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ID:2418301
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Article:Taoism
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===Spelling and pronunciation===
 
===Spelling and pronunciation===
{{Main|Daoism–Taoism romanization issue}}
 
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English speakers continue to debate the preferred [[romanization]] of the words "Daoism" and "Taoism". The root [[Chinese language|Chinese]] word {{lang|zh|[[Wikt:道|道]]}} "way, path" is romanized ''[[tao]]'' in the older [[Wade–Giles]] system and ''[[Tao|dào]]'' in the modern [[Pinyin]] system. In [[linguist]]ic terminology, English ''Taoism''/''Daoism'' is formed from the Chinese [[loanword]] ''tao''/''dao'' {{lang|zh|[[Wikt:道|道]]}} "way; route; principle" and the native [[suffix]] ''-ism''. The debate over ''Taoism'' vs. ''Daoism'' involves [[sinology]], [[phoneme]]s, [[loanword]]s, and politics – not to mention whether ''Taoism'' should be pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|aʊ|.|ɪ|z|əm}} or {{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|aʊ|.|ɪ|z|əm}}.
 
 
''Daoism'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|aʊ|.|ɪ|z|əm}}, but English speakers disagree whether ''Taoism'' should be {{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|aʊ|.|ɪ|z|əm}} or {{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|aʊ|.|ɪ|z|əm}}. In theory, both Wade–Giles ''tao'' and Pinyin ''dao'' are articulated identically, as are ''Taoism'' and ''Daoism''. An investment book titled ''The Tao Jones Averages'' (a pun on the [[Dow Jones Indexes]]) illustrates this {{IPA|/daʊ/}} pronunciation's widespread familiarity.<ref>Goodspeed (1983).</ref> In speech, ''Tao'' and ''Taoism'' are often pronounced {{IPA|/ˈtaʊ/}} and {{IPA|ˈtaʊ.ɪzəm/}}, reading the Chinese unaspirated [[lenis]] ("weak") {{IPA|/t/}} as the English voiceless [[stop consonant]] {{IPA|/t/}}. [[Lexicography]] shows [[American and British English differences]] in pronouncing ''Taoism''. A study of major English dictionaries published in Great Britain and the United States found the most common ''Taoism'' [[glosses]] were {{IPA|/taʊ.ɪzəm/}} in British sources and {{IPA|/daʊ.ɪzəm, taʊ.ɪzəm/}} in American ones.<ref>Carr (1990, pp. 63–65). Converting the various [[pronunciation respelling for English|pronunciation respelling systems]] into [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]], British dictionaries (1933–1989, Table 3) give 9 {{IPA|/taʊ.ɪzəm/}}, 2 {{IPA|/taʊ.ɪzəm, daʊ.ɪzəm/}}, and 1 {{IPA|/daʊ.ɪzəm/}}; American dictionaries (1948–1987, Table 4) give 6 {{IPA|/daʊ.ɪzəm, taʊ.ɪzəm/}}, 2 {{IPA|/taʊ.ɪzəm, daʊ.ɪzəm/}}, 2 {{IPA|/taʊ.ɪzəm/}}, and 1 {{IPA|/daʊ.ɪzəm/}}.</ref>
 
   
 
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