency.<ref>http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/2011_03_11_tohoku/aftershock/</ref>
 
 
The number of aftershocks was associated with decreased health across Japan.<ref>Sugimoto T, Shinozaki T, Miyamoto Y Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31 URL: http://www.i-jmr.org/2013/2/e31/ doi: 10.2196/ijmr.2585</ref>
 
 
==Tsunami==
 
[[File:2011Sendai-NOAA-Energylhvpd9-05.jpg|thumb|Energy map of the tsunami from [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|NOAA]]]]
 
 
An upthrust of 6 to 8&nbsp;meters along a 180-km wide seabed at 60&nbsp;km offshore from the east coast of Tōhoku,<ref>NHK BS News reported 2011-04-03-02:55 JST</ref> resulted in a major [[tsunami]] that brought destruction along the [[Pacific Ocean|Pacific]] coastline of Japan's northern islands. Thousands of lives were lost when entire towns were devastated. The tsunami propagated throughout the Pacific Ocean region reaching the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from [[Alaska]] to [[Chile]]. Warnings were issued and evacuations carried out in many countries bordering the Pacific. However, while the tsunami affected many of these places, the extent was minor.<ref name="a2">{{cite web|url=http://www.weather.gov/ptwc/text.php?id=pacific.2011.03.11.073000|title=Tsunami bulletin number 3|publisher=Pacific Tsunami Warning Center/NOAA/NWS|date=11 March 2011|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOkrlRB | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="a3">{{cite news|author=Wire Staff |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/11/tsunami.warning/index.html |title=Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake|publisher=CNN |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7ZhqeGg | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="a4">{{cite web| url= http://www.weather.gov/ptwc/text.php?id=pacific.2011.03.11.103059 |title=PTWC warnings complete list |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xtOl9IMr | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Chile's Pacific coast, one of the furthest from Japan at about 17,000&nbsp;km (11,000&nbsp;mi) distant, was struck by waves 2&nbsp;m (6.6&nbsp;ft) high,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mapcrow.info/cgi-bin/cities_distance_airpt2.cgi?city3=-1303908%2CD&city4=-367975%2CS |title=Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km |publisher=Mapcrow.info |date=23 October 2007 |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MyHOLX | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Attwood |first=James |url=http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-12/chile-maintains-tsunami-warning-no-major-damage-reported-1-.html |title=Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves |publisher=Bloomberg |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x9TDnE6z | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no | date=12 March 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.publimetro.cl/nota/mundo/marejadas-ingresaron-entre-70-y-100-metros-en-varias-zonas-del-pais/xIQkcl!9ReTs79Sw66U/ |title=Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100&nbsp;m in different parts of the country |publisher=Publimetro.cl |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8nBYA6I | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> compared with an estimated wave height of 38.9&nbsp;meters (128&nbsp;ft) at Omoe peninsula, Miyako city, Japan.<ref name="yomiuri"/>
 
 
===Japan===
 
The tsunami warning issued by the [[Japan Meteorological Agency]] was the most serious on its warning scale; it rated as a "major tsunami", being at least 3&nbsp;m (9.8&nbsp;ft) high.<ref>[http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/eng/fig/tsunamiinfo.html Tsunami Warning System information], ''Japan Meteorological Agency'' {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MyfVnC|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> The actual height prediction varied, the greatest being for Miyagi at 6&nbsp;m (20&nbsp;ft) high.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.jma.go.jp/en/tsunami/info_04_20110311145026.html|title=Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)|date=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2Myu8dF | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately {{convert|561|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} in Japan.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000059939.pdf | title=津波による浸水範囲の面積(概略値)について(第5報)|publisher=Geospatial Information Authority in Japan(国土地理院) |language=Japanese|date=18 April 2011|format=PDF|accessdate=20 June 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110623011856/http://www.gsi.go.jp/common/000059939.pdf| archivedate= 23 June 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:2011-Sendai-Tsunami-DART-21413-AB.png|thumb|left|Water column height on 11 March 2011 at [[Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis|DART]] Station, 690 NM Southeast of Tokyo]]
 
 
The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST (GMT 6:46) around 67&nbsp;km (42&nbsp;mi) from the nearest point on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would have taken 10 to 30&nbsp;minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then areas farther north and south based on the geography of the coastline.<ref>One estimate of 10–15&nbsp;minutes came from German seismologist Rainer Kind of the Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, as interviewed in [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,14904863,00.html Japan's tsunami victims only had 15&nbsp;minutes warning], ''[[Deutsche Welle]]'', 12 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MzHfxC|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Another estimate of 15–30&nbsp;minutes came from Vasily V. Titov, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Center for Tsunami Research, as reported in [http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/tsunami-hit-japan-struggles-to-reach-survivors-hundreds-dead-91156 Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300], NDTV-hosted copy of an article by Martin Fackler, ''[[The New York Times]]'', 12 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2MzspxQ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> Just over an hour after the earthquake at 15:55 JST, a tsunami was observed flooding [[Sendai Airport]], which is located near the coast of [[Miyagi Prefecture]],<ref name="AVH1">{{cite web|url=http://avherald.com/h?article=43928907&opt=0 |title=News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered |publisher=Avherald.com |date=6 July 2001 |accessdate=11 March 2011}}</ref><ref name="10m">{{Cite news|author=Kyodo News |url=http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20110311x4.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111026194858/http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20110311x4.html|archivedate=2011-10-26|title=10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref.|date=11 March 2011|work=[[The Japan Times]] Online |accessdate=12 March 2012}}</ref> with waves sweeping away cars and planes and flooding various buildings as they traveled inland.<ref name="nhk-english-stream">{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/r0/high.asx|title= World English|accessdate=12 March 2011|date=12 March 2011|publisher=NHK| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N15e9F | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="heraldsun1">{{Cite news|url=http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/japan-on-tsunami-alert-after-another-quake/story-e6frf7jo-1226019884379|title=Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami|work=Herald Sun |location=Australia|agency=Associated Press|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N2qupV | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The impact of the tsunami in and around Sendai Airport was filmed by an [[NHK]] News helicopter, showing a number of vehicles on local roads trying to escape the approaching wave and being engulfed by it.<ref>NHK News, ~16:00 JST.</ref> A 4&nbsp;m high tsunami hit [[Iwate Prefecture]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.en.rian.ru/natural/20110311/162955012.html|title=Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan|date=11 March 2011|work=rian.ru|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N3oO2o | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Wakabayashi-ku, Sendai|Wakabayashi Ward]] in Sendai was also particularly hard hit.<ref>"Earthquake", ''Japan Times'', 19 March 2011, p. 16.</ref> At least 101 designated tsunami evacuation sites were hit by the wave.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110414a4.html Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 14 April 2011, p. 1. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N6jIhi|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Like the [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami]], the damage by surging water, though much more localized, was far more deadly and destructive than the actual quake. There were reports of entire towns destroyed from tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in [[Minamisanriku, Miyagi|Minamisanriku]];<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.kyodonews.jp/news/2011/03/77165.html |title=9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't |agency=Kyodo News |accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVaNHwLr|archivedate=27 March 2011}}</ref> one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110315a2.html 2,000 more added to death toll in Miyagi]", ''Japan Times'', 15 March 2011, p. 1. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xCShPBai|date=15 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Among several factors causing the high death toll from the tsunami, one was the unexpectedly large size of the water surge. The tsunami walls at several of the affected cities were based on much smaller tsunami heights. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought that they were located on high enough ground to be safe.<ref>Watts, Jonathan, "Quake survivors search for hope and shelter", ''Japan Times'', 26 March 2011, p. 13.</ref>
 
 
[[File:SendaiAirportMarch16.jpg|thumb|left|Tsunami flooding on the [[Sendai Airport]] runway]]
 
 
Large parts of [[Kuji]] and the southern section of [[Ōfunato]] including the port area were almost entirely destroyed<ref>Tritten, Travis, J., and T. D. Flack, "[http://www.stripes.com/news/pacific/earthquake-disaster-in-japan/u-s-rescue-teams-find-devastation-in-northern-city-of-ofunato-1.137784 U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato]", Stars and Stripes (newspaper), 15 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xDIVD5tm|date=15 March 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110312004789.htm |title=Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen |publisher=Yomiuri |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N7iOj8 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Also largely destroyed was [[Rikuzentakata, Iwate|Rikuzentakata]], where the tsunami was reportedly three stories high.<ref>Staff Reporter (12 March 2011) [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1365397/Wiped-map-The-moment-apocalyptic-tsunami-waves-drown-sleepy-coast-town.html?ito=feeds-newsxml "Wiped off the map: The moment apocalyptic tsunami waves drown a sleepy coast town"]. www.dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N8XJ2a|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.rtl.nl/(/actueel/rtlnieuws/buitenland/)/components/actueel/rtlnieuws/2011/03_maart/12/buitenland/honderden-doden-in-japanse-kuststad.xml "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch)]. www.rtlnieuws.nl. Retrieved 12 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2N8ymQH|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/Japanarmysays300-400bodiesfoundinRikuzentakata_Report/Article/ |title=Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report |publisher=Nst.com.my |date=3 February 2011 |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2eWPcEX | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=yes}}</ref> Other cities reportedly destroyed or heavily damaged by the tsunami include [[Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi]], [[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]], [[Ōtsuchi, Iwate|Ōtsuchi]], and [[Yamada, Iwate|Yamada]] (in Iwate Prefecture), [[Namie, Fukushima|Namie]], [[Sōma, Fukushima|Sōma]] and [[Minamisōma, Fukushima|Minamisōma]] (in Fukushima Prefecture) and [[Shichigahama, Miyagi|Shichigahama]], [[Higashimatsushima, Miyagi|Higashimatsushima]], [[Onagawa, Miyagi|Onagawa]], [[Natori, Miyagi|Natori]], [[Ishinomaki, Miyagi|Ishinomaki]], and [[Kesennuma, Miyagi|Kesennuma]] (in Miyagi Prefecture).<ref>Martin, Alex, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110407f1.html JET post best, not 'pityfest']", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 7 April 2011, p. 3. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xkhJ6kRS|date=6 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Kyodo News, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110318a7.html Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory]", ''Japan Times'', 18 March 2011, p. 3. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aFTxnf|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Kyodo News, "Deaths, people missing set to top 1,600: Edano", ''Japan Times'', 13 March 2011.</ref><ref>Kyodo News, "Survivors in trauma after life-changing nightmare day", ''Japan Times'', 13 March 2011, p. 2.</ref><ref>Kyodo News, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110314a3.html Death toll may surpass 10,000 in Miyagi]", ''Japan Times'', 14 March 2011, p. 1. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aGCWAy|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Alabaster, Jay, and Todd Pitman, ([[Associated Press]]), "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110315a8.html Hardships, suffering in earthquake zone]", ''Japan Times'', 15 March 2011, p. 3. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aGzEyZ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Gihooly, Rob, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fl20110320x1.html 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this'], ''Japan Times'', 20 March 2011, p. 7. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aHpdWK|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-km (420&nbsp;mi)-long stretch of coastline from [[Erimo, Hokkaido]], in the north to [[Ōarai, Ibaraki]], in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake.<ref>Stuart Biggs and Aaron Sheldrick (11 March 2011). [http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-11/tokyo-buildings-shaken-by-7-9-earthquake-highest-tsunami-warning-issued.html Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds], ''Bloomberg.com''. Retrieved 12 March 2012.</ref> Near Ōarai, people captured images of a huge [[whirlpool]] that had been generated by the tsunami.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/8385237/Japan-disaster-30-powerful-images-of-the-earthquake-and-tsunami.html?image=4|work=The Daily Telegraph |location=London |title=Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aIu9yT | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no | date=16 March 2011}}</ref> The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents.<ref>Kyodo News, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110319a5.html Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster]", ''Japan Times'', 19 March 2011, p. 2. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aJdpV4|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> A two meter high tsunami hit [[Chiba Prefecture]] about 2 1/2 hours after the quake, causing heavy damage to cities such as [[Asahi, Chiba|Asahi]].<ref>Fukue, Natsuko, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110330f1.html Tsunami came late to unprepared Chiba]", ''Japan Times'', 30 March 2011, p. 2. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aKHwIL|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
On 13 March 2011, the [[Japan Meteorological Agency]] (JMA) published details of tsunami observations recorded around the coastline of Japan following the earthquake. These observations included tsunami maximum readings of over 3&nbsp;m (9.8&nbsp;ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46 JST:<ref>[http://www.jma.go.jp/en/tsunami/observation_04_20110313180559.html Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation)], Japan Meteorological Agency, issued 18:05 JST 13 March 2011, Retrieved 14 March 2011. The Iwate Kamaishi-oki reading was obtained by GPS wave meter. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aL5KwV|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
* 15:12 JST – off [[Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi]] – 6.8&nbsp;m (22&nbsp;ft)
 
* 15:15 JST – [[Ōfunato]] – 3.2&nbsp;m (10&nbsp;ft) or higher
 
* 15:20 JST – [[Ishinomaki, Miyagi|Ishinomaki-shi Ayukawa]] – 3.3&nbsp;m (11&nbsp;ft) or higher
 
* 15:21 JST – [[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]] – 4.0&nbsp;m (13.1&nbsp;ft) or higher
 
* 15:21 JST – [[Kamaishi]] – 4.1&nbsp;m (13&nbsp;ft) or higher
 
* 15:44 JST – [[Erimo, Hokkaido|Erimo-cho Shoya]] – 3.5&nbsp;m (11&nbsp;ft)
 
* 15:50 JST – [[Sōma, Fukushima|Sōma]] – 7.3&nbsp;m (24&nbsp;ft) or higher
 
* 16:52 JST – [[Ōarai]] – 4.2&nbsp;m (14&nbsp;ft)
 
 
Many areas were also affected by waves of 1 to 3&nbsp;meters (3.3 to 9.8&nbsp;ft) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the caveat that ''"At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites."'' The timing of the earliest recorded tsunami maximum readings ranged from 15:12 to 15:21, between 26 and 35&nbsp;minutes after the earthquake had struck. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunami waves.<ref>[http://www.jma.go.jp/en/tsunami/observation_2_04_20110313180559.html Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation)], Japan Meteorological Agency, issued 18:05 JST 13 March 2011, Retrieved 14 March 2011. (Tohoku district.) {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aLTaiJ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.jma.go.jp/en/tsunami/observation_3_04_20110313180559.html Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation)], Japan Meteorological Agency, issued 18:05 JST 13 March 2011, Retrieved 14 March 2011. (Kanto/Chubu district.) {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aLo8ue|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
JMA also reported offshore tsunami height recorded by [[telemetry]] from [[Mooring (watercraft)|moored]] [[GPS]] wave height meter buoys as follows:<ref>[http://www.jma.go.jp/en/tsunami/observation_04_20110313180559.html "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)"] ''Japan Meteorological Agency''. Retrieved 12 March 2012.</ref>
 
* offshore of central [[Iwate Prefecture|Iwate]] ([[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]]) – 6.3&nbsp;m (20&nbsp;ft)
 
* offshore of northern [[Iwate Prefecture|Iwate]] ([[Kuji]]) – 6.0&nbsp;m (18&nbsp;ft)
 
* offshore of northern [[Miyagi Prefecture|Miyagi]] ([[Kesennuma]]) – 6.0&nbsp;m (18&nbsp;ft)
 
 
On 25 March 2011, Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) reported tsunami height by visiting the port sites as follows:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pari.go.jp/en/files/items/3496/File/20110325.pdf|title=Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake |date=25 March 2011|publisher=Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI)|location=Yokosuka, Japan|accessdate=12 March 2012|author=行政情報システム室|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6HtqnJI5j|archivedate=2013-07-05|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:20110311Houshu.ogg|thumb|[[NOAA]] animation of the tsunami's propagation]]
 
 
* [[Port of Hachinohe]] – 5–6&nbsp;m (16–19&nbsp;ft)
 
* Port of Hachinohe area – 8–9&nbsp;m (26–29&nbsp;ft)
 
* Port of [[Kuji, Iwate|Kuji]] – 8–9&nbsp;m (26–29&nbsp;ft)
 
* Port of [[Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi]] – 7–9&nbsp;m (23–30&nbsp;ft)
 
* Port of [[Ōfunato, Iwate|Ōfunato]] – 9.5&nbsp;m (31&nbsp;ft)
 
* Run up height, port of [[Ōfunato, Iwate|Ōfunato]] area – 24&nbsp;m (79&nbsp;ft)
 
* Fishery port of [[Onagawa, Miyagi|Onagawa]] – 15&nbsp;m (50&nbsp;ft)
 
* Port of [[Ishinomaki, Miyagi|Ishinomaki]] – 5&nbsp;m (16&nbsp;ft)
 
* Shiogama section of [[Shiogama, Miyagi|Shiogama]]-[[Sendai]] port – 4&nbsp;m (13&nbsp;ft)
 
* Sendai section of Shiogama-Sendai port – 8&nbsp;m (26&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Sendai Airport]] area – 12&nbsp;m (39&nbsp;ft)
 
 
A joint research team from [[Yokohama National University]] and the [[University of Tokyo]] also reported that the tsunami at Ryōri Bay (綾里白浜), Ōfunato was about 30&nbsp;m high. They found fishing equipment scattered on the high cliff above the bay.<ref name="ofunato">{{cite web|title=Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/daily/english/30_03.html|publisher=NHK|accessdate=29 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xgge4dkh | archivedate=4 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> At [[Tarō, Iwate]], a University of Tokyo researcher reported an estimated tsunami height of 37.9&nbsp;m (124&nbsp;ft) reached the slope of a mountain some 200&nbsp;m (656&nbsp;ft) away from the [[coast]]line.<ref name="38-meter">{{cite news|url=http://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=2157227&language=en|agency=Kyodo News |publisher=''Kuwait News Agency (KUNA)'' |date=4 April 2011|title=38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey|accessdate=13 March 2012|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6HtqoCwu3|archivedate=2013-07-05|deadurl=no}}</ref> Also, at slope of nearby mountain from 400&nbsp;m (1,312&nbsp;ft) Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in [[Miyako, Iwate]], [[Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology]] found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9&nbsp;m (127&nbsp;ft).<ref name="yomiuri"/> This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2&nbsp;m (125&nbsp;ft) from the [[1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://outreach.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/eqvolc/201103_tohoku/#koboriuchi|title=宮古市田老小堀内漁港での津波遡上高|date=3 April 2011|publisher=[[Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo]]|language=Japanese|trans_title =Tsunami run up height at Miyako city, Taro Koborinai fishing port| accessdate=4 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aNqnv8 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133&nbsp;ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. The inundated areas closely matched those of the [[869 Jogan Sanriku earthquake|869 Sanriku tsunami]].<ref>Yoshida, Reiji, "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120311a1.html 869 Tohoku tsunami parallels stun]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 11 March 2012, p. 1.</ref>
 
 
A Japanese government study found that only 58% of people in coastal areas in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures heeded tsunami warnings immediately after the quake and headed for higher ground. Of those who attempted to evacuate after hearing the warning, only five percent were caught in the tsunami. Of those who didn't heed the warning, 49% were hit by the water.<ref>[[Jiji Press]], "42% didn't immediately flee tsunami", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 18 August 2011, p. 2.</ref>
 
 
===Elsewhere across the Pacific===
 
[[File:Midway bonin petrel 2011 tsunami.jpg|thumb|A [[Bonin Petrel]] trapped in the sand on [[Midway Atoll]] by the tsunami, before being rescued.]]
 
Shortly after the earthquake, the [[Pacific Tsunami Warning Center]] (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. At 07:30 UTC, PTWC issued a widespread tsunami warning covering the entire Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.staradvertiser.com/news/breaking/117783848.html|title=Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says|date=11 March 2011|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aNwJDv | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/tsunami_msgs/HEBTSUPAC.201103110932|title=Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning|accessdate=13 March 2011|date=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aPN3r1 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Russia]] evacuated 11,000 residents from coastal areas of the [[Kuril Islands]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|title=Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands |url=http://www.1310news.com/news/world/article/195950--tsunami-from-japanese-quake-prompts-evacuation-of-11-000-residents-on-russia-s-pacific-islands|accessdate=13 March 2012|agency=The Associated Press|publisher=''1310News.com''|date=11 March 2011}}</ref> The United States [[National Tsunami Warning Center]] issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas in most of [[California]], all of [[Oregon]], and the western part of [[Alaska]], and a tsunami advisory covering the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of [[Washington state|Washington]] and [[British Columbia]], Canada.<ref name="noaa6">{{cite web|title=Tsunami Warning and Advisory No.&nbsp;7 issued 03/11/2011 at 3:39&nbsp;am PST|url=http://ntwc.arh.noaa.gov/2011/03/11/lhvpd9/07/messagelhvpd9-07.htm|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aPSHnh | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="bctsunami">{{Cite news|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2011/03/11/tsunami-warnings-bc.html?ref=rss |title=B.C. tsunami threat passes |publisher=CBC |location=Canada |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aPYw8r | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> In [[California]] and [[Oregon]], up to 2.4&nbsp;m (8&nbsp;ft) high tsunami surges hit some areas, damaging docks and harbors and causing over US$10&nbsp;million in damage.<ref>Helen Jung and Jeff Manning, "Waves bring destruction to Oregon's south coast", ''The Oregonian'', 12 March 2011, p. 1+</ref> In [[Curry County, Oregon]] $7&nbsp;million in damages occurred including the destruction of {{convert|1100|m|abbr=on}} of dockspace at the [[Brookings, Oregon|Brookings]] harbor; the county has received over $1&nbsp;million in [[Federal Emergency Management Agency|FEMA]] emergency grants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ktvz.com/oregon-northwest/28204273/detail.html |title=$1.2M FEMA Tsunami Grant To Ore.'s Curry County – Oregon – Northwest News Story – KTVZ Bend |publisher=Ktvz.com |date=9 July 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014649/http://www.ktvz.com/oregon-northwest/28204273/detail.html| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Surges of up to 1&nbsp;m (3.3&nbsp;ft) hit [[Vancouver Island]] in Canada<ref name="bctsunami" /> prompting some evacuations, and causing boats to be banned from the waters surrounding the island for 12 hours following the wave strike, leaving many island residents in the area without means of getting to work.<ref>[http://www.couriermail.com.au/ipad/twilight-tsunami-evacuattion/story-fn6cc53j-1226021294350 Twilight tsunami evacuation]. Courier Mail (2011-03-14). Retrieved on 2011-04-03. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aPvqSQ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>Girl, Bowen. (2011-03-16) [http://bowendiaries.blogspot.com/2011/03/japan.html Diary of a Bowen girl: Japan]. Bowendiaries.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-03. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aQqch0|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Boats left nearby the 'costanera' for safety in Pichilemu, March 11, 2011.jpg|thumb|left|Fishing boats moved to higher ground in anticipation of tsunami arrival, in [[Pichilemu]], Chile]]
 
In the [[Philippines]], waves up to 0.5&nbsp;m (1.6&nbsp;ft) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. Some houses along the coast in Jayapura, Indonesia were destroyed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/03/12/tsunami-destroys-houses-jayapura.html |title=Tsunami destroys houses in Jayapura |work=The Jakarta Post |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8nZ4NKe | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Authorities in [[Wewak]], [[East Sepik]], Papua New Guinea evacuated 100 patients from the city's Boram Hospital before it was hit by the waves, causing an estimated US$4&nbsp;million in damages.<ref name="abcaus">{{Cite news|title=PNG's Wewak hospital damaged by tsunami waves |url=http://www.radioaustralianews.net.au/story.htm?id=38078|work=[[Australian Broadcasting Corporation]] |date=16 March 2011 |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aR4SvC | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Hawaii estimated damage to public infrastructure alone at US$3&nbsp;million, with damage to private properties, including resort hotels such as [[Four Seasons Resort Hualalai]], estimated at tens of millions of dollars.<ref name="Hawaii Star 1">Nakaso, Dan (14 March 2011)[http://www.staradvertiser.com/news/breaking/117965429.html Tsunami damage estimate for Hawaii now tens of millions] ''Star Advertiser''. Retrieved 15 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xCXcRJTq|date=15 March 2011}}</ref> It was reported that a 1.5&nbsp;m (5&nbsp;ft) high wave completely submerged [[Midway Atoll|Midway Atoll's]] reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting [[seabirds]] at the [[Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge]].<ref name=cnnmarch19>{{Cite news|title=Tsunami washes away feathered victims west of Hawaii |url=http://www.cnn.com/2011/US/03/18/tsunami.birds.deaths/?hpt=C2|publisher=CNN |date=19 March 2011 |accessdate=19 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aSZldy | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Some other South Pacific countries, including [[Tonga]] and New Zealand, and U.S. territories [[American Samoa]] and [[Guam]], experienced larger-than-normal waves, but did not report any major damage.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.staradvertiser.com/news/breaking/117828543.html#|title=South Pacific islands hit by tsunami swells|date=11 March 2011|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aT3dXN | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> However in Guam some roads were closed off and people were evacuated from low-lying areas.<ref>[http://www.pacificnewscenter.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12303:tsunami-warning-for-guam-pushed-back-to-11-pm&catid=45:guam-news&Itemid=156 Tsunami Warning For Guam Extended Until 11 p.m]. Pacificnewscenter.com (2011-03-11). Retrieved on 2011-04-03. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aTpgDk|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Along the Pacific Coast of [[Mexico]] and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage.<ref name="channelnewsasia1">[http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1116127/1/.html Minor damage in Latin America by Japan's tsunami], channelnewsasia.com, 13 March 2011</ref> Peru reported a wave of 1.5&nbsp;m (5&nbsp;ft) and more than 300 homes damaged.<ref name="channelnewsasia1" /> The surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses,<ref>(Spanish) [http://www.ansa.it/ansalatina/notizie/notiziari/chile/20110313183235232122.html Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas]{{dead link|date=July 2013|bot=WebCiteBOT}}. ANSA Latina. 13 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aUajHQ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> with waves of up to 3&nbsp;m (9.8&nbsp;ft).<ref>(Spanish) [http://www.biobiochile.cl/2011/03/12/caldera-80-viviendas-resultaron-destruidas-en-puerto-viejo-tras-subida-de-mar.shtml Caldera: 80 viviendas resultaron destruidas en Puerto Viejo por efecto de las olas]. Radio Bio-Bio. 3/12/2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aVG5Xu|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>(Spanish) [http://diario.latercera.com/2011/03/13/01/contenido/otros/12-62305-9-mas-de-200-casas-danadas-dejo-seguidilla-de-olas-que-azotaron-las-costas.shtml Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas que azotaron las costas chilenas] La Tercera. 3/12/2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aVuHGY|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> In the [[Galápagos Islands]], 260 families received assistance following a 3&nbsp;m (9.8&nbsp;ft) surge which arrived 20 hours after the earthquake, after the tsunami warning had been lifted.<ref name="NBR_88155">{{cite web |url=http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/gareth-morgans-galapagos-hotel-destroyed-tsunami-ck-88155 |title=Gareth Morgan's Galapagos hotel destroyed by tsunami |author=Keall, Chris |date=13 March 2011 |work=[[National Business Review]] |accessdate=15 September 2011 |archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xDmAc8LQ | archivedate=16 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|title=Ecuador Sends Aid To Galapagos After Islands Hit By Tsunami From Japan|url=http://latindispatch.com/2011/03/15/ecuador-sends-aid-to-galapagos-after-islands-hit-by-tsunami-from-japan/|accessdate=17 March 2011|newspaper=LATIN AMERICA NEWS DISPATCH|date=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aXFEsJ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities.<ref name="NBR_88155"/><ref>[http://www.galapagos.org/2008/index.php?id=287 Tsunami Aftermath in Galapagos: Update from CDRS' Director Dr. J. Gabriel Lopez]{{dead link|date=July 2013|bot=WebCiteBOT}}. Galapagos.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-03. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xCKVxpDE|date=15 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:TsunamiDebrisWatch.JPG|thumb|A sign informing beachgoers about proper tsunami debris disposal procedures at [[Cape Lookout (Oregon)|Cape Lookout State Park]], [[Oregon]], USA]]
 
 
The tsunami broke [[iceberg]]s off the [[Sulzberger Ice Shelf]] in [[Antarctica]], {{convert|13000|km|mi}} away. The main iceberg measured {{convert|9.5|x|6.5|km|mi}} (approximately the area of [[Manhattan Island]]) and about {{convert|80|m|ft}} thick. A total of {{convert|125|km2|sqmi acre}} of ice broke away.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMV87JTPQG_index_0.html|title=Japan tsunami caused icebergs to break off in Antarctica|publisher=European Space Agency|date=9 August 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last=Brunt|first=Kelly M.|author2=Emile A. Okal and Douglas R. MacAyeal|title=Antarctic ice-shelf calving triggered by the Honshu (Japan) earthquake and tsunami, March 2011|journal=Journal of Glaciology |publisher=International Glaciological Society|date=1 October 2011|volume=57|issue=205|pages=785–788|url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/igsoc/jog/2011/00000057/00000205/art00001|accessdate=13 March 2012|bibcode = 2011JGlac..57..785B |doi = 10.3189/002214311798043681 }} (fee required for full article)</ref>
 
 
As of April 2012, wreckage from the tsunami spread around the oceans, including a [[soccer]] ball which was found in Alaska<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2012/04/23/MNC51O7MBK.DTL Japan tsunami victim's soccer ball found in Alaska] 24 April 2012. [[Associated Press]]</ref> and a Japanese motorcycle found in British Columbia, Canada.<ref>{{cite news|author=Posted: May 1, 2012 11:32 AM PT |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2012/05/01/bc-tsunami-motorcycle-owner.html |title=Tsunami motorcycle owner located in Japan |publisher=Cbc.ca |date=1 May 2012 |accessdate=22 August 2013}}</ref>
 
 
== Land subsidence ==
 
[[File:Subsidence in Shin-Urayasu Sta after 2011 Sendai earthquake.JPG|thumb|Land subsidence and soil liquefaction at [[Shin-Urayasu Station]] in [[Urayasu, Chiba]], near [[Tokyo]]]]
 
 
The [[Geospatial Information Authority of Japan]] reported land [[subsidence]] based on the height of [[triangulation station]]s in the area measured by [[Global Positioning System|GPS]] as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gsi.go.jp/sokuchikijun/sokuchikijun40003.html|title=平成23年(2011年)東北地方太平洋沖地震に伴う地盤沈下調査|date=14 April 2011|publisher=[[Geospatial Information Authority of Japan]]|language=Japanese|trans_title=Land subsidence caused by 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami|accessdate=13 March 2012| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aXoLUW | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
* [[Miyako, Iwate]] – 0.50&nbsp;m (1.64&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Yamada, Iwate]] – 0.53&nbsp;m (1.73&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Ōtsuchi, Iwate]] – 0.35&nbsp;m (1.14&nbsp;ft)<ref name=yumi20110415-p33 />
 
* [[Kamaishi, Iwate]] – 0.66&nbsp;m (2.16&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Ōfunato, Iwate]] – 0.73&nbsp;m (2.39&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Rikuzentakata, Iwate]] – 0.84&nbsp;m (2.75&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Kesennuma, Miyagi]] – 0.74&nbsp;m (2.42&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Minamisanriku, Miyagi]] – 0.69&nbsp;m (2.26&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Oshika Peninsula]], [[Miyagi Prefecture|Miyagi]] – 1.2&nbsp;m (3.93&nbsp;ft)<ref name=yumi20110415-p33>Values announced from [[Geospatial Information Authority of Japan]], news report by [[Yomiuri Shimbun]] 2011-04-15 ver. 13S page 33</ref>
 
* [[Ishinomaki, Miyagi]] – 0.78&nbsp;m (2.55&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Higashimatsushima, Miyagi]] – 0.43&nbsp;m (1.41&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Iwanuma, Miyagi]] – 0.47&nbsp;m (1.54&nbsp;ft)
 
* [[Sōma, Fukushima]] – 0.29&nbsp;m (0.95&nbsp;ft)
 
 
Scientists say that the subsidence is permanent. As a result, the communities in question are now more susceptible to flooding during high tides.<ref>Alabaster, Jay (9 May 2011). [http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=13559508#.T1-B58Uu15Y "Quake Shifted Japan; Towns Now Flood at High Tide"], Associated Press, ''[[ABC News]]''. Retrieved 13 March 2012.</ref>
 
 
==Casualties==
 
[[File:Signpost of prayer and wish.JPG|thumb|Memorials amongst the ruins, Natori]]
 
 
The [[National Police Agency (Japan)|National Police Agency]] has confirmed {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties dead}} {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties injured}} and {{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami casualties missing}} across twenty [[Prefectures of Japan|prefectures]].<ref name="npajproperty"/>
 
 
Of the 13,135 fatalities recovered by 11 April 2011, 12,143 or 92.5% died by drowning. Victims aged 60 or older accounted for 65.2% of the deaths, with 24% of total victims being in their 70s.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110421a5.html 90% of disaster casualties drowned]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 21 April 2011, p. 2.</ref> As of March 2012, Japanese police data showed that 70% of the 3,279 still missing were aged 60 or over, including 893 in their 70s and 577 in their 80s. Of the total confirmed victims, 14,308 drowned, 667 were crushed to death or died from internal injuries, and 145 perished from burns.<ref>[[Jiji Press]], "70% of missing aged 60 and older", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 8 March 2012, p. 2.</ref>
 
 
[[File:2011 Earthquake and Tsunami near Sendai, Japan.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Tsunami damage between Sendai and Sendai Bay.]]
 
 
[[Save the Children]] reports that as many as 100,000 children were uprooted from their homes, some of whom were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/15/japan-earthquake-children-displaced-charity |title=Japan earthquake: 100,000 children displaced, says charity |last=McCurry |first=Justin |date=15 March 2011 |work=The Guardian |location=London |accessdate=15 March 2011 |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xD8JCtef |archivedate=15 March 2011 }}</ref> 236 children were orphaned in the prefectures of [[Iwate Prefecture|Iwate]], [[Miyagi Prefecture|Miyagi]] and [[Fukushima Prefecture|Fukushima]] by the disaster;<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110918a3.html More quake orphan benefits sought]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 18 September 2011, p. 1.</ref><ref>[[Agence France-Presse]]/[[Jiji Press]], "At least 82 children were orphaned by disaster, government says", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 10 April 2011, p. 2.</ref> 1,580 children lost either one or both parents,<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120223f1.html Grandparents stifle grief to raise orphaned boy]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 23 February 2012, p. 3.</ref> 846 in Miyagi, 572 in Iwate, and 162 in Fukushima.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120224f1.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+japantimes+(The+Japan+Times%3A+All+Stories) Tohoku teen feels guilt of being lone survivor]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 24 February 2012, p. 3.</ref> The quake and tsunami killed 378 elementary, middle-school, and high school students and left 158 others missing.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110429a4.html 378 students killed, 158 missing in disaster]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 29 April 2011, p. 2. The victims included 234 elementary, 111 junior high and 191 high school students. Direct quote: "Out of the 378 students confirmed dead, 273 were in Miyagi, 59 in Fukushima and 46 in Iwate. The list of missing students is made up of 74 in Miyagi, 52 in Iwate and 32 in Fukushima." As of 25 December 2011, 342 elementary and junior high school students were declared dead or missing ([[Kyodo News]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20111225a8.html 3/11 tsunami killed 35% of students 'saved' by parents]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 25 December 2011, p. 2.)</ref> One elementary school in [[Ishinomaki, Miyagi]], Okawa Elementary, lost 74 of 108 students and 10 of 13 teachers and staff.<ref>[[Associated Press]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110419f1.html Loss-staggered school reopens]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 19 April 2011, p. 3.</ref><ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110422a7.html Loss-hit Ishinomaki school opens]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 22 April 2011, p. 2.</ref><ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110429a1.html School that lost 70% of its pupils mourns]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 29 April 2011, p. 1.</ref>
 
 
The Japanese Foreign Ministry has confirmed the deaths of nineteen foreigners.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/japan-confirms-death-of-19-foreigners-in-march-11-quake-tsunami|title=Japan confirms death of 19 foreigners in March 11 quake, tsunami|date=5 April 2011|agency=Kyodo News |accessdate=7 April 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xmGEK8uK|archivedate=7 April 2011}}</ref> Among them are two English teachers from the United States affiliated with the [[JET Programme|Japan Exchange and Teaching Program]];<ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/04/06/japan.american.death/index.html|title=Body of second American found in Japan|date=7 April 2011|publisher=CNN|accessdate=7 April 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xmGLLVuj|archivedate=7 April 2011}}</ref> a Canadian missionary in [[Shiogama, Miyagi|Shiogama]];<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/Quebec+priest+killed+Japanese+tsunami/4432920/story.html|title=Quebec priest killed in Japanese tsunami|date=13 March 2011|work=[[The Gazette (Montreal)|The Gazette]]|accessdate=7 April 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xmGRgwnS|archivedate=7 April 2011}}</ref> and citizens of China, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Pakistan and the Philippines.
 
 
By 9:30 UTC on 11 March, [[Google Person Finder]], which was previously used in the [[2010 Haiti earthquake|Haitian]], [[2010 Chile earthquake|Chilean]], and [[2011 Christchurch earthquake|Christchurch, New Zealand]] earthquakes, was collecting information about survivors and their locations.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.pcworld.in/news/google-person-finder-japan-earthquaketsunami-launched-46662011|title=Google Person Finder for Japan Earthquake/Tsunami launched |last=Shinde|first=Jayesh|date=11 March 2011|work=[[PC World]]|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aZEQnI | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|title = Person finder|edition = Japan|url = http://japan.person-finder.appspot.com/?lang=en|publisher=Appspot| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7H1r1tA | archivedate=11 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[Next of kin|Next of Kin]] Registry ([[NOKR]]) is assisting the Japanese government in locating next of kin for those missing or deceased.<ref>{{cite web| title =Massive quake, tsunami slams Japan List Your Emergency Contacts find Family|url = http://www.prlog.org/11368072-massive-quake-tsunami-slams-japan-list-your-emergency-contacts-find-family.html| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aZggay | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
[[Japanese funeral]]s are normally elaborate Buddhist ceremonies which entail cremation. The thousands of bodies, however, exceeded the capacity of available [[crematorium]]s and [[morgue]]s, many of them damaged,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/24/world/asia/24burial.html?pagewanted=all|title=As Tsunami Robbed Life, It Also Robs Rite of Death|last=Wines|first=Michael|date=23 March 2011|work=The New York Times|accessdate=11 April 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xrN1uEXO|archivedate=11 April 2011}}</ref><ref name="nishikawa20110323">{{cite news|url=http://af.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idAFTRE72M1JF20110323?sp=true|title=Quake-ravaged Japan digs mass graves|accessdate=27 March 2011|author=Nishikawa, Yoko|date=23 March 2011|agency=Reuters | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aZoQnL | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and there were shortages of both kerosene—each cremation requires 50&nbsp;liters—and [[dry ice]] for preservation.<ref name="allen20110324">{{cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8398419/Japan-earthquake-country-begins-burying-dead-in-mass-graves.html|title=Japan earthquake: country begins burying dead in mass graves|accessdate=27 March 2011|author=Allen, Nick|date=24 March 2011|work=The Daily Telegraph |location=London | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aa3auN | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The single crematorium in [[Higashimatsushima, Miyagi|Higashimatsushima]], for example, could only handle four bodies a day, although hundreds were found there.<ref name="wines20110324">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/24/world/asia/24burial.html?src=me&pagewanted=all|title=As Tsunami Robbed Life, It Also Robs Rite of Death|accessdate=27 March 2011|author=Wines, Michael|date=24 March 2011|work=The New York Times|pages=A12| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110331005017/http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/24/world/asia/24burial.html?src=me&pagewanted=all| archivedate= 31 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Governments and the military were forced to bury many bodies in hastily dug [[mass grave]]s with rudimentary or no rites, although relatives of the deceased were promised that they would be cremated later.<ref name="ap20110327">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2011/03/27/world/asia/AP-AS-Japan-Earthquake-Burials.html?hp|title=Burials in Quake-Hit Towns Deepen Japan's Tragedy|accessdate=27 March 2011|agency=Associated Press|work=The New York Times|date=27 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
The tsunami is reported to have caused several deaths outside of Japan. One man was killed in [[Jayapura]], [[Papua (province)|Papua]], Indonesia after being swept out to sea.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/japan-tsunami-strikes-indonesia-one-confirmed-dead/428545 |title=Japan Tsunami Strikes Indonesia, One Confirmed Dead |date=12 March 2011 |work=Jakarta Globe |accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8fAm8XA | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> A man who is said to have been attempting to photograph the oncoming tsunami at the mouth of the [[Klamath River]], south of [[Crescent City, California]], was swept out to sea.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fox5sandiego.com/news/rss/kswb-california-tsunami-death-norcal-man-drowns-trying-to-photograph-tsunami-20110311,0,7429447.story?track=rss |title=California tsunami death: NorCal man drowns trying to photograph tsunami – KSWB |publisher=Fox5sandiego.com |accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2abuKBA | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Associated Press |title=Man swept out to sea by tsunami was Bend native |work=The Oregonian |accessdate=27 March 2011 |date=13 March 2011 |url=http://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/index.ssf/2011/03/oregon_coast_tsunami_dustin_weber.html| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xD7NuM1U | archivedate=15 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Klamath tsunami victim identified; search comes up empty |work=The Times-Standard |location=Eureka, CA |accessdate=27 March 2011 |date=13 March 2011 |url=http://www.times-standard.com/ci_17605586?source=most_viewed| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2acvxkv | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> His body was found on 2 April along Ocean Beach in [[Fort Stevens State Park]], Oregon, some {{convert|330|mi|km}} to the north.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://wireupdate.com/wires/16604/body-found-in-oregon-identified-as-missing-tsunami-victim/ |title=Body found in Oregon identified as missing tsunami victim |publisher=[[BNO News]] |accessdate=12 April 2011| archiveurl = http://wireupdate.com/wires/16604/body-found-in-oregon-identified-as-missing-tsunami-victim/ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>[http://www.koinlocal6.com/news/local/story/Tsunami-victim-remains-wash-ashore-near-Fort/S2ii-Y--j0WNKCAEV0tzcA.cspx Tsunami victim remains wash ashore near Fort Stevens]. Koinlocal6.com (2011-03-12). Retrieved on 2 May 2011.</ref>
 
 
Noted individual fatalities within Japan included 104-year old [[Takashi Shimokawara]], holder of the world athletics records in the men's shot put, discus throw and javelin throw for the over-100s age category. He was killed by the earthquake and tsunami at [[Kamaishi, Iwate]].<ref>[http://www.iaaf.org/aboutiaaf/news/newsid=59653.html "Takashi Shimokawara, 104, a victim of Japanese tsunami"], [[International Association of Athletics Federations]], 30 March 2011</ref>
 
 
As of 27 May 2011, three [[Japan Ground Self-Defense Force]] members had died while conducting relief operations in Tōhoku.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "GSDF member dies during relief", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 28 May 2011, p. 2.</ref> As of March 2012, the Japanese government had recognized 1,331 deaths as indirectly related to the earthquake, such as caused by harsh living conditions after the disaster.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120304a3.html Illness, suicides drive up disaster-linked toll]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 4 March 2012, p. 2.</ref> As of 30 April 2012, 18 people had died and 420 had been injured while participating in disaster recovery or clean-up efforts.<ref>[[Jiji Press]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120606a2.html Disaster reconstruction work has claimed 18 lives so far]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 6 June 2012, p. 1</ref>
 
 
==Damage and effects==
 
[[File:Distant view of Rikuzentakata.jpg|thumb|Panorama of the Hirota Peninsula in Rikuzentakata swept away]]
 
[[File:MinatoAfterTohokuEarthquake.jpg|thumb|Aerial photo of Minato, devastated by both the earthquake and subsequent tsunami]]
 
 
The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and resulting tsunami were enormous, with most of the damage being caused by the tsunami. Video footage of the towns that were worst affected shows little more than piles of rubble, with almost no parts of any structures left standing.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12727879 |title=film shown by BBC showing only rubble where there were buildings |publisher=BBC News |date=13 March 2011|accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xAQ38xIo | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Estimates of the cost of the damage range well into the tens of billions of [[US dollars]]; before-and-after [[satellite]] photographs of devastated regions show immense damage to many regions.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://picasaweb.google.com/118079222830783600944/Japan# |title=Before-and-after satellite photographs of devastated regions |publisher=Google |accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110313104733/https://picasaweb.google.com/118079222830783600944/Japan| archivedate= 13 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12731781 |title=animated images showing undamaged places become damaged |publisher=BBC |date=14 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xBrp84HO | archivedate=14 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Although Japan has invested the equivalent of billions of dollars on anti-tsunami seawalls which line at least 40% of its 34,751&nbsp;km (21,593&nbsp;mi) coastline and stand up to 12&nbsp;m (39&nbsp;ft) high, the tsunami simply washed over the top of some seawalls, collapsing some in the process.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14seawalls.html|title=Seawalls Offered Little Protection Against Tsunami's Crushing Waves|last=Onishi|first=Norimitsu|work=The New York Times |date=13 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110314181214/http://www.nytimes.com//2011//03//14//world//asia//14seawalls.html| archivedate= 14 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Effect of 2011 Sendai earthquake in Tokyo (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|A fire which broke out in [[Tokyo]] after the earthquake]]
 
Japan's [[National Police Agency (Japan)|National Police Agency]] said on 3 April 2011, that 45,700 buildings were destroyed and 144,300 were damaged by the quake and tsunami. The damaged buildings included 29,500 structures in Miyagi Prefecture, 12,500 in Iwate Prefecture and 2,400 in Fukushima Prefecture.<ref>''[[NHK]]'', "190,000 buildings damaged by 11 March quake", 3 April 2011.</ref> Three hundred hospitals with 20 beds or more in Tōhoku were damaged by the disaster, with 11 being completely destroyed.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110609a1.html Fishermen to Tepco: Don't release water]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 9 June 2011, p. 1.</ref> The earthquake and tsunami created an estimated 24–25&nbsp;million tons of rubble and debris in Japan.<ref>[[Agence France-Presse]]/[[Jiji Press]], "Radiation, legalities complicate cleanup efforts", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 9 April 2011, p. 2.</ref><ref>Kamiya, Setsuko, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110630f1.html Debris removal, recycling daunting, piecemeal labor]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 30 June 2011, p. 3.</ref>
 
 
An estimated 230,000 automobiles and trucks were damaged or destroyed in the disaster. As of the end of May 2011, residents of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures had requested deregistration of 15,000 vehicles, meaning that the owners of those vehicles were writing them off as unrepairable or unsalvageable.<ref>Kyodo News, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110616a4.html Applications to deregister cars lost in tsunami soar], ''[[Japan Times]]'', 16 June 2011, p. 1.</ref>
 
 
===Ports===
 
[[File:Ship on the port CROP.jpg|thumb|Ship and crane damage at Sendai port]]
 
 
All of Japan's ports were briefly closed after the earthquake, though the ones in Tokyo and southwards soon re-opened. Fifteen ports were located in the disaster zone. The north-eastern ports of Hachinohe, Sendai, Ishinomaki and Onahama were destroyed, while the [[Port of Chiba]] (which serves the hydrocarbon industry) and Japan's ninth-largest container port at [[Kashima, Ibaraki|Kashima]] were also affected, though less severely. The ports at Hitachinaka, Hitachi, Soma, Shiogama, Kesennuma, Ofunato, Kamashi and Miyako were also damaged and closed to ships.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Status of Japanese ports 5 days after devastating quake and tsunami|url=http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/309623/status-japanese-ports-5-days-after-devastating-quake-and-tsunami|agency=Reuters|date=15 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aqWCrE | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> All 15 ports reopened to limited ship traffic by 29 March 2011.<ref name="autogenerated1">''[[Nihon Keizai Shimbun]]'', "90 percent of major transport networks back in operation", 29 March 2011.</ref> A total of 319 fishing ports, about 10% of Japan's fishing ports, were damaged in the disaster.<ref>Fukada, Takahiro, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110921f1.html Iwate fisheries continue struggle to recover]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 21 September 2011, p. 3.</ref> Most were restored to operating condition by 18 April 2012.<ref>[[Jiji Press]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20120526a7.html Most disaster-hit fish ports back up]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 26 May 2012, p. 2</ref>
 
 
The [[Port of Tokyo]] suffered slight damage; the effects of the quake included visible smoke rising from a building in the port with parts of the port areas being flooded, including [[soil liquefaction]] in [[Tokyo Disneyland]]'s parking lot.<ref name="CNA0">{{Cite news|url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1115810/1/.html|title=Tokyo Disneyland hit by liquefaction after quake|date=11 March 2011|publisher=[[MediaCorp Channel NewsAsia]]|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110316002513/http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1115810/1/.html| archivedate= 16 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="CNA1">{{Cite news|url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1115777/1/.html|title=Japan issues top tsunami warning after major quake|date=11 March 2011|publisher=MediaCorp Channel NewsAsia|accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110316002517/http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1115777/1/.html| archivedate= 16 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
===Dams and water problems===
 
 
[[File:Fujinuma Dam failure.JPG|thumb|Dam failure at Fujinuma]]
 
 
{{Update|section|date=March 2013}}The [[Fujinuma Dam|Fujinuma irrigation dam]] in [[Sukagawa]] ruptured,<ref name="The Gulf Today">{{Cite news|url=http://gulftoday.ae/portal/067b285e-6644-4460-b882-f3e809f3b3e7.aspx|title=Japan's Afternoon of Horror|date=12 March 2011|work=[[The Gulf Today]]|accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xA4lpQXu|archivedate=13 March 2011}}</ref> causing flooding and washing away five homes.<ref>{{cite web|title=Dam Breaks In Northeast Japan, Washes Away Homes|url=http://www.arabtimesonline.com/NewsDetails/tabid/96/smid/414/ArticleID/166581/reftab/149/t/Dam-breaks-in-northeast-Japan-washes-away-homes/Default.aspx|publisher=''Arab Times Online''|accessdate=13 March 2012|date=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2as1TVM | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Eight people were missing and four bodies were discovered by the morning.<ref>{{cite web|last=Azuma|first=Kita|title=Pacific Ocean coast Earthquake|url=http://sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/news/110312/dst11031205010058-n1.htm|publisher=MSN|accessdate=14 March 2011|language=Japanese|date=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2asdQuY | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=ダム決壊 5棟流出 福島・須賀川|url=http://www.kahoku.co.jp/news/2011/03/20110313t63033.htm|publisher=Fukushima News|accessdate=14 March 2011|language=Japanese|date=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVc4ZWPh|archivedate=27 March 2011}}</ref><!-- <ref>[http://english.kyodonews.jp/news/2011/03/76945.html]{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref> --> Reportedly, some locals had attempted to repair leaks in the dam before it completely [[Dam failure|failed]].<ref>{{cite web|title=ダム決壊 8人が行方不明 須賀川・藤沼ルポ|url=http://www.kahoku.co.jp/news/2011/03/20110312t63012.htm|publisher=Fukushima News|language=Japanese|accessdate=14 March 2011|date=12 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVcpnmX5|archivedate=28 March 2011}}</ref> On 12 March, 252 dams were inspected and it was discovered that six [[embankment dam]]s had shallow cracks on their crests. The reservoir at one concrete [[gravity dam]] suffered a small non-serious [[Slope stability|slope failure]]. All damaged dams are functioning with no problems. Four dams within the quake area were unreachable. When the roads clear, experts will be dispatched to conduct further investigations.<ref>{{cite web|title=A quick report on Japanese Dams after the Earthquake|url=http://www.chincold.org.cn/dams/NewsEvents/webinfo/2011/03/1299639147955756.htm|publisher=Chinese National Committee on Large Dams|accessdate=15 March 2011|date=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2au93PH | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
In the immediate aftermath of the calamity, at least 1.5&nbsp;million households were reported to have lost access to water supplies.<ref name="waterfoodheat" /><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://nz.news.yahoo.com/a/-/newshome/9010969/quake-hit-japan-battles-to-avert-radiation-leak/|title=Quake-hit Japan battles to avert radiation leak|last=Uranaka|first=Taiga|author2=Kwon, Ki Joon|date=14 March 2011|agency=Reuters |accessdate=14 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xCDDo9CW|archivedate=15 March 2011}}</ref> By 21 March 2011, this number fell to 1.04&nbsp;million.<ref name="Reuters figures"/>
 
 
===Electricity===
 
[[File:Power Grid of Japan.svg|thumb|A map of Japan's electricity distribution network shows the geographic divide between 50 hertz systems and 60 hertz systems]]
 
 
According to the Japanese trade ministry, around 4.4&nbsp;million households served by [[Tōhoku Electric Power]] (TEP) in northeastern Japan were left without electricity.<ref>Inajima, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yuji (Mar 11, 2011) [http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-11/cosmo-oil-refinery-set-on-fire-nuclear-power-reactors-shut-by-earthquake.html "Japanese Quake Forces Evacuation Near Nuclear Reactor; Oil Refinery Burns"], ''Bloomberg.com''. Retrieved 13 March 2012.</ref> Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake, reducing TEPCO's total capacity by 21 GW.<ref>[[Kyodo News]], "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110330a4.html Utilities' monopoly on power backfires]", ''Japan Times'', 30 March 2011, p. 2. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xYWkB4x0|date=29 March 2011}}</ref> [[Rolling blackout]]s began on 14 March due to power shortages caused by the earthquake.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://e.nikkei.com/e/fr/tnks/Nni20110313D13JFF08.htm|date=14 March 2011| title = Power Outage To Deal Further Blows To Industrial Output |publisher=Nikkei.com |accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2avomCu | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[Tokyo Electric Power Company]] (TEPCO), which normally provides approximately 40 [[Gigawatt|GW]] of electricity, announced that it could only provide about 30 GW. This was because 40% of the electricity used in the greater Tokyo area was supplied by reactors in the [[Niigata Prefecture|Niigata]] and [[Fukushima Prefecture|Fukushima]] prefectures.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tepco.co.jp/index-j.html|title= 東京電力ホームページ – エネルギーの最適サービスを通じてゆたかで快適な環境の実現に貢献します -|publisher=Tokyo Electric Power Company|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x7Zam5R8 | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The reactors at the [[Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daiichi]] and [[Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Dai-ni]] plants were automatically taken offline when the first earthquake occurred and sustained major damage related to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Rolling blackouts of approximately three hours were experienced throughout April and May while TEPCO scrambled to find a temporary power solution. The blackouts affected Tokyo, [[Kanagawa Prefecture|Kanagawa]], Eastern [[Shizuoka Prefecture|Shizuoka]], [[Yamanashi Prefecture|Yamanashi]], [[Chiba Prefecture|Chiba]], [[Ibaraki Prefecture|Ibaraki]], [[Saitama Prefecture|Saitama]], [[Tochigi Prefecture|Tochigi]], and [[Gunma Prefecture|Gunma]] prefectures.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nikkansports.com/general/news/f-gn-tp0-20110313-748042.html|title= News|publisher=Nikkan Sports |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xA8payah | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=yes}}</ref> Voluntary reduced electricity use by consumers in the Kanto area helped reduce the predicted frequency and duration of the blackouts.<ref>Joe, Melinda, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fs20110317a3.html Kanto area works on energy conservation]", ''Japan Times'', 17 March 2011, p. 11. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2awhmjE|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without electricity fell to 242,927.<ref name="Reuters figures">{{cite news|last=Nomiyama|first=Chiz|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-japan-quake-numbers-idUSTRE72K0YJ20110321|title=Factbox: Japan disaster in figures|date=21 March 2011|agency=Reuters |accessdate=21 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xLOSexvL|archivedate=21 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Devastation in Minamisōma after tsunami.jpg|thumb|left|Damage to electricity transmission lines]]
 
 
Tōhoku Electric Power was not able to provide the Kanto region with additional power, because TEP's power plants were also damaged in the earthquake. [[Kansai Electric Power Company]] (Kepco) cannot share electricity, because its system operates at 60 hertz, whereas TEPCO and TEP operate their systems at 50 hertz; this is due to early industrial and infrastructure development in the 1880s that left Japan without a unified national [[power grid]].<ref>[http://www.itworld.com/business/140626/legacy-1800s-leaves-tokyo-facing-blackouts A legacy from the 1800s leaves Tokyo facing blackouts], ITworld, 18 March 2011 {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ayU8pa|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> Two substations, one in Shizuoka Prefecture and one in Nagano Prefecture, were able to convert between frequencies and transfer electricity from Kansai to Kanto and Tōhoku, but their capacity to do so is limited to 1 GW. With the damage to so many power plants, it may be years before a long-term solution can be found.<ref>Hongo, Jun, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110316a6.html One certainty in the crisis: Power will be at a premium]", ''Japan Times'', 16 March 2011, p. 2. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2azM8h6|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In effort to help alleviate the shortage, three steel manufacturers in the Kanto region are contributing electricity produced by their in-house conventional power stations to TEPCO for distribution to the general public. [[Sumitomo Metal Industries]] can produce up to 500 MW, [[JFE Holdings|JFE Steel]] 400 MW, and [[Nippon Steel]] 500 MW of electric power<ref>''NHK'', "Steel makers provide TEPCO with electricity", 27 March 2011.</ref> Auto and auto parts makers in Kanto and Tohoku agreed in May 2011 to operate their factories on Saturdays and Sundays and close on Thursdays and Fridays to assist in alleviating the electricity shortage during the summer of 2011.<ref>Nakata, Hiroko, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nb20110520a1.html Auto industry agrees to adopt weekend work shifts]", ''[[Japan Times]]'', 20 May 2011, p. 1.</ref>
 
 
===Oil, gas and coal===
 
[[File:Cosmo Oil explosion 2 20110311CROP.jpg|thumb|upright|Fire at the Cosmo Oil refinery in [[Ichihara, Chiba|Ichihara]]]]
 
 
A {{convert|220000|oilbbl|m3|adj=on}}-per-day<ref name="Fernandez" /> [[oil refinery]] of [[Cosmo Oil Company]] was set on fire by the quake at [[Ichihara, Chiba|Ichihara]], [[Chiba Prefecture]], to the east of Tokyo.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pennenergy.com/index/petroleum/display.0223973745.articles.oil-gas-journal.general-interest-2.20100.march-2011.after-8_9_quake__explosion.html |author=Watkins, Eric |date=11 March 2011|title=After 8.9 quake, explosion hits pchem complex in Japan |work=Oil & Gas Journal |publisher=PennEnergy.com |accessdate=13 March 2012}}</ref><ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8375497/Japan-earthquake-causes-oil-refinery-inferno.html Japan earthquake causes oil refinery inferno] Daily Telegraph, London, 11 March 2011 {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b03qod|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> It was extinguished after ten days, injuring six people, and destroying storage tanks.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cosmo-oil.co.jp/eng/information/110321/index.html |title=LPG Tanks Fire Extinguished at Chiba Refinery (5th Update) &#124; COSMO OIL Co.,Ltd |publisher=Cosmo-oil.co.jp |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014808/http://www.cosmo-oil.co.jp/eng/information/110321/index.html| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Others halted production due to safety checks and power loss.<ref>[http://www.argusmedia.com/pages/NewsBody.aspx?menu=yes&id=743808&print=yes Fires, safety checks take out Japanese refineries] ''Argus Media'', 14 March 2011. Accessed: 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b0aaXB|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.argusmedia.com/pages/NewsBody.aspx?menu=yes&id=743987&print=yes Japanese refiners try to offset shortages] ''Argus Media'', 15 March 2011. Accessed: 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b0iREU|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
In Sendai, a {{convert|145000|oilbbl|m3|adj=on}}-per-day refinery owned by the largest refiner in Japan, [[Nippon Oil|JX Nippon Oil & Energy]], was also set ablaze by the quake.<ref name="Fernandez">{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/14/us-japan-commodities-idUSTRE72D1X320110314|title=Japan's shipping, energy sectors begin march back from quake|last=Fernandez|first=Clarence|date=14 March 2011|agency=Reuters |accessdate=14 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xAvhzbD4|archivedate=14 March 2011}}</ref> Workers were evacuated,<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/12/refinery-operations-jx-fire-idUSTKG00706520110312|title=JX refinery fire seen originated from shipping facility|last=Tsukimori|first=Osamu|author2=Negishi, Mayumi|date=11 March 2011|agency=Reuters |accessdate=14 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xAvN97ku|archivedate=14 March 2011}}</ref> but tsunami warnings hindered efforts to extinguish the fire until 14 March, when officials planned to do so.<ref name="Fernandez" />
 
 
An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as {{convert|300000|oilbbl|m3}} per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning [[fossil fuel]]s try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity.<ref>[http://www.argusmedia.com/pages/NewsBody.aspx?menu=yes&id=744156&print=yes Analysis – Oil markets adjust to Japan’s disaster] ''Argus Media'', 16 March 2011. Accessed: 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b0piZR|date=18 April 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.argusmedia.com/pages/NewsBody.aspx?menu=yes&id=744031&print=yes Japan quake begins to impact LNG trade] ''Argus Media'', 15 March 2011. Accessed: 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b0y0Z5|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
The city-owned plant for importing [[liquefied natural gas]] in Sendai was severely damaged, and supplies were halted for at least a month.<ref>[http://www.argusmedia.com/pages/NewsBody.aspx?id=744173&menu=yes Tsunami Disaster: “Japan’s Sendai says LNG Infrastructure Badly Damaged”] ''Argus Media'', 16 March 2011. Accessed: 18 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b15FJ5|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In addition to refining and storage, several power plants were damaged. These include Sendai #4, New-Sendai #1 and #2, Haranomachi #1 and #2, Hirono #2 and #4 and Hitachinaka #1.<ref>http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/en/jeb/1103.pdf</ref>
 
 
===Nuclear power plants===
 
{{further|2011 Japanese nuclear accidents}}
 
[[File:Nuclear plants Japan in 2011.svg|right|thumb|400x|Position of Japanese nuclear power stations and the spreading of the initial tsunami]]
 
The [[Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daiichi]], [[Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daini]], [[Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant]] and [[Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant|Tōkai nuclear power stations]], consisting of a total eleven reactors, were [[Scram|automatically shut down]] following the earthquake.<ref name="11plants">{{cite news |url= http://www.news.com.au/world/japan-earthquake-evacuations-ordered-as-fears-grow-of-radiation-leak-at-nuclear-plant/story-e6frfkyi-1226020473244 |title=Japan earthquake: Evacuations ordered as fears grow of radiation leak at nuclear plant; News.com.au |accessdate=13 March 2011 |date=12 March 2011 |agency=AFP | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2adXZqV | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Higashidōri Nuclear Power Plant|Higashidōri]], also on the northeast coast, was already shut down for a periodic inspection. Cooling is needed to remove [[decay heat]] after a [[Generation II reactor]] has been shut down, and to maintain spent fuel pools. The backup cooling process is powered by emergency diesel generators at the plants and at [[Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant|Rokkasho nuclear reprocessing plant]].<ref name="nei-20110311">{{Cite news |url=http://www.neimagazine.com/story.asp?sectioncode=132&storyCode=2059127 |title=Japan initiates emergency protocol after earthquake |publisher=Nuclear Engineering International |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ae6b0U | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> At Fukushima Daiichi and Daini, tsunami waves overtopped seawalls and destroyed diesel backup power systems, leading to severe problems at Fukushima Daiichi, including three large explosions and radioactive leakage. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunami.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4004813 |title=Phillip Lipscy, Kenji Kushida, and Trevor Incerti. 2013. "The Fukushima Disaster and Japan’s Nuclear Plant Vulnerability in Comparative Perspective." '&#39;Environmental Science and Technology'&#39; 47(12): 6082-6088 |publisher=Pubs.acs.org |date= |accessdate=22 August 2013}}</ref> Over 200,000 people were evacuated.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/13/japan-nuclear-plants-fukushima-earthquake |title=Japan's nuclear fears intensify at two Fukushima power stations |work=The Guardian |location=London |accessdate=13 March 2011 |first=Ian |last=Sample | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xAN6EQZ8 | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no | date=13 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
The 7 April aftershock caused the loss of external power to Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant and Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant but backup generators were functional. [[Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant]] lost 3 of 4 external power lines and temporarily lost cooling function in its spent fuel pools for "20 to 80&nbsp;minutes". A spill of "up to 3.8&nbsp;liters" of radioactive water also occurred at Onagawa following the aftershock.<ref name="ibtimes1">[http://uk.ibtimes.com/articles/132203/20110408/nuclear-plants-in-onagawa-higashidori-lose-power.htm Japan Earthquake: More Nuclear Plants Lose Power], ''International Business Times'', Jesse Emspak, 8 April 2011 {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aepag3|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
A report by the [[IAEA]] in 2012 found that the [[Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant]], the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, had remained largely undamaged. The plant's 3 reactors automatically shut down without damage and all safety systems functioned as designed. The plant's 14 meter (46-foot) high seawall successfully withstood the tsunami.<ref>{{cite news |last=Yamaguchi |first=Mari |work=Associated Press |title=Nuke plant near quake epicenter undamaged |work=[[Stars and Stripes (newspaper)|Stars and Stripes]] |date= 11 August 2012 |page= 8 |url=http://bigstory.ap.org/article/iaea-nuke-plant-near-fukushima-largely-undamaged}}</ref>
 
 
Europe's [[European Commissioner for Energy|Energy Commissioner]] [[Günther Oettinger]] addressed the European Parliament on 15 March, explaining that the nuclear disaster was an "apocalypse".<ref>Evans, Martin and Gordon Rayner. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/8384809/Japan-nuclear-plant-disaster-warning-of-an-apocalypse-as-fallout-hits-danger-levels.html "Japan nuclear plant disaster: warning of an 'apocalypse’ as fallout hits danger levels,"] ''The Independent'' (UK). 16 Mar 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-12. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5xFkDV78N|date=17 March 2011}}</ref> As the nuclear crisis entered a second month, experts recognized that Fukushima Daiichi is not the worst nuclear accident ever, but it is the most complicated. Nuclear experts stated that Fukushima will go down in history as the second-worst nuclear accident ever.... while not as bad as [[Chernobyl disaster]], worse than [[Three Mile Island accident]]. It could take months or years to learn how damaging the release of dangerous isotopes has been to human health and food supplies, and the surrounding countryside.<ref>[http://in.ibtimes.com/articles/132391/20110409/japan-nuclear-crisis-radiation.htm "Analysis: A month on, Japan nuclear crisis still scarring,"] ''International Business Times'' (Australia). 9 April 2011, retrieved 12 April 2011; excerpt, According to [[James M. Acton|James Acton]], Associate of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, "Fukushima is not the worst nuclear accident ever but it is the most complicated and the most dramatic ... This was a crisis that played out in real time on TV. Chernobyl did not." {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2agYEQZ|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Later analysis indicated three reactors at [[Fukushima I]] (Units 1, 2, and 3) had suffered meltdowns and continued to leak coolant water,<ref name="autogenerated2"/> and by summer the Vice-minister for Economy, Trade and Industry, the head of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and the head of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, had lost their jobs.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/08/04/japan.nuclear.crisis/index.html?eref=ib_topstories |title=Japan to fire 3 top nuclear officials |publisher=CNN |date=4 August 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011}}</ref>
 
 
====Fukushima meltdowns====
 
<!-- This section is an introduction to the articles [[Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents]]. -->
 
 
{{main|Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster|Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster}}
 
 
[[File:VOA Herman - April 12 2011 Namie-11.jpg|thumb|Loose livestock roam the evacuation zone]]
 
 
Japan declared a state of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at the [[Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant]], resulting in the evacuation of nearby residents.<ref name="guardian2011-03-11">{{Cite news|url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/11/japan-declares-nuclear-emergency-quake |title=Japan Declares 'Nuclear Emergency' after Quake |work=The Guardian |location=London |date=11 March 2011|accessdate=11 March 2011 |first=Justin |last=McCurry | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8Swgz2f | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url= http://www.anhourago.com.au/show.aspx?l=8083104 |author=Sato, Shigemi |date=12 March 2011 |title=High radiation in Japanese nuclear plant|agency=Agence France Press|work=Sydney Morning Herald ''(AFP)''|publisher=anhourago.com.au |accessdate=13 March 2012}}</ref><ref name="BBC3">{{cite news|url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12307698 |title=Japan Tsunami |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5w5dpTRTE | archivedate=28 January 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Officials from the Japanese [[Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency]] reported that radiation levels inside the plant were up to 1,000 times normal levels,<ref>{{Cite news|title= Radioactive Material May Have Leaked from Japanese Reactor |url= http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/11/japan.nuclear/index.html |accessdate=11 March 2011|work=[[CNN International]]|date=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ahm3X6 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and that radiation levels outside the plant were up to 8 times normal levels.<ref>Hiroko Tabuchi, Matthew L. Wald. [http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14nuclear.html Partial Meltdowns Presumed at Crippled Reactors]. ''The New York Times'', 13 March 2011</ref> Later, a state of emergency was also declared at the [[Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daini]] nuclear power plant about 11&nbsp;km (7&nbsp;mi) south.<ref>Chico Harlan: [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/12/AR2011031201452.html?hpid%3Dtopnews Japan quake: With two natural disasters and a nuclear emergency, recovery begins]. ''The Washington Post'', 12 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ai5PuF|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> This brought the total number of problematic reactors to six.<ref>Rik Myslewski. [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/03/13/japanese_nuclear_site_update/ Sixth Japanese nuclear reactor loses cooling]. ''The Register'', 13 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aiZLwy|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
It was reported that radioactive iodine was detected in the tap water in Fukushima, Tochigi, Gunma, Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, and Niigata, and radioactive cesium in the tap water in Fukushima, Tochigi and Gunma.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103160286.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島市内の水道水から放射性物質検出 国の基準は下回る – 東日本大震災 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |date=3 January 2011 |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ajF4Z7 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20110319-OYT1T00743.htm |title=1都5県の水道水から放射性物質、国基準下回る : 科学 |work=Yomiuri Shimbun |location=Japan |date=19 March 2011 |accessdate=19 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2akJkdQ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20110319/k10014787301000.html |title=水道水 制限値を全国で下回る |publisher=NHK News |accessdate=19 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xVbO9cRA|archivedate=19 March 2011}}</ref> Radioactive cesium, iodine, and strontium<ref>[http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0412/TKY201104120522.html asahi.com(朝日新聞社):福島の土壌から微量ストロンチウム 水溶性の放射性物質 – 社会] {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2akiMFW|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> were also detected in the soil in some places in Fukushima. There may be a need to replace the contaminated soil.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103230215.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):原発から40キロの土壌、高濃度セシウム 半減期30年 – 東日本大震災 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |date=1 March 2011 |accessdate=26 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2albVby | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Many radioactive hotspots were found outside the evacuation zone, including Tokyo.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201110060625.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東京・神奈川含む汚染マップ公表 一部で1万ベクレル超 - 東日本大震災 |publisher=Asahi.com |date=2011-10-06 |accessdate=2012-04-13}}</ref> Food products were also found contaminated by radioactive matter in several places in Japan.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-27/food-contamination-set-to-rise-as-japan-fights-radiation-crisis-at-reactor.html|title=Food Contamination Set to Rise as Japan Fights Radiation Crisis at Reactor|author=Jae Hur|publisher=Bloomberg| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2amCwmH | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no| date=27 March 2011}}</ref> On 5 April 2011, the government of the [[Ibaraki Prefecture]] banned the fishing of [[sand lance]] after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive [[cesium]] above legal limits.<ref name="NHK World 20110405">{{cite news |url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/daily/english/05_34.html|title=High level of cesium detected in sand lances|publisher=NHK World |date=5 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2amUu38 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> As late as July 2013 slightly elevated levels of radioactivity were found in beef on sale at Tokyo markets.<ref>{{cite web|last=Ito |first=Nicholas |url=http://www.ktvz.com/health/28520368/detail.html |title=Radioactive Meat Sold In Japan Market – Health News Story – KTVZ Bend |publisher=Ktvz.com |date=12 July 2011 |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014654/http://www.ktvz.com/health/28520368/detail.html| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> No death or morbidity has so far been reported as a result of the radioactive emissions.
 
 
====Incidents elsewhere====
 
A fire occurred in the turbine section of the [[Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant]] following the earthquake.<ref name="nei-20110311" /><ref>{{cite news |url= http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/11/quake-japan-nuclear-idUSLHE7E801E20110311 |title=Fire at Tohoku Elec Onagawa nuclear plant -Kyodo &#124; Reuters |first= Chikako|last=Mogi|agency=Reuters |accessdate=13 March 2011 |date=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2an6CNo | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The blaze was in a building housing the turbine, which is sited separately from the plant's reactor,<ref name="guardian2011-03-11" /> and was soon extinguished.<ref name="Australian">{{Cite news |url= http://www.theaustralian.com.au/fire-at-nuclear-power-plant-others-shut-down/story-fn84naht-1226020092352 |title=Fire at nuclear power plant extinguished |work=The Australian |date=12 March 2011 |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2anTfAu | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> The plant was shut down as a precaution.<ref>{{cite web|author=Hafez Ahmed @ http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com |url=http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/more.php?news_id=130958&date=31 |title=March 2011 Japan's atomic plant neighbours mull leaving homes |publisher=Thefinancialexpress-bd.com |accessdate=7 September 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110728014832/http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/more.php?news_id=130958&date=31| archivedate= 28 July 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
On 13 March the lowest-level state of emergency was declared regarding the Onagawa plant as radioactivity readings temporarily<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html |title=IAEA update on Japan Earthquake |work=iaea.org |year=2011 |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8gJ8rN2 | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> exceeded allowed levels in the area of the plant.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2011/fukushima130311.html|title=IAEA update on Japan Earthquake |work=iaea.org |date=13 March 2011 |accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xt8321q7 | archivedate=12 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>Chico Harlan, Steven Mufson: [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/12/AR2011031205493.html?hpid=topnews Japanese nuclear plants' operator scrambles to avert meltdowns]. ''[[The Washington Post]]'', 11 March 2011 {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aoSMrP|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> Tohoku Electric Power Co. stated this may have been due to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents but was not from the Onagawa plant itself.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/309172/sea-water-injected-troubled-fukushima-power-plant |title=Sea water injected into troubled Fukushima power plant &#124; The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online |work=mb.com.ph |year=2011|accessdate=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aof5f0 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
As a result of the 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80&nbsp;minutes. A spill of a couple liters of radioactive water occurred at Onagawa.<ref name="ibtimes1" />
 
 
The number 2 reactor at [[Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant]] was shut down automatically.<ref name="11plants" /> On 14 March it was reported that a cooling system pump for this reactor had stopped working;<ref>{{cite news |url= http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFTKG00708120110313 |title=Cooling system pump stops at Tokai No.2 plant-Kyodo; Energy & Oil; Reuters|work=af.reuters.com |accessdate=13 March 2011 |date=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2aot3wZ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> however, the Japan Atomic Power Company stated that there was a second operational pump sustaining the cooling systems, but that two of three diesel generators used to power the cooling system were out of order.<ref>{{cite news |url= http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/03/13/uk-japan-quake-tokai-idUKTRE72C2RL20110313 |title=Tokai No.2 nuke plant cooling process working – operator &#124; Reuters |first= Kiyoshi|last=Takenaka|work=uk.reuters.com |accessdate=13 March 2011 |date=13 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ap319X | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
===Wind power===
 
None of [[Wind power in Japan|Japan's commercial wind turbines]], totaling over 2300 MW in [[nameplate capacity]], failed as a result of the earthquake and tsunami, including the Kamisu offshore wind farm directly hit by the tsunami.<ref name="kamisu_tsunami">{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/05/the-dangers-of-energy-generation
 
|title=The Dangers of Energy Generation
 
|first=Elisa
 
|last=Wood
 
|publisher=Renewable Energy World
 
|date=25 May 2011
 
|archivedate=3 June 2011
 
|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5zAoObMnC
 
}}</ref>
 
 
===Transport===
 
[[File:Rokko-Bridge fell,Namegata-city,Japan.jpg|thumb|A highway bridge damaged and severed]]
 
 
Japan's transport network suffered severe disruptions. Many sections of [[Tōhoku Expressway]] serving northern Japan were damaged. The expressway did not reopen to general public use until 24 March 2011.<ref>''NHK World'', "Tohoku Expressway Reopened To All Traffic", 24 March 2011.</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-03-24/highway-to-japan-quake-area-opens-as-casualties-pass-25-000.html|title=Highway to Japan Quake Area Opens as Casualties Pass 25,000|last=Chu|first=Kathleen|author2=Sakamaki, Sachiko|date=24 March 2011|work=Bloomberg Businessweek |accessdate=24 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xQW5ujha|archivedate=24 March 2011}}</ref> All railway services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at major stations across the city.<ref>NHK News, 23:30 JST</ref> In the hours after the earthquake, some train services were resumed.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://e.nikkei.com/e/fr/tnks/Nni20110311D11JF318.htm|title=Many Rail Services In Tokyo Suspended After Quake|publisher=NIKKEI|date=12 March 2011|accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b1ElUG | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Most Tokyo area train lines resumed full service by the next day—12 March.<ref>[[Associated Press]], "When Tokyo's clockwork trains stopped ticking", ''Japan Times'', 13 March 2011, p. 3.</ref> Twenty thousand stranded visitors spent the night of 11–12 March inside [[Tokyo Disneyland]].<ref>Kyodo News, "Disney reality check for the stuck", ''Japan Times'', 13 March 2011, p. 3.</ref>
 
 
A tsunami wave flooded [[Sendai Airport]] at 15:55 JST,<ref name="AVH1" /> about 1 hour after the initial quake, causing severe damage. [[Narita International Airport|Narita]] and [[Haneda Airport]] both briefly suspended operations after the quake, but suffered little damage and reopened within 24 hours.<ref name="CNA1" /> Eleven airliners bound for Narita were diverted to nearby [[Yokota Air Base]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yokota.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123246410|title=Yokota provides support following massive earthquake |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b1p0oW | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>Kyodo News, "USS Reagan on way", ''Japan Times'', 13 March 2011, p. 2.</ref>
 
 
[[File:Shinchi Sta 20110404.jpg|thumb|left|Remains of [[Shinchi Station]]]]
 
 
Various train services around Japan were also canceled, with [[JR East]] suspending all services for the rest of the day.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://traininfo.jreast.co.jp/train_info/service.aspx |title=JR東日本:列車運行情報 |publisher=Traininfo.jreast.co.jp |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b2Dga0 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Four trains on coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one, a four-car train on the [[Senseki Line]], was found to have derailed, and its occupants were rescued shortly after 8&nbsp;am the next morning.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20110312-OYT1T00215.htm?from=main2 |title=脱線のJR仙石線車内から、県警ヘリで9人救出 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞) |work=Yomiuri Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b2UiOS | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Minami-Kesennuma Station]] on the [[Kesennuma Line]] was obliterated save for its platform;<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110312004840.htm|title=Kesennuma described as 'hellish sight'|last=Akiyama|first=Hironari|author2=Ishibashi, Takeharu|date=13 March 2011|work=Yomiuri Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=16 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xDwnpDxQ|archivedate=16 March 2011}}</ref> 62 of 70 (31 of 35) JR East train lines suffered damage to some degree;<ref name="autogenerated1" /> in the worst-hit areas, 23 stations on 7 lines were washed away, with damage or loss of track in 680 locations and the 30-km radius around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant unable to be assessed.<ref>[http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20110331-OYT1T00855.htm 23駅流失、線路被害680か所…JR東日本 : 社会 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)] {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b2tNNm|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
There were no derailments of [[Shinkansen]] bullet train services in and out of Tokyo, but their services were also suspended.<ref name="CNA1" /> The [[Tōkaidō Shinkansen]] resumed limited service late in the day and was back to its normal schedule by the next day, while the [[Jōetsu Shinkansen|Jōetsu]] and [[Nagano Shinkansen]] resumed services late on 12 March. Services on [[Yamagata Shinkansen]] resumed with limited numbers of trains on 31 March.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/english/TKY201103290189.html|title=Full Tohoku Shinkansen Line services to be restored by late April|work=The Asahi Shimbun Company|date=30 March 2001|accessdate=2 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b5IHoX | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
Derailments were minimized because of an early warning system that detected the earthquake before it struck. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.railway-technology.com/features/feature122751 |title=How Japan’s Rail Network Survived the Earthquake |publisher=Railway Technology |date= |accessdate=22 August 2013}}</ref>
 
 
The [[Tōhoku Shinkansen]] line was worst hit, with JR East estimating that 1,100 sections of the line, varying from collapsed station roofs to bent power pylons, will need repairs. Services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen partially resumed only in Kantō area on 15 March, with one round-trip service per hour between [[Tokyo Station|Tokyo]] and [[Nasushiobara Station|Nasu-Shiobara]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0315/TKY201103150121.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):東北新幹線、東京―那須塩原で再開 各停、1時間に1本 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |date=15 March 2011|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b3AlYB | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and Tōhoku area service partially resumed on 22 March between [[Morioka Station|Morioka]] and [[Shin-Aomori Station|Shin-Aomori]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/no-of-dead-or-missing-tops-21000-bodies-buried-in-rare-measure|title=No. of dead or missing tops 22,000; bodies buried in rare measure|work=JAPANTODAY|date=22 March 2001|accessdate=2 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b3oDmQ | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Services on [[Akita Shinkansen]] resumed with limited numbers of trains on 18 March.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://e.nikkei.com/e/fr/tnks/Nni20110318D18JF316.htm|title=Gradual Restoration Of Infrastructure Continues At Disaster Areas|work=Nikkei|date=18 March 2001|accessdate=2 April 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b4N0NM | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Service between Tokyo and [[Shin-Aomori Station|Shin-Aomori]] was restored by May, but at lower speeds due to ongoing restoration work; the pre-earthquake timetable was not reinstated until late September.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.asahi.com/travel/rail/news/TKY201109230547.html |title=仙台―東京「はやぶさ」8分短縮 半年ぶりダイヤ復旧 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |date=23 September 2011 |accessdate=24 September 2011}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Carried train in Ishinomaki Line .JPG|thumb|Train washed away uphill from [[Onagawa Station]]]]
 
 
The rolling blackouts brought on by the crises at the nuclear power plants in Fukushima had a profound effect on the rail networks around Tokyo starting on 14 March. Major railways began running trains at 10–20&nbsp;minute intervals, rather than the usual 3–5&nbsp;minute intervals, operating some lines only at rush hour and completely shutting down others; notably, the [[Tōkaidō Main Line]], [[Yokosuka Line]], [[Sōbu Main Line]] and [[Chūō-Sōbu Line]] were all stopped for the day.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0314/TKY201103130323.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):計画停電で影響が出る主な鉄道(午前7時現在) – 社会 |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan|accessdate=14 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b5j7jT | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> This led to near-paralysis within the capital, with long lines at train stations and many people unable to come to work or get home. Railway operators gradually increased capacity over the next few days, until running at approximately 80% capacity by 17 March and relieving the worst of the passenger congestion.
 
 
===Telecommunications===
 
[[File:Fallen power poles in Ishinomaki.jpg|thumb|Damaged utility pole in Ishinomaki]]
 
 
Cellular and landline phone service suffered major disruptions in the affected area.<ref>{{cite news |title=Tokyo phone lines jammed, trains stop |url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-12/rest-of-world/28683249_1_trains-phone-lines-tokyo |work=Times of India |location=India |date=12 March 2011 |quote=The temblor shook buildings in the capital, left millions of homes across Japan without electricity, shut down the mobile phone network and severely disrupted landline phone service.| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b6KaCx | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Immediately after the earthquake cellular communication was jammed across much of Japan due to a surge of network activity. On the day of the quake, American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with working phone or Internet.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.npr.org/2011/03/11/134467277/A-Look-At-The-Japanese-City-Closest-To-The-Quake|accessdate=26 March 2011|title=A Look At The Japanese City Closest To The Quake| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b6tu5Q | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Internet services were largely unaffected in areas where basic infrastructure remained, despite the earthquake having damaged portions of several [[submarine communications cable|undersea cable]] systems landing in the affected regions; these systems were able to reroute around affected segments onto redundant links.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://gigaom.com/broadband/in-japan-many-under-sea-cables-are-damaged/ |title=In Japan, Many Undersea Cables Are Damaged: Broadband News and Analysis |publisher=Gigaom.com |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5xCrffo18 | archivedate=15 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Cowie |first=James |url=http://www.renesys.com/blog/2011/03/japan-quake.shtml |title=Japan Quake – Renesys Blog |publisher=Renesys.com |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x9kSwgxs | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable.<ref name="computerworld">{{Cite news|title=Japan's phone networks remain severely disrupted|url=http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9214261/Japan_s_phone_networks_remain_severely_disrupted |work=Computerworld |date=12 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2emLvjn | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Several [[Wi-Fi]] hotspot providers reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks,<ref name="computerworld" /> and some American telecommunications and [[VoIP]] companies such as [[AT&T]], [[Sprint Nextel|Sprint]], [[Verizon]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://mashable.com/2011/03/14/att-free-calls-japan/ |accessdate=30 March 2011 |title=AT&T, Sprint & Verizon Offer Free Calls & Texts to Japan from U.S. [UPDATED]| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2b7Ms5J | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[T-Mobile]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://newsroom.t-mobile.com/articles/t-mobile-assists-customers-Japan |accessdate=29 May 2011 |title=T-Mobile USA Waives Call Charges to Japan and Wi-Fi Calling and Text Messaging Charges to and From Japan|deadurl=no| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110602012256/http://newsroom.t-mobile.com/articles/t-mobile-assists-customers-Japan| archivedate= 2 June 2011 <!--DASHBot-->}}</ref> and VoIP companies such as [[netTALK]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.vancouversun.com/business/netTALK+Extends+Free+Calling+Japan+Through+April/4478989/story.html |accessdate=30 March 2011 |title=netTALK Extends Free Calling to Japan Through April| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2enGc01 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and [[Vonage]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fiercevoip.com/story/vonage-offers-free-calls-japan/2011-03-14/ |accessdate=30 March 2011 |title=Vonage offers free calls to Japan| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2eoB5LC | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> have offered free calls to (and in some cases, from) Japan for a limited time, as did Germany's [[Deutsche Telekom]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.telekom.com/medien/konzern/29364 |publisher=''Deutsche Telekom'' |date=17 March 2011 |accessdate=13 March 2012 |title=Deutsche Telekom: Konzern erleichtert Kommunikation nach Japan|deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
===Defense===
 
[[Matsushima Air Field]] of the [[Japan Self-Defense Force]] in Miyagi Prefecture was struck by the tsunami, flooding the base and resulting in damage to all 18 [[Mitsubishi F-2]] fighter jets of the 21st Fighter Training Squadron.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/business/news/20110928p2a00m0na017000c.html|title=Mitsubishi Heavy Industries bids goodbye to F2 aircraft|accessdate=28 September 2011| deadurl=no|archiveurl=http://archive.is/L7cX|archivedate=February 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/the-dewline/2011/03/earthquake-devastates-japan-f-.html|title=Earthquake devastates Japan F-2 sqd|accessdate=28 September 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/8380342/Tsunami-and-earthquake-in-Japan-latest-pictures-of-the-damage.html|title=Tsunami and earthquake in Japan: latest pictures of the damage|accessdate=28 September 2011| deadurl=no|location=London|work=The Daily Telegraph|date=14 March 2011}}</ref> 12 of the aircraft were scrapped, while the remaining 6 were slated for repair at a cost of 80 billion yen ($1 billion), exceeding the original cost of the aircraft.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/social_affairs/AJ2011091510588|title=Air SDF to scrap 12 fighters, citing tsunami damage|accessdate=28 September 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> At the 2nd Regional Headquarters of the [[Japan Coast Guard]] in [[Shiogama, Miyagi]], 2 patrol boats were swept away.<ref>{{cite news |url= http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/japan-11nuclear-reactors-shut-down/2011/03/11/ABjmSxQ_story.html |title=Japan evacuates thousands from vicinity of two nuclear power plants - The Washington Post |first=Steven|last=Mufson|work=[[The Washington Post]] |date=11 March 2011|publisher=[[The Washington Post Company|WPC]] |location=[[Washington, D.C.]] |issn=0190-8286 |accessdate=14 March 2012}}</ref>
 
 
===Space center===
 
[[JAXA]] (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) evacuated the [[Tsukuba Space Center]] in [[Tsukuba, Ibaraki]]. The Center, which houses a control room for part of the [[International Space Station]], was shut down and some damage was reported.<ref>{{cite web|last=Malik |first=Tariq |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42038724/ns/technology_and_science-space/ |title=Quake forces closure of Japanese space center |publisher=MSNBC |date=12 March 2011 |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2eoLjd1 | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asahi.com/science/update/0316/TKY201103160235.html |title=asahi.com(朝日新聞社):茨城の宇宙機構施設が損傷 「きぼう」一部管制できず – サイエンス |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2woTRPp | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on 21 March 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.spaceflightnow.com/h2b/htv2/110327update/ |title=spaceflightnow.com |work=Stephen Clark |accessdate=28 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wpCsdy | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
 
===Cultural properties===
 
[[File:Monuments fell down by 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake in Tokiwa-shrine.JPG|thumb|Damage to a [[Tōrō|traditional lantern]] at [[Tokiwa Jinja|Tokiwa shrine]] in [[Mito, Ibaraki|Mito City]]]]
 
 
754 [[Cultural Properties of Japan|cultural properties]] were damaged across nineteen prefectures, including five [[National Treasures of Japan|National Treasures]] (at [[Zuigan-ji]], [[Ōsaki Hachiman-gū]], [[Shiramizu Amidadō]], and [[Seihaku-ji]]); 160 [[Important Cultural Properties of Japan|Important Cultural Properties]] (including at [[Sendai Tōshō-gū]], the [[Kōdōkan (Mito)|Kōdōkan]], and [[Entsū-in (Matsushima)|Entsū-in]], with its [[Namban art|western decorative motifs]]); one hundred and forty-four [[Monuments of Japan]] (including [[Matsushima]], [[Takata-matsubara]], [[Yūbikan]], and the [[Site of Tagajō]]); six [[Groups of Traditional Buildings]]; and four [[Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties]]. Stone monuments at the UNESCO [[World Heritage Site]]: [[Shrines and Temples of Nikkō]] were toppled.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/pdf/2011_Tohoku_ver14.pdf |title=Damages to Cultural Properties in "the Great East Japan Earthquake" |publisher=[[Agency for Cultural Affairs]] |date=16 February 2012 |accessdate=22 April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkazai/tohokujishin_kanren/hisaijyokyo.html |title=東日本大震災による文化芸術分野の被災状況 |trans_title=Effects of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in the field of Culture and the Arts |language=Japanese |publisher=[[Agency for Cultural Affairs]] |accessdate=22 April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/culture/news/20110312-OYT1T00635.htm |title=岡倉天心ゆかりの文化財「六角堂」、津波で消失 |publisher=[[Daily Yomiuri]] |date=12 March 2011 |accessdate=6 May 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110512010008/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/culture/news/20110312-OYT1T00635.htm| archivedate= 12 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In Tokyo, there was damage to [[Koishikawa Kōrakuen]], [[Rikugien Garden|Rikugien]], [[Hamarikyu Gardens|Hamarikyū Onshi Teien]], and the walls of [[Edo Castle]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkashingikai/seisaku/09_01/pdf/shiryo_6.pdf |title=Damage to Cultural Properties |publisher=[[Agency for Cultural Affairs]] |date=27 April 2011 |accessdate=9 May 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110512010025/http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkashingikai/seisaku/09_01/pdf/shiryo_6.pdf| archivedate= 12 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Information on the condition of collections held by museums, libraries and archives is still incomplete.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.iccrom.org/eng/news_en/2011_en/various_en/13_24earthquakeJapan_en.pdf |title=An Interim Report on the Situation of Cultural Heritage in Japan after the Tohoku district -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake (or Tohoku Earthquake) |publisher=[[ICCROM]] |accessdate=8 May 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110512010023/http://www.iccrom.org/eng/news_en/2011_en/various_en/13_24earthquakeJapan_en.pdf| archivedate= 12 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> There was no damage to the [[Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi]] in Iwate prefecture, and the recommendation for their inscription on the [[List of World Heritage Sites in Japan|UNESCO World Heritage List]] in June was seized upon as a symbol of international recognition and recovery.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110507002957.htm |title=UNESCO move brings joy |publisher=[[Daily Yomiuri]] |accessdate=9 May 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110508220133/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110507002957.htm| archivedate= 8 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
 
==Aftermath==
 
[[File:Rescued from Tsunami at Ishinomaki.JPG|thumb|upright|Rescue operations in the floodwaters in downtown [[Ishinomaki]]]]
 
<!-- (This is a summary only – see main article for supporting references.) -->{{Main|Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami}}
 
 
The aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and a major economic impact. The tsunami resulted in over 340,000 displaced people in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces (under Joint Task Force - Tohoku, led by Lieutenant General [[Eiji Kimizuka]]), while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. Aid organizations both in Japan and worldwide also responded, with the Japanese Red Cross reporting $1&nbsp;billion in donations. The economic impact included both immediate problems, with industrial production suspended in many factories, and the longer term issue of the cost of rebuilding which has been estimated at ¥10&nbsp;trillion ($122&nbsp;billion). In comparison to the [[1995 Great Hanshin earthquake]], the East Japan Earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range.<ref>{{cite book | title=East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Evacuation, Communication, Education and Volunteerism | publisher=Research Publishing Services | author=Rajib Shaw and Yukiko Takeuchi | year=2012 | location=Singapore | page=288 | isbn=978-981-07-0186-4}}</ref>
 
 
The aftermath of the twin disasters also left Japan's coastal cities and towns with nearly 25 million tons of debris. In Ishinomaki alone, there were 17 trash collection sites 180 metres long and at least 4.5 metres high. An official in the city's government trash disposal department estimated that it would take three years to empty these sites.<ref>{{cite journal | title=Japan tackles mountains of trash | publisher=Christian Science Monitor | author=Peter Ford | date=July 18, 2011 | page=12}}</ref>
 
 
==Humanitarian response==
 
{{Main|Humanitarian response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami}}
 
[[File:2011TsunamiFireVehicles.jpg|thumb|upright|Rescue operations in the floodwaters in downtown Ishinomaki]]
 
 
According to Japan's foreign ministry, 116 countries and 28 international organizations offered assistance. Japan specifically requested assistance from teams from [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], [[South Korea]], and the [[United States]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/11/us-japan-quake-aid-refile-idUSTRE72A71320110311|title=Japan requests foreign rescue teams, UN says|last=Nebehay|first=Stephanie|date=11 March 2011|work=[[Reuters]]|accessdate=11 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
==Media coverage==
 
[[File:Anti nuclear rally in Tokyo on Sunday 27 March 2011.JPG|thumb|Protesting following the disaster]]
 
 
Japan's national public broadcaster, [[NHK]], and [[JSTV|Japan Satellite Television]] suspended their usual programming to provide ongoing coverage of the situation.<ref>NHK News, 14:40 JST.</ref> Other nationwide Japanese TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. [[Ustream.tv|Ustream Asia]] broadcast live feeds of NHK, [[Tokyo Broadcasting System]], [[Nippon TV]], [[Fuji TV]], [[TV Asahi]], [[TV Tokyo]], [[Tokyo MX]], [[TV Kanagawa]], and [[CNN]] on the Internet starting on 12 March 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://internet.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/news/20110312_432721.html |title=Ustream Asia、民放TV各局の東北地方太平洋沖地震報道番組を同時配jmjffr -INTERNET Watch| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wpuUWE | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[YokosoNews]], an Internet webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations, translating them in real time to English.<ref>Pinola, Melanie. [http://lifehacker.com/#!5781316/listen-to-live-coverage-from-japan-in-english-from-yokosonews Listen to Live Coverage from Japan In English from YokosoNews], "lifehacker", 13 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wqbuig|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> All warnings were broadcast by NHK in five languages: Japanese, English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations).<ref>{{cite web|author= |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYLh6AroU20&feature=related |title=An actual recording of an emergency broadcast in English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese |work=Youtube |accessdate=7 September 2011}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}} ("This video has been removed by the user. Sorry about that.")</ref>
 
 
It was noted that the Japanese news media has been at times overly cautious to avoid panic and reliant on confusing statements by experts and officials.<ref>Brasor, Philip. [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fd20110320pb.html "Local broadcasters remain calm during the quake crisis,"] ''Japan Times''. 20 March 2011; Johnston, Eric. [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110321f1.html "Foreign media take flak for fanning fears,"] ''Japan Times''. 21 March 2011; Harlan, Chico and Akiko Yamamoto. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/in-japan-disaster-coverage-is-measured-not-breathless/2011/03/26/AFMmfxlB_story.html "In Japan, disaster coverage is measured, not breathless,"] ''Washington Post'' (US). 27 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-15. {{WebCite |url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wqoFZn|date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided [[Japanese Sign Language]] (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami.<ref>[http://deafjapan.blogspot.com/2011/03/first-interpreting-at-government-press.html "First interpreting at government press conference on disaster,"] ''Deaf News Japan.'' 20 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-14. {{WebCite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wsgMdq|date=18 April 2011}}</ref> Television broadcasts of the press conferences of Prime Minister [[Naoto Kan]] and [[Chief Cabinet Secretary]] [[Yukio Edano]] included simultaneous JSL interpreters standing next to the Japanese flag on the same platform.<ref>[http://www.usicd.org/index.cfm/news_pwd-relief-headquarters-petition "Japan Relief Headquarters for Persons with Disabilities Petition for Support and Accommodation Following Earthquake,"] United States International Council on Disabilities (USICD), 17 March 2011, retrieved 2011-04-14; [http://www.komei.or.jp/en/news/detail/20110320_4766 "New Komeito post-quake initiatives being adopted,"] New Komeito Party. 20 March 2011, retrieved 2011-04-14; [http://edmonton.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20110401/japan-radiation-110401/20110401/?hub=EdmontonHome "Japan's PM set to visit crippled nuclear plant,"] CTV (Canada). 1 April 2011; see photo. Retrieved 2011-04-14. {{WebCite |url=http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wssAVh |date=18 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
According to [[Jake Adelstein]], most Japanese media accepted and parroted the misinformation put out by the Japanese government and TEPCO about the unfolding Fukushima nuclear crisis. Notable exceptions, according to Adelstein, were newspapers ''[[Sankei Shimbun]]'' and ''[[Chunichi Shimbun]]'' which questioned the accuracy of the information coming from the government and TEPCO. Because of the unquestioning nature of most Japanese media to hold to the "party line", many Japanese mid-level officials and experts spoke to foreign media to get their opinions and observations publicized.<ref>[[Jake Adelstein|Adelstein, Jake]], "[http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2012/01/01/national/what-2011-means-for-japan-in-2012-and-beyond/ What 2011 means for Japan in 2012 and beyond]," ''[[Japan Times]]'', 1 January 2012, p. 20.</ref>
 
 
[[Atsushi Funahashi]], director of ''Nuclear Nation'' notes that "when the overseas media was calling Fukushima a ‘[[Nuclear meltdown|meltdown]],’ the Japanese government and media waited two months before admitting it."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/culture/2014/03/japans-radioactive-nightmare.html|title=JAPAN’S RADIOACTIVE NIGHTMARE|publisher=[[The New Yorker]]}}</ref>
 
 
==Scientific and research response==
 
 
A large amount of data was collected that provides "the possibility to model in great detail what happened during the rupture of an earthquake."<ref name="DW" /> The effect of this data is expected to be felt across other disciplines as well, and this disaster will "provide unprecedented information about how buildings hold up under long periods of shaking – and thus how to build them better."<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-sci-japan-quake-science-20110313,0,5782113.story|title=Japan earthquake shifted Earth on its axis|last=Brown|first=Eryn|date=12 March 2011|work=Los Angeles Times |accessdate=13 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5x96cBq8d|archivedate=13 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
Seismologists had anticipated that the "big one" would strike the same place as the [[1923 Great Kantō earthquake]]—in the [[Sagami Trough]], southwest of Tokyo.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110315-japan-earthquake-tsunami-big-one-science/|title=Japan Earthquake Not the "Big One"? |last=Lovett|first=Richard A.|date=14 March 2011|work=[[National Geographic News]]|accessdate=17 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xG1LYwp9|archivedate=17 March 2011}}</ref><ref name="Achenbach">{{Cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/11/AR2011031102415_pf.html|title=Japan: The 'Big One' hit, but not where they thought it would|last=Achenbach|first=Joel|date=11 March 2011|work=The Washington Post |accessdate=17 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xG1EVm2z|archivedate=17 March 2011}}</ref> Since 1976, when [[Katsuhiko Ishibashi]] said a large earthquake in the [[Suruga Trough]] was forthcoming, the government tracked plate movements, in preparation for the so-called [[Tōkai earthquakes|Tokai earthquake]].<ref name="Powell">{{Cite news|url=http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/03/japan-earthquake-surpise/|title=Japan Quake Epicenter Was in Unexpected Location|last=Powell|first=Devin|date=17 March 2011|work=[[Wired News]]|accessdate=17 March 2011|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5xG14OpFb|archivedate=17 March 2011}}</ref> Occurring 373&nbsp;km (232&nbsp;mi) northeast of Tokyo, the Tōhoku earthquake came as a surprise to seismologists, since the [[Japan Trench]] was known for creating large quakes, but was not expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude.<ref name="Achenbach" /><ref name="Powell" />
 
 
== See also ==
 
[[File:Fukushima7.png|thumb|Fukushima radiation comparison to other incidents and standards, with graph of recorded radiation levels and specific accident events.''(Note: Does not include all radiation readings from Fukushima Daini site)'']]
 
 
* [[2011 Japanese nuclear accidents]]
 
* [[Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami]]
 
* [[Health crisis]]
 
* [[Humanitarian response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami]]
 
* [[List of cities and towns severely damaged by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami]]
 
* [[List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake]]
 
* [[List of earthquakes#Largest earthquakes by magnitude|List of largest earthquakes]]
 
* [[Nuclear power in Japan#Seismicity|Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity]]
 
* ''[[Ryō Un Maru]]''
 
* [[Seismicity in Japan]]
 
** [[List of earthquakes in Japan]]
 
** [[List of historic tsunamis]]
 
** [[Seismicity of the Sanriku coast]]
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{Reflist
 
| group="fn"
 
| refs =
 
{{#Tag:ref|In the early days after the earthquake some other names were proposed and used. The Japan Meteorological Agency announced the English name as '''The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake'''.<ref>{{cite news|url= http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2011/03/quake-shifted-japan-coast-about-13-feet-knocked-earth-65-inches-off-axis/1|title=Quake shifted Japan coast about 13&nbsp;feet, knocked Earth 6.5&nbsp;inches off axis|author=Michael Winter|date=14 March 2011|work=USA Today |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2wu5DFh | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/News/2011_Earthquake_01.html| title = The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ~first report~ |publisher=Japan Meteorological Agency|accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x9gMMWr1 | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no |date=March 2011}}</ref> NHK<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/jishin0311/ |title=NHKニュース 東北関東大震災(動画) |publisher=.nhk.or.jp |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x9kH20np | archivedate=13 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.nhk.or.jp/saigai/jishin/sendai/4133_1.html |title=仙台放送局 東北関東大震災 |publisher=.nhk.or.jp |accessdate=15 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5x8MOuSc5 | archivedate=12 March 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> used {{Nihongo|'''Tōhoku Kantō Great Earthquake disaster'''|東北関東大震災|Tōhoku Kantō Daishinsai}}; {{Nihongo|'''Tōhoku-Kantō Great Earthquake'''|東北・関東大地震|Tōhoku-Kantō Daijishin}} was used by Kyodo News,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.kyodonews.jp/feature/news04/ |title=東日本大震災 – 一般社団法人 共同通信社 ニュース特集 |agency=Kyodo News |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x66xFC | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> Tokyo Shimbun<ref>{{cite web|author=【東京】 |url=http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/tokyo/20110312/CK2011031202000013.html |title=東京新聞:収まらぬ余震 …不安 東北・関東大地震:東京(TOKYO Web) |publisher=Tokyo-np.co.jp |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110317002516/http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/tokyo/20110312/CK2011031202000013.html| archivedate= 17 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref> and Chunichi Shimbun;<ref>{{cite web|author=【中日新聞からのお知らせ】 |url=http://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/release/CK2011031202000067.html |title=中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web) |publisher=Chunichi.co.jp |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x7VS0y | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> {{Nihongo|'''East Japan Giant Earthquake'''|東日本巨大地震|Higashi Nihon Kyodaijishin}} was used by [[Yomiuri Shimbun]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/feature/eq2011/ |title=東日本巨大地震 震災掲示板 : 特集 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞) |work=Yomiuri Shimbun |location=Japan |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x8tebC | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Nihon Keizai Shimbun]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nikkei.com/news/special/top/q=9694E3E3E2E1E0E2E3E3E5E3E6E2;p=9694E3E3E2E1E0E2E3E3E5E3E1E6;o=9694E3E3E2E1E0E2E3E3E5E3E1E1 |title=東日本巨大地震 :特集 :日本経済新聞 |language=Japanese |publisher=Nikkei.com |date=1 January 2000 |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2x9UcNY | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and [[TV Asahi]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.tv-asahi.co.jp/ann/news/web/html/210313015.html |title=【地震】東日本巨大地震を激甚災害指定 政府 |publisher=News.tv-asahi.co.jp |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110317002505/http://news.tv-asahi.co.jp/ann/news/web/html/210313015.html| archivedate= 17 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref> and {{Nihongo|'''East Japan Great Earthquake'''|東日本大地震|Higashi Nihon Daijishin}} was used by [[Nippon Television]],<ref>{{cite web|url=https://cr.ntv.co.jp/24htv/charity/ |title=東日本大地震 緊急募金受け付け中 |publisher=Cr.ntv.co.jp |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2xBREvo | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Tokyo FM]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tfm.co.jp/timetable/?date=20110314 |title=番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0&nbsp;MHz – 80.Love FM RADIO STATION |publisher=Tfm.co.jp |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2xC2muf | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> and TV Asahi.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://kakaku.com/tv/channel=10/programID=4196/episodeID=472647/ |title=「報道特番 ~東日本大地震~」 2011年3月14日(月)放送内容 |publisher=Kakaku.com |accessdate=17 March 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110317002459/http://kakaku.com/tv/channel=10/programID=4196/episodeID=472647/| archivedate= 17 March 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>|name="fn_1"|group="fn"}}
 
}}
 
{{Clear}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em|refs=<ref name="jma">{{cite web|url=http://www.jma.go.jp/en/quake/20110311150154391-111446.html |title=Japan Meteorological Agency &#124; Earthquake Information |publisher=Jma.go.jp |accessdate=11 March 2011| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5y2xF2rpM | archivedate=18 April 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref>}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*{{cite book | last = Architectural Institute of Japan (editor) | first = | title = Preliminary Reconnaissance Report of the 2011 Tohoku-Chiho Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake | edition = | url = | accessdate = | year = 2012 | series= | publisher = Springer | location = | isbn = | issn = | OCLC = | page = 460}}
 
*{{cite book | last = Birmingham | first = Lucy | first2 = David | last2 = McNeill | title = Strong in the Rain: Surviving Japan's Earthquake, Tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster | edition = | url = | accessdate = | year = 2012 | series= | publisher = Palgrave Macmillan | location = | isbn = | issn = | OCLC = | page = 256}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{sister project links|commons=Category:2011 Tōhoku earthquake|wikt=no|q=no|b=no|s=no|v=no|species=no|n=Category:2011 Sendai earthquake and tsunami}}
 
*[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/japan-killer-quake.html Japan's Killer Quake] - [[Nova (TV series)|NOVA]]
 
* [[Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale|Shindo scale]] [http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/shindo_db/db_map/201103/11/A20110311144600000000038000000000142540000000100000079J0000007000000_map.html map of Japan in 2011 Tōhoku earthquake] from [[Japan Meteorological Agency]] (Japanese)
 
* [http://documentarystorm.com/nature-biology/countdown-to-catastrophe-megaquake-japan-and-beyond/ Countdown to Catastrophe: MegaQuake – Japan and Beyond (documentary)]
 
* [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usc0001xgp.php Earthquake Report] from [[United States Geological Survey]] (USGS)
 
* [http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/poster/2011/20110311.php Poster of the Great Tohoku Earthquake] from [[United States Geological Survey]] (USGS)
 
* [http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/honshu_11mar2011.shtml Tsunami and Water Level Data] from [[National Geophysical Data Center]] (NOAA/NGDC)
 
* [http://supersites.earthobservations.org/sendai.php Scientific information about the Tohoku earthquake]
 
* {{YouTube|id=xylDxj6-9dY|title=Earthquake Swarm Google Earth Animation}}
 
* [http://ptwc.weather.gov/ Pacific Tsunami Warning Center] at [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]] (NOAA)
 
* [https://community.apan.org/hadr/japan_earthquake/default.aspx Japan Earthquake 2011] All Partners Access Network (APAN)
 
* [http://www.esri.com/services/disaster-response/japan-earthquake-tsunami-2011-map/index.html Japan Incident Map] at [[Esri]]
 
* [http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/DE687B15F54FBFBD8525785500636B6C-map.pdf Map of Tsunami Inundation Areas in Japan] from [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/RKRR-8EZP8P?OpenDocument&rc=3&emid=EQ-2011-000028-JPN ReliefWeb]
 
* [http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2011/03/massive_earthquake_hits_japan.html Massive earthquake hits Japan] Photos from ''[[The Boston Globe]]''
 
* [http://www.abc.net.au/news/events/japan-quake-2011/beforeafter.htm Japan Earthquake: before and after] aerial and satellite images from ABC News, credited to [http://google-latlong.blogspot.com/2011/03/post-earthquake-images-of-japan.html Post-earthquake images of Japan]
 
* [http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/13/world/asia/satellite-photos-japan-before-and-after-tsunami.html Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami] ''The New York Times''
 
* [http://www.disasterscharter.org/web/charter/activation_details?p_r_p_1415474252_assetId=ACT-359 Diverse satellite imagery] taken under the aegis of the [[International Charter on Space and Major Disasters]]
 
* [http://wiki.esipfed.org/index.php/110311_JapanEarthquake 110311 JapanEarthquake] at the [[Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)]]
 
* [http://www.google.com/crisisresponse/japanquake2011.html 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami] at [[Google Crisis Response]]
 
* [http://wiki.crisiscommons.org/wiki/Honshu_Quake Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Datafeeds gathering] and [http://wiki.crisiscommons.org/wiki/Japan_Data_Profile Japan Data Profile inputs for Common Operational Datasets] at CrisisCommons
 
* [http://reliefweb.int/rw/dbc.nsf/doc108?OpenForm&rc=3&emid=EQ-2011-000028-JPN Japan: Earthquake and Tsunami – Mar 2011] ReliefWeb
 
* [http://www.nytimes.com/packages/flash/newsgraphics/2011/0311-japan-earthquake-map/index.html Map of the Damage From the Japanese Earthquake] ''The New York Times''
 
* [http://ias.umn.edu/phenomena/bat-faculty-interviews/japan-in-crisis-2011/ Japan in Crisis: A Series of Interviews with Scholars by Peter Shea at the University of Minnesota]
 
* [http://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/data/hottopics/japanquake/ Special: The Tohoku-Oki Earthquake, Japan] – free-access scientific papers from ''Science'' magazine
 
* [http://www.r-bloggers.com/analysis-of-japanese-earthquakes-data/ Statistical Analysis of Japanese Earthquakes Data]
 
*{{Dmoz|Science/Earth_Sciences/Natural_Disasters_and_Hazards/Earthquakes/Past_Earthquakes/Sendai%2C_Japan_2011}}
 
* [http://www.news-world.us/pics/2011/03/11/japan-gigantic-earthquake-and-tsunami-2011/ Japan Gigantic Earthquake and Tsunami 2011]
 
* [http://cake.fiu.edu/Tsunami/ TerraFly Timeline Aerial Imagery of 2011 Tsunami in Ishinomaki damage]
 
* [http://e.nagasaki.mapping.jp/p/japan-earthquake.html The East Japan Earthquake Archive (Testimonies of survivors, Photographs and Videos on Google Earth)]
 
 
===Tsunami videos===
 
;[[Minamisanriku, Miyagi|Minami Sanriku]]
 
* video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa High School (志津川高校): {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vZR0Rq1Rfw |work=YouTube |title=南三陸町志津川高校から見た津波の様子 |trans_title=Tsunami attacking in Minami-Sanriku |language=Japanese |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=21 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110422211147/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vZR0Rq1Rfw| archivedate= 22 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{Coord|38.6813|141.4398|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
** another video from a similar vantage point as above, showing a wider-angle view of some parts: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omY9cwaFAy0 |work=YouTube |title=画質調整版 南三陸町 志津川 japan earthquake, tsunami |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=26 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005750/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omY9cwaFAy0| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}}
 
* video of tsunami, shot from Shizugawa Junior High School (志津川中学校): {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxng4VE8ptw |work=YouTube |title=南三陸町を襲った津波の一部始終 |trans_title=tsunami Minamisanriku, Miyagi, japan |language=Japanese |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=21 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110422211158/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxng4VE8ptw| archivedate= 22 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}{{dead link|date=February 2012}} {{Coord|38.6864|141.4433|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
;[[Miyako, Iwate|Miyako]]
 
* cars tossed and ships tipping over: {{cite web |format='''video''' |title=東北・関東地震 宮古市の港に到達した津波 |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NztouaHuCXw |work=YouTube |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=201-04-25}}{{dead link|date=May 2012}} {{coord|39.6412|141.9573|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
;[[Kamaishi, Iwate|Kamaishi]]
 
* From a hillside: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRDpTEjumdo |work=YouTube |title=Fresh footage of huge tsunami waves smashing town in Japan |publisher=RussiaToday |language=Japanese |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=27 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005758/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRDpTEjumdo| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|39.2754|141.8884|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
* From the Post Office building near the waterfront: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ikus_TEaGI |work=YouTube |title=Caught on Tape: Tsunami hits Japan port town |publisher=CBS |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=27 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005802/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ikus_TEaGI| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|39.27425|141.8887|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
;[[Kesennuma, Miyagi|Kesennuma]]
 
* from the waterfront: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQfdl7y-blE |work=YouTube |title=Japan Earthquake 2011 – Japan Tsunami 2011.mp4 |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=27 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005804/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQfdl7y-blE| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|38.89155|141.5878|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
;[[Shiogama, Miyagi|Shiogama]]
 
* spilling into the streets: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PR_jGb4flt8 |work=YouTube |title=高画質調整版 2011年3月11日 15時54分~ 塩釜港の津波 tsunami shiogama |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=27 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005806/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PR_jGb4flt8| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|38.31854|141.02335|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
* same incident as above, shot from rooftop parking lot: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjHLeGYxdq4 |work=YouTube |title=東北地方太平洋沖地震 津波 塩竈港.mov |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=27 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110428005809/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjHLeGYxdq4| archivedate= 28 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|38.31897|141.02528|dim:10|name=location where video was shot, ±10 meters |display=inline}}
 
;[[Sendai]]
 
* spreading across farmland towards a road, near the Miyagi Prefecture Route 10 (県道10号) bridge across the Natori River: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4w27IczOTk |work=YouTube |publisher=Associated Press / NHK World |title=Raw Video: Tsunami Slams Northeast Japan |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=28 April 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110429052616/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4w27IczOTk| archivedate= 29 April 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{coord|38.182|140.952|dim:500|name=location where video was shot, ±200 meters |display=inline}}
 
* [[Sendai Airport]]: cars and aircraft being washed away: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YANatbCq9Zw |work=Asahi Shimbun |location=Japan |title=【海上保安庁提供】仙台空港を襲う津波 |language=Japanese |date=11 March 2011 |accessdate=7 May 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110507220353/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YANatbCq9Zw| archivedate= 7 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}
 
;Unidentified location
 
*[http://beforeitsnews.com/japan-earthquake/2013/08/shocking-new-japan-tsunami-video-found-released-on-youtube-2443316.html Shocking New Japan Tsunami Video Found & Released On YouTube | Japan Earthquake] (25:48)
 
*Gross, Richard. (2011, 19 March) “Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth’s Axis” NPR online, http://www.npr.org/2011/03/18/134658880/Japan-Earthquake-May-Have-Changed-Earths-Axis
 
*video of tsunami sweeping cars on the street filmed by in-car camera: {{cite web |format='''video''' |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YANatbCq9Zw |title=津波にのまれた車載カメラ – 20110616放送 NEWS ZERO}}
 
* [http://www.r-bloggers.com/analysis-of-japanese-earthquakes-data/ Analysis of Japanese Earthquakes Data]
 
*[http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/news/tags/index.php/pw:jpnearthquake2011/Great%20East%20Japan%20Earthquake%202011/ PreventionWeb Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 ]
 
 
{{2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami}}
 
{{Earthquakes in 2011}}
 
{{JapanTrenchMegathrust}}
 
{{Earthquakes in Japan}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:2011 Tohoku Earthquake And Tsunami}}
 
[[Category:2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami| ]]
 
[[Category:2011 earthquakes|Tohoku]]
 
[[Category:2011 in Japan|Earthquake]]
 
[[Category:21st-century tsunamis]]
 
[[Category:Coasts of Japan]]
 
[[Category:Civilian nuclear power accidents]]
 
[[Category:Midway Atoll]]
 
[[Category:History of Tokyo]]
 
[[Category:Megathrust earthquakes in Japan]]
 
[[Category:2011 natural disasters in the United States|Tohoku]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in British Columbia]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in California]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in Hawaii]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in Oregon]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in Papua New Guinea]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in Peru]]
 
[[Category:Natural disasters in Washington (state)]]
 
[[Category:Nuclear energy in Japan]]
 
[[Category:Postwar Japan]]
 
[[Category:Sendai]]
 
[[Category:Tōhoku region]]
 
[[Category:Tsunamis in Chile]]
 
[[Category:Tsunamis in Japan]]
 
[[Category:Tsunamis in the United States]]
 
 
{{Link FA|ms}}
 
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