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User:Hollyfern5
Article:Hebrew language
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'''Hebrew''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|h|iː|b|r|uː}} ({{Hebrew|עִבְרִית}} ''{{transl|he|ʿIvrit}}'' {{IPA-he|ʔivˈʁit||Ivrit1.ogg}} or {{IPA-he|ʕivˈɾit||He-Ivrit.ogg}}) is a [[West Semitic languages|West Semitic language]] of the [[Afroasiatic languages|Afroasiatic language family]]. Historically, it is regarded as the [[Jewish languages|language]] of the [[Hebrews]]/[[Israelites]] and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the [[Tanakh]].{{#tag:ref|In the [[Tanakh]] ([[Old Testament]]), the language was referred to as "yehudit" (the language of Judah") or "səpaṯ kəna‘an" (the language of Canaan).<ref>[http://aschmann.net/BibleChronology/HebrewInGenesis.pdf Rick Aschmann, “Hebrew” in Genesis]</ref><ref name=ASB>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EZCgpaTgLm0C&pg=PA1 A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Sáenz-Badillos]</ref> Later Hellenistic writers such as [[Josephus]] and the [[Gospel of John]] used the term ''Hebraisti'' to refer to both Hebrew and Aramaic.<ref name=ASB/>|group="note"}} The earliest examples of written [[Paleo-Hebrew alphabet|Paleo-Hebrew]] date from the 10th century BCE, in the form of primitive drawings.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.physorg.com/news182101034.html |title=Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered |publisher=Physorg.com |date= |accessdate=2013-04-25}}</ref>
 
'''Hebrew''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|h|iː|b|r|uː}} ({{Hebrew|עִבְרִית}} ''{{transl|he|ʿIvrit}}'' {{IPA-he|ʔivˈʁit||Ivrit1.ogg}} or {{IPA-he|ʕivˈɾit||He-Ivrit.ogg}}) is a [[West Semitic languages|West Semitic language]] of the [[Afroasiatic languages|Afroasiatic language family]]. Historically, it is regarded as the [[Jewish languages|language]] of the [[Hebrews]]/[[Israelites]] and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the [[Tanakh]].{{#tag:ref|In the [[Tanakh]] ([[Old Testament]]), the language was referred to as "yehudit" (the language of Judah") or "səpaṯ kəna‘an" (the language of Canaan).<ref>[http://aschmann.net/BibleChronology/HebrewInGenesis.pdf Rick Aschmann, “Hebrew” in Genesis]</ref><ref name=ASB>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EZCgpaTgLm0C&pg=PA1 A History of the Hebrew Language, Angel Sáenz-Badillos]</ref> Later Hellenistic writers such as [[Josephus]] and the [[Gospel of John]] used the term ''Hebraisti'' to refer to both Hebrew and Aramaic.<ref name=ASB/>|group="note"}} The earliest examples of written [[Paleo-Hebrew alphabet|Paleo-Hebrew]] date from the 10th century BCE, in the form of primitive drawings.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.physorg.com/news182101034.html |title=Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered |publisher=Physorg.com |date= |accessdate=2013-04-25}}</ref>
   
Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language by around 200 [[Common era|CE]], and survived into the medieval period only as the language of Jewish liturgy and rabbinic literature. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to [[Ethnologue]], is now the language of 9 million people worldwide,<ref name=israel-hayom-hebrew-speakers>{{cite news|last=Klein|first=Zeev|title=A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew|url=http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=8065|accessdate=2 November 2013|newspaper=[[Israel Hayom]]|date=March 18, 2013}}</ref><ref name=Behadrey-Haredim>{{cite web|authors=Nachman Gur, Behadrey Haredim|title=Kometz Aleph – Au• How many Hebrew speakers are there in the world?|url=http://www.bhol.co.il/article_en.aspx?id=52405|accessdate=2 November 2013}}</ref> of whom 7 million are from [[Israel]].<ref name="esl.fis.edu"/><ref name=ucl.ac.uk>{{cite web|title=Hebrew - UCL|url=http://www.ucl.ac.uk/clie/learning-resources/sac/hebrew|work=[[University College London]]|accessdate=2 November 2013}}</ref> The [[United States]] has the second largest Hebrew speaking population, with about 221,593 fluent speakers,<ref name="2009 survey">{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/population/ancestry_language_spoken_at_home.html|title=Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009|work=The 2012 Statistical Abstract|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|accessdate=2011-12-27}}</ref> mostly from Israel.
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Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language by around 200 [[Anno Domini|AD]], and survived into the medieval period only as the language of Jewish liturgy and rabbinic literature. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, and, according to [[Ethnologue]], is now the language of 9 million people worldwide,<ref name=israel-hayom-hebrew-speakers>{{cite news|last=Klein|first=Zeev|title=A million and a half Israelis struggle with Hebrew|url=http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_article.php?id=8065|accessdate=2 November 2013|newspaper=[[Israel Hayom]]|date=March 18, 2013}}</ref><ref name=Behadrey-Haredim>{{cite web|authors=Nachman Gur, Behadrey Haredim|title=Kometz Aleph – Au• How many Hebrew speakers are there in the world?|url=http://www.bhol.co.il/article_en.aspx?id=52405|accessdate=2 November 2013}}</ref> of whom 7 million are from [[Israel]].<ref name="esl.fis.edu"/><ref name=ucl.ac.uk>{{cite web|title=Hebrew - UCL|url=http://www.ucl.ac.uk/clie/learning-resources/sac/hebrew|work=[[University College London]]|accessdate=2 November 2013}}</ref> The [[United States]] has the second largest Hebrew speaking population, with about 221,593 fluent speakers,<ref name="2009 survey">{{Citation|url=http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/population/ancestry_language_spoken_at_home.html|title=Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009|work=The 2012 Statistical Abstract|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|accessdate=2011-12-27}}</ref> mostly from Israel.
   
 
[[Modern Hebrew]] is one of the two [[official language]]s of Israel (the other being [[Literary Arabic|Arabic]]), while [[Classical Hebrew]] is used for prayer or study in [[Jews|Jewish]] communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the [[Samaritans]], while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the [[Middle East]] and its civilizations, as well as by theologians, and in Christian seminaries.
 
[[Modern Hebrew]] is one of the two [[official language]]s of Israel (the other being [[Literary Arabic|Arabic]]), while [[Classical Hebrew]] is used for prayer or study in [[Jews|Jewish]] communities around the world today. Ancient Hebrew is also the liturgical tongue of the [[Samaritans]], while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the [[Middle East]] and its civilizations, as well as by theologians, and in Christian seminaries.
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