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Article:Empress Shōshi
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[[File:Empress Shoshi and son.jpg|300px|thumb|Empress Shōshi with her infant son [[Emperor Go-Suzaku|Atsuhira]] is depicted in this 13th century [[emaki|painting]], with her father [[Fujiwara no Michinaga]] and lady-in-waiting [[Murasaki Shikibu]] presiding at the 50 day ceremony of the child's birth.]]
 
{{nihongo|'''Fujiwara no Shōshi'''|藤原彰子}} or '''Empress Shōshi''' (988–1074), ('''Akiko'''), also known as {{nihongo|''' Jōtōmon-in'''|上東門院}}, the eldest daughter of [[Fujiwara no Michinaga]], was [[Japanese empresses|Empress of Japan]] from c. 1000 to c. 1011. She was sent by her father, [[Fujiwara no Michinaga]], to live in the emperor's harem as a twelve-year-old and quickly raised to status of second empress to [[Emperor Ichijo]] due to her father's power and influence.
 
 
As empress she built a court where she surrounded herself with talented and educated [[lady-in-waiting|ladies-in-waiting]] such as [[Murasaki Shikibu]], author of ''[[The Tale of Genji]]''. Before she was 20, Shōshi bore two sons for Ichijō, both of whom went on to become emperors and securing the status of the [[Fujiwara clan|Fujiwara]] line. In her late 30s she took vows as a [[Buddhist]] nun, renouncing imperial duties and titles, and assuming the title of Imperial Lady. She continued to be an influential member of the imperial family, living until she was 86.
 
 
== Empress ==
 
In the middle of the 9th century [[Fujiwara no Yoshifusa]] declared himself [[Sesshō and Kampaku|regent]] to [[Emperor Seiwa]]—his young grandson—the [[Fujiwara clan]] dominated court politics until the end of the 11th century, through strategic marriages of Fujiwara daughters into the imperial family and the use of regencies. [[Fujiwara no Michinaga]] had four daughters he arranged to marry to emperors.<ref>Henshall (1999), 24–25</ref> At this period emperors held little power, holding a nominal position for rituals, and often too young to make decisions. In their stead, the top position in the power structure was held by a regent, with power often measured by the how closely the regent was tied by family relationships to an emperor.<ref>Bowring (2005), xiv</ref> In 995 Michinaga's two brothers [[Fujiwara no Michitaka]] and [[Fujiwara no Michikane]] died in rapid succession, leaving the regency vacant; Michinaga won a power struggle against his nephew [[Fujiwara no Korechika]], brother to [[Emperor Ichijō]]'s wife [[Fujiwara no Teishi|Teishi]], aided by his sister Senshi (mother to Emperor Ichijō, [[Emperor En'yū]]'s wife). Because Teishi supported Korechika—later discredited and banished from court—her base of power disintegrated.<ref name = "Shively67ff"/>
 
 
Four years later Michinaga sent Shōshi, his eldest daughter, to Emperor Ichijō's harem when she was about 12.<ref name = "McCullough201ff">McCullough (1990), 201</ref><ref>Bowring believes she was 10 years old when she was sent to court. See Bowring (2005), xiv</ref> A year after placing Shōshi in the imperial harem, in an effort to undermine Teishi's influence and increase Shōshi's standing, Michinaga had her named Empress although Teishi already held the title. As historian [[Donald Shively]] explains, "Michinaga shocked even his admirers by arranging for the unprecedented appointment of Teishi (or Sadako) and Shōshi as concurrent empresses of the same emperor, Teishi holding the usual title of "Lustrous Heir-bearer" ''kōgō'' and Shōshi that of "Inner Palatine" (''chūgū''), a toponymically derived equivalent coined for the occasion".<ref name = "Shively67ff"/> She went on the hold the title of Grand Empress (''Kōtaigō'') and Senior Grand Empress (''Taikōtaigō'').<ref name = "Meeks52ff"/>
 
{{clear}}
 
 
== Ladies-in-waiting ==
 
[[File:Tosa Mitsuoki 001.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Murasaki Shikibu]], shown here in a late 16th-century illustration by [[Tosa Mitsuoki]], joined Shōshi's court in c. 1005.]]
 
 
To give Shōshi prestige and to make her competitive in a court that valued education and learning, Michinaga sought talented, educated and interesting [[lady-in-waiting|ladies-in-waiting]] to build a salon to rival that of Teishi and Senshi (daughter of [[Emperor Murakami]]). Michinaga invited [[Murasaki Shikibu]], author of ''[[The Tale of Genji]]'', to Shōshi's court, where she joined [[Izumi Shikibu]] and [[Akazome Emon]]. At Teishi's court as lady-in-waiting was writer [[Sei Shōnagon]], author of The ''[[Pillow Book]]''. The women at the two empresses' courts wrote some of the best-known and enduring [[Heian era]] literature.<ref>Shirane (1987), 58</ref><ref>Mulhern (1994), 156</ref>
 
 
Although she lived in the Imperial palace, Shōsh's main residence for was in one or another of her father's many mansions, particularly after the Imperial palace burned down in 1005.<ref name="Bowring">Bowring (2005), xxiv</ref> Shōshi was about 16 when Murasaki joined her court, probably to teach her Chinese. Japanese literature scholar [[Arthur Waley]] describes Shōshi as a serious young lady based on a passage from Murasaki who wrote in her diary: "As the years go by Her Majesty is beginning to acquire more experience of life, and no longer judges others by the same rigid standards as before; but meanwhile her Court has gained a reputation for extreme dullness, and is shunned by all who can manage to avoid it".<ref name = "Waleyviii">Waley (1960), viii</ref> Moreover Murasaki describes advice Shōshi gave to her ladies-in-waiting to avoid appearing too flirtatious:
 
<blockquote>Her Majesty does indeed still constantly warn us that it is a great mistake to go too far, 'for a single slip may bring very unpleasant consequences,' and so on, in the old style; but she now also begs us not to reject advances in such a way as to hurt people's feelings. Unfortunately, habits of long standing are not so easily changed; moreover, now that the Empress's exceedingly stylish brothers bring so many of their young courtier-friends to amuse themselves at her house, we have in self-defence been obliged to become more virtuous than ever'.<ref name = "Waleyviii"/></blockquote>
 
 
== Mother to two emperors ==
 
 
Shōshi gave Ichijō two sons, in 1008 and 1009. The births are described in detail in Murasaki's ''[[The Diary of Lady Murasaki]]''. The boys were born at their grandfather's Tsuchimikado mansion, with [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] priests in attendance.<ref name="mulhern">Mulhern, (1991), 86</ref><ref name="Bowring"/> With her second son Atsuhira, Shōshi had a difficult birth; to appease evil spirits she underwent a ritual head shaving, although only a lock of hair was cut.<ref name = "Groner281ff">Groner (2002), 281</ref> This ritual was considered to have been a minor ordination, or [[Buddhist initiation ritual|''jukai'']] into Buddhism, for the purpose of receiving divine protection when her life, and that of her unborn infant, was at risk.<ref name = "Meeks52ff"/>
 
 
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| image1 = Emperor Ichijō.jpg
 
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| caption1 = [[Emperor Ichijō]], Shōshi's husband and father of her two sons, the Emperors [[Emperor Go-Ichijō|Go-Ichijō]] and [[Emperor Go-Suzaku|Go-Suzaku]]
 
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| image2 = Fujiwara no Michinaga.jpg
 
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| caption2 = [[Fujiwara no Michinaga]], shown in a 13th century painting, sent his 12-year-old daughter to court as consort to [[Emperor Ichijō]].
 
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Ritual ceremonies were followed on specific days after the births. As was customary, Michinaga's first visit to Shōshi took the form of a lavish ritual 16 days after she gave birth.<ref name="mulhern"/> In her diary, Murasaki described the clothing of one woman in attendance, "Her mantle had five cuffs of white lined with dark red, and her crimson gown was of beaten silk".<ref>qtd in Mulhern, (1991), 87</ref> On the 50th day after the birth a ceremony was held in which the infant was offered a piece of [[mochi]]; Michinaga performed the ritual offering of the rice cake to his grandson Atsuhira. In her diary Murasaki described the event that she probably attended.<ref>[http://www.emuseum.jp/detail/100341?x=&y=&s=&d_lang=en&s_lang=fr&word=&class=&title=&c_e=&region=&era=&cptype=&owner=&pos=161&num=8&mode=detail&century= "Detached segment of the diary of Lady Murasaki emaki"]. ''National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties of National Museums, Japan''. National Institutes of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved September 10, 2011.</ref>
 
 
Michinaga's influence meant that Shōshi's two sons had a better chance of ascending the throne than Teishi's children—particularly after Teishi's death in 1001.<ref name = "Shively67ff"/> When Ichijō abdicated in 1011 and died soon after,<ref name = "Adolphson31ff">Adolphson (2007), 31</ref> Shōshi's eldest son, the future [[Emperor Go-Ichijō]], was named crown prince.<ref name = "Shively67ff">Shively and McCullough (1999), 67–69</ref> At that time Shōshi retired from the Imperial Palace to live in a Fujiwara mansion in the [[Lake Biwa]] region, most likely accompanied by Murasaki.<ref>Shirane (1987), 221</ref> In 1016 when Michinaga had [[Emperor Sanjō]]—married to Shōshi's younger sister [[Kenshi]]—removed from the throne, Go-Ichijō became emperor. Shōshi's second son, [[Emperor Go-Suzaku|Go-Suzaku]], became crown prince in 1017. With an emperor and a crown prince as sons, Shōshi's position was secure and she became a powerful influence at court.<ref name = "McCullough201ff"/>
 
 
For many years Shōshi's power extended to selecting friends and relatives to fill court positions and to approving consorts—decisions that effected the imperial court. The consorts she selected were her father's direct descendants, thus she asserted control of her father's lineage for many years.<ref name = "Adolphson31ff"/>
 
 
== Imperial Lady ==
 
[[File:Tosa Mitsuoki Genji Album frontispiece of Lake Biwa.jpg|thumb|left|Shoshi likely lived in the [[Lake Biwa]] region, shown here in a late-17th century illustration by [[Tosa Mitsuoki]], after retiring from court.]]
 
It was not uncommon for Heian aristocratic women to take religious vows, become ''nyūdō'', and yet remain in secular life. As her father and her aunt Seishi had done before her, at 39 in 1026, Shōshi underwent an ordination ceremony to become a Buddhist nun. This was done at a lavish ceremony, at a place decorated with gold-leafed illustrated folding screens, priceless gifts were displayed, and courtiers, dressed in sumptuous costumes, were in attendance. The ritual was performed by five priests, three representing the most senior hierarchy of the Buddhist priesthood, one of whom was Shōshi's cousin who performed the hair-cutting ceremony, in which her long hair was cut shoulder-length, called ''amasogi'' style. At this time she assumed the name Jōtōmon-in. This, her second ''jukai'', symbolized a transition from Empress to Imperial Lady, a change of lifestyle, and marked her as a novice nun. However, research suggests that political power was gained rather than lost when becoming Imperial Ladies, despite relinquishing imperial duties and devoting themselves to Buddhist rites. As was the custom for noblewomen of her period, Shōshi took ordination rites in steps; much later in life, in yet another ritual, she received full vows and at that time underwent a full shaving of her head.<ref name = "Meeks52ff">Meeks, 52–57</ref>
 
 
The first two empresses to take title of Imperial Lady were Seishi, later followed by Shōshi. With the title came a new residence and permission to hire men for the household. Shōshi's role as Imperial Lady, as documented in the ''[[Eiga Monogatari]]'', was studied and emulated by imperial women who were to follow her as Imperial Ladies.<ref name = "Meeks58ff">Meeks, 58</ref>
 
 
She died in 1074 aged 86.<ref name = "McCullough201ff"/>
 
 
{{clear}}
 
 
== References ==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
== Sources ==
 
* Adolphson, Mikhael; Kamens, Edward and Matsumoto, Stacie. ''Heian Japan: Centers and Peripheries''. (2007). Honolulu: Hawaii UP. ISBN 978-0-8248-3013-7
 
*[[Richard Bowring|Bowring, Richard John]] (ed). "Introduction". in ''The Diary of Lady Murasaki''. (2005). London: Penguin. ISBN 976-0-14-043576-4
 
* Groner, Paul. ''Ryōgen and Mount Hiei: Japanese Tendai in the tenth century''. (2002). Kuroda Institute. ISBN 978-0-8248-2260-6
 
* Henshall, Kenneth G. ''A History of Japan''. (1999). New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-21986-4
 
* Meeks, Lori. "Reconfiguring Ritual Authenticity: The Ordination Traditions of Aristocratic Women in Premodern Japan". (2006) ''Japanese Journal of Religious Studies''. Volume 33, Number 1. 51–74
 
* [[Helen Craig McCullough|McCullough, Helen]]. ''Classical Japanese Prose: An Anthology''. (1990). Stanford CA: Stanford UP. ISBN 978-0-8047-1960-5
 
* Mulhern, Chieko Irie. ''Heroic with Grace: Legendary Women of Japan''. (1991). Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-527-1
 
* Mulhern, Chieko Irie. ''Japanese Women Writers: a Bio-critical Sourcebook''. (1994). Westport CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-25486-4
 
* Shirane, Haruo. ''The Bridge of Dreams: A Poetics of "The Tale of Genji''". (1987). Stanford CA: Stanford UP. ISBN 978-0-8047-1719-9, 58
 
* [[Donald Shively|Shively, Donald]] and McCullough, William H. ''The Cambridge History of Japan: Heian Japan''. (1999). Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-22353-9
 
* [[Arthur Waley|Waley, Arthur]]. "Introduction". in Shikibu, Murasaki, ''The Tale of Genji: A Novel in Six Parts''. translated by Arthur Waley. (1960). New York: Modern Library.
 
 
{{s-start}}
 
{{s-roy|jp}}
 
{{succession box | before= [[Fujiwara no Teishi]] | title=[[Japanese empresses|Empress consort of Japan]] | after=[[Fujiwara no Kenshi]] | years=1000–1012}}
 
{{s-end}}
 
 
{{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]]. -->
 
| NAME = Shoshi, Empress
 
| ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
 
| SHORT DESCRIPTION =
 
| DATE OF BIRTH = 988
 
| PLACE OF BIRTH =
 
| DATE OF DEATH = 1074
 
| PLACE OF DEATH =
 
}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Shoshi, Empress}}
 
[[Category:988 births]]
 
[[Category:1074 deaths]]
 
[[Category:People of Heian period Japan]]
 
 
[[ja:藤原彰子]]
 
[[zh:藤原彰子]]
 
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