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ID: 1015639
User: 66.4.233.25
Article: Dissociative identity disorder
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m (Journal cites (journal names):, using AWB (8060))
(Developmental trauma)
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== Causes ==
 
== Causes ==
 
tits. Those who accept the validity of DID as a diagnosis attribute it to extremes of [[Stress (biology)|stress]] or disorders of [[attachment theory|attachment]]. What may be expressed as [[posttraumatic stress disorder]] in adults may become DID when found in children, possibly due to their greater use of [[imagination]] as a form of [[coping (psychology)|coping]]. A specific relationship of childhood abuse, disorganized attachment and lack of social support are thought to be a necessary component of DID, along with a rigid [[parenting styles|parenting style]], [[temperament]], genetic predisposition and an inversion of the parent-child relationship.<ref name = Gillig/> Other suggested explanations include insufficient childhood nurturing combined with the innate ability of children in general to [[Dissociation (psychology)|dissociate]] memories or experiences from [[consciousness]].<ref name = merckdoc/> A high percentage of patients report [[child abuse]]<ref name=merckpat>{{cite web | url = http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec07/ch106/ch106e.html | title = Dissociative Identity Disorder, patient's reference | publisher = Merck.com | accessdate = 2007-12-07 | date = 2003-02-01 }}</ref><ref name=Kluft1999>{{cite journal |last=Kluft |first=RP |year=1999 |month= |title=Current Issues in Dissociative Identity Disorder |journal=Bridging Eastern and Western Psychiatry |volume=1 |issue=1 |url=http://journals.lww.com/practicalpsychiatry/Abstract/1999/01000/Current_Issues_in_Dissociative_Identity_Disorder.1.aspx|pages=71–87}}</ref> and others report an early loss, serious medical illness or other traumatic events.<ref name = merckdoc/> People diagnosed with DID often report that they have experienced severe physical and [[sexual abuse]], especially during early to mid childhood.<ref name="dsm4">{{cite book | last = American Psychiatric Association | title = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV TR (Text Revision) | url = http://www.psychiatryonline.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1 | date = 2000-06 | publisher = American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. | location = Arlington, VA, USA | isbn = 978-0-89042-024-9 | doi = 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349 | page = 943}}</ref> They also report more historical psychological trauma than those diagnosed with any other mental illness.<ref name = Vedat2011/> Several psychiatric rating scales of DID sufferers suggested that DID is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying [[electrophysiology|electrophysiological]] dysfunction.<ref>{{cite pmid | 3418321}}</ref>
=== Developmental trauma===
 
Those who accept the validity of DID as a diagnosis attribute it to extremes of [[Stress (biology)|stress]] or disorders of [[attachment theory|attachment]]. What may be expressed as [[posttraumatic stress disorder]] in adults may become DID when found in children, possibly due to their greater use of [[imagination]] as a form of [[coping (psychology)|coping]]. A specific relationship of childhood abuse, disorganized attachment and lack of social support are thought to be a necessary component of DID, along with a rigid [[parenting styles|parenting style]], [[temperament]], genetic predisposition and an inversion of the parent-child relationship.<ref name = Gillig/> Other suggested explanations include insufficient childhood nurturing combined with the innate ability of children in general to [[Dissociation (psychology)|dissociate]] memories or experiences from [[consciousness]].<ref name = merckdoc/> A high percentage of patients report [[child abuse]]<ref name=merckpat>{{cite web | url = http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec07/ch106/ch106e.html | title = Dissociative Identity Disorder, patient's reference | publisher = Merck.com | accessdate = 2007-12-07 | date = 2003-02-01 }}</ref><ref name=Kluft1999>{{cite journal |last=Kluft |first=RP |year=1999 |month= |title=Current Issues in Dissociative Identity Disorder |journal=Bridging Eastern and Western Psychiatry |volume=1 |issue=1 |url=http://journals.lww.com/practicalpsychiatry/Abstract/1999/01000/Current_Issues_in_Dissociative_Identity_Disorder.1.aspx|pages=71–87}}</ref> and others report an early loss, serious medical illness or other traumatic events.<ref name = merckdoc/> People diagnosed with DID often report that they have experienced severe physical and [[sexual abuse]], especially during early to mid childhood.<ref name="dsm4">{{cite book | last = American Psychiatric Association | title = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV TR (Text Revision) | url = http://www.psychiatryonline.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1 | date = 2000-06 | publisher = American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. | location = Arlington, VA, USA | isbn = 978-0-89042-024-9 | doi = 10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349 | page = 943}}</ref> They also report more historical psychological trauma than those diagnosed with any other mental illness.<ref name = Vedat2011/> Several psychiatric rating scales of DID sufferers suggested that DID is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying [[electrophysiology|electrophysiological]] dysfunction.<ref>{{cite pmid | 3418321}}</ref>
 
   
 
In early childhood, children are still developing a personality structure that allows integrative functioning. Trauma greatly interferes with the development of integrative metacognitive functions and associative pathways between naturally developing ego states, enforcing separation instead of diffuse and inclusive functioning.<ref>{{cite book|last=Putnam|first= FW | title = Dissociation in children and adolescents: a developmental perspective | year = 1997 | page = 172 | publisher = [[Guilford Press]] | location = New York | isbn = 1-57230-219-4 | url =http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0t7sVzWDWW8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA172&dq&f=false#v=onepage&q&f=false pp. 172}}</ref> Repeated activation of trauma-related dissociative states (while the [[myelin]] in the hippocampus is still being formed) conditions the brain to function state-dependently and form dissociative identities.<ref>{{cite book | last = Perry | first = BD | year = 1999 | chapter = The memory of states: How the brain stores and retrieves traumatic experience | editors = Goodwin J & Attias R | title = Splintered reflections: Images of the body in treatment | isbn = 0-465-09544-5 | pages = 9–38 |location = New York | publisher = [[Basic Books]] }}</ref><ref name = Guidelines/> Severe sexual, physical, or psychological trauma in childhood by a [[primary caregiver]] has been proposed as an explanation for the development of DID. In this theory, awareness, memories and feelings of a harmful action or event caused by the caregiver is pushed into the [[subconscious]] and dissociation becomes a coping mechanism for the individual during times of stress. These memories and feelings are later experienced as a separate entity, and if this happens multiple times, multiple alters are created.<ref>{{cite book | last = Carson VB | coauthors = Shoemaker, NC & Varcarolis E | title = Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: A Clinical Approach | edition = 5| location = St. Louis | publisher = [[Elsevier|Saunders Elsevier]] | pages = 266–267 | isbn = 1-4160-0088-7 | year = 2006}}</ref>
 
In early childhood, children are still developing a personality structure that allows integrative functioning. Trauma greatly interferes with the development of integrative metacognitive functions and associative pathways between naturally developing ego states, enforcing separation instead of diffuse and inclusive functioning.<ref>{{cite book|last=Putnam|first= FW | title = Dissociation in children and adolescents: a developmental perspective | year = 1997 | page = 172 | publisher = [[Guilford Press]] | location = New York | isbn = 1-57230-219-4 | url =http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0t7sVzWDWW8C&oi=fnd&pg=PA172&dq&f=false#v=onepage&q&f=false pp. 172}}</ref> Repeated activation of trauma-related dissociative states (while the [[myelin]] in the hippocampus is still being formed) conditions the brain to function state-dependently and form dissociative identities.<ref>{{cite book | last = Perry | first = BD | year = 1999 | chapter = The memory of states: How the brain stores and retrieves traumatic experience | editors = Goodwin J & Attias R | title = Splintered reflections: Images of the body in treatment | isbn = 0-465-09544-5 | pages = 9–38 |location = New York | publisher = [[Basic Books]] }}</ref><ref name = Guidelines/> Severe sexual, physical, or psychological trauma in childhood by a [[primary caregiver]] has been proposed as an explanation for the development of DID. In this theory, awareness, memories and feelings of a harmful action or event caused by the caregiver is pushed into the [[subconscious]] and dissociation becomes a coping mechanism for the individual during times of stress. These memories and feelings are later experienced as a separate entity, and if this happens multiple times, multiple alters are created.<ref>{{cite book | last = Carson VB | coauthors = Shoemaker, NC & Varcarolis E | title = Foundations of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: A Clinical Approach | edition = 5| location = St. Louis | publisher = [[Elsevier|Saunders Elsevier]] | pages = 266–267 | isbn = 1-4160-0088-7 | year = 2006}}</ref>
Reason: ANN scored at 0.878779
Reporter Information
Reporter: Reynaldo (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:49:48 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:02:03 PM #100317
Bradley (anonymous)

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Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:49:48 AM #100758
Reynaldo (anonymous)

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