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Article: Oriya language
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'''Oriya''' ({{lang|or|ଓଡ଼ିଆ}} ''{{IAST|oṛiā}}''), officially spelled '''Odia''',<ref>{{cite news|url=http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/orissa-to-odisha-negotiable-instruments-act/1/158874.html|title=Mixed views emerge as Orissa becomes Odisha|work=India Today|accessdate=10 November 2011}}</ref> is an [[India]]n [[language]], belonging to the [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]] branch of the [[Indo-European]] language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian [[States and territories of India|state]]s of [[Orissa]] and in parts of [[West Bengal]], [[Jharkhand]], [[Chhattisgarh]] and [[Andhra Pradesh]]. Oriya is one of the many [[Languages with official status in India|official languages in India]]; it is the official language of Orissa and the second official language of [[Jharkhand]].<ref>[http://ibnlive.in.com/news/oriya-gets-its-due-in-neighbouring-state/181258-60-117.html ''Oriya gets its due in neighbouring state''] Sep 04, 2011</ref><ref>Naresh Chandra Pattanayak.[http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-01/bhubaneswar/29953104_1_oriya-jharkhand-assembly-jharkhand-cabinet ''Oriya second language in Jharkhand''].Sep 1, 2011</ref><ref>[http://daily.bhaskar.com/article/BIH-bengali-Oriya-among-12-dialects-as-2nd-language-in-jharkhand-2392920.html ''Bengali, Oriya among 12 dialects as 2nd language in Jharkhand''].PTI 31 August 2011</ref>
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'''Oriya''' ({{lang|or|ଓଡ଼ିଆ}} ''{{IAST|oṛiā}}''), officially spelled '''Odia''',<ref>{{cite news|url=http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/orissa-to-odisha-negotiable-instruments-act/1/158874.html|title=Mixed views emerge as Orissa becomes Odisha|work=India Today|accessdate=10 November 2011}}</ref> is an [[India]]n [[language]], belonging to the [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]] branch of the [[Indo-European]] language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian [[States and territories of India|state]]s of [[Orissa]] and in parts of [[West Bengal]], [[Jharkhand]], [[Chhattisgarh]] and [[Andhra Pradesh]]. Oriya is one of the many [[Languages with official status in India|official languages in India]]; it is the official language of Orissa.
   
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
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===Foreign countries===
 
===Foreign countries===
The Oriya diaspora constitute a sizeable number in several countries around the world. They are significant in number in countries such as [[Bangladesh]], [[Indonesia]], [[Java]], [[Sumatra]] and [[Bali]] mainly carried by [[sadhaba]], the ancient traders from Orissa who carried the language along with the culture during the [[Maritime history of Orissa|old day trading]]<ref name="Behera2002">{{cite book|author=Subhakanta Behera|title=Construction of an identity discourse: Oriya literature and the Jagannath cult (1866-1936)|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=hbVjAAAAMAAJ|accessdate=31 July 2012|year=2002|publisher=Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers}}</ref>, and in the western countries such as the [[United States]], [[Canada]], [[Australia]] and [[England]]. Oriya speakers are regarded as one of the ‘Transnational Ethnic Indian Groups’. In India, the language is spoken by over 31 million people, and globally over 45 million speak Oriya. It is one of the official languages of India and the major language of Orissa. Oriya language has spread also to the other parts of the globe such as [[Burma]], [[Malaysia]], [[Fiji]], [[Sri Lanka]] and [[Pakistan]].<ref name="Anthropology2003">{{cite book|author=Institute of Social Research and Applied Anthropology|title=Man and life|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DJGAAAAAMAAJ|accessdate=31 July 2012|year=2003|publisher=Institute of Social Research and Applied Anthropology}}</ref>
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The Oriya diaspora constitute a sizeable number in several countries around the world. They are significant in number in countries such as [[Bangladesh]], [[Indonesia]], [[Java]], [[Sumatra]] and [[Bali]] mainly carried by [[sadhaba]], the ancient traders from Orissa who carried the language along with the culture during the [[Maritime history of Orissa|old day trading]]<ref name="Behera2002">{{cite book|author=Subhakanta Behera|title=Construction of an identity discourse: Oriya literature and the Jagannath cult (1866-1936)|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=hbVjAAAAMAAJ|accessdate=31 July 2012|year=2002|publisher=Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers}}</ref>, and in the western countries such as the [[United States]], [[Canada]
 
== Various forms ==
 
 
===Standard Oriya===
 
Mughalbandi Oriya is considered as proper or Standard Oriya due to literary traditions. Mughalbandi Oriya spoken in [[Puri]], [[Khurdha]], [[Cuttack]], [[Jajpur]], [[Jagatsinghpur]], [[Kendrapada]], [[Anandapur]], [[Dhenkanal district|Dhenkanal]], [[Angul]] and [[Nayagarh]] district with little variance.<ref>{{cite web|title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World|url=http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ori}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Mughalbandi, a Dialect of Oriya|url=http://llmap.org/languages/ori-mug.html|publisher=llmap.org|accessdate=19 April 2011}}</ref>
 
 
===Major dialects===
 
* Midnapori Oriya: Spoken in the undivided [[Midnapore]] District of West Bengal.
 
* Singhbhumi Oriya: Spoken in [[East Singhbhum]], [[West Singhbhum]] and [[Saraikela-Kharsawan]] district of [[Jharkhand]]
 
* [[Baleswari Oriya]]: Spoken in [[Balasore district|Baleswar]], [[Bhadrak]] and [[Mayurbhanj]] district of Orissa.
 
* [[Ganjami Oriya]]:Spoken in [[Ganjam]] and [[Gajapati]] districts of Orissa and [[Srikakulam]] district of Andhra Pradesh.
 
* Desiya Oriya: Spoken in [[Koraput]], [[Rayagada]], [[Nowrangpur]] and [[Malkangiri]] Districts of Orissa and in the hilly regions of [[Vishakhapatnam]], [[Vizianagaram]] District of Andhra Pradesh.
 
* [[Sambalpuri language|Sambalpuri]] Oriya: Spoken in [[Bargarh district|Bargarh]], [[Bolangir district|Bolangir]], [[Boudh district|Boudh]], [[Debagarh district|Debagarh]], [[Jharsuguda district|Jharsuguda]], [[Kalahandi]], [[Nuapada district|Nuapada]], [[Sambalpur district|Sambalpur]], [[Subarnapur district|Subarnapur]] and [[Sundargarh district|Sundargarh]] districts of Orissa and by some people in [[Raigarh district|Raigarh]], [[Mahasamund district|Mahasamund]], [[Raipur district|Raipur]] districts of [[Chhattisgarh]] state.
 
*Bhatri: Spoken in South-western Orissa and eastern-south Chhattisgarh.
 
*[[Halbi]]:Spoken in undivided Bastar district of [[Chhattisgarh]] state.
 
 
==History==
 
 
Oriya is an [[List of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages|Eastern Indo-Aryan language]] belonging to the [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan language family]]. It is thought to be directly descended from a [[Magadhi Prakrit]] similar to [[Ardha Magadhi]], which was spoken in eastern India over 1,500 years ago, and is the primary language used in early Jain texts.<ref name="The Harvard Lecture">The Harvard Lecture</ref> Oriya appears to have had relatively little influence from [[Persian language|Persian]] and [[Arabic]], compared to other major North Indian languages.<ref name=Kwinte/>
 
 
The history of the Oriya language is divided into:
 
 
* Old Oriya (7th century-1200): The origin of the Oriya literature can be traced to "Bauddha Gana O Doha", otherwise known as [[Charyapada]]<ref name=Gopal>[[Gopal Chandra Praharaj]].''[http://cbioc.eas.asu.edu/cbioc/chitta/bhashakosha/Garbhagruha/Purnachandra%20Bhashakosha%20Vol%20I/Bhashakosha%20I-1,%20folio,%201-400.pdf Purnachandra bhasakosa]''. Vol I. p.25 (1931)</ref> written by the Buddhist Siddhas of Orissa.<ref>Banshidhar Mohanty. (1970) [http://oaob.nitrkl.ac.in/48/2/Odia_Sahityara_Itihasa-96.pdf Odia sahityara itihasa (Vol I). Friends Publishers. Cuttack]</ref> The Oriya language begins to appear in inscriptions with Oriya scripts in temples, copper plates, palm-leaf manuscripts etc. Traces of Oriya words and expressions have been found in inscriptions dating from the 7th century [[AD]]. For example, the Oriya word କୁମ୍ଭାର /kumbha:rɔ/ ‘potter’ occurs in a copperplate inscription ‘belonging to a date not later than the 7th century AD’. Similarly, in inscriptions of 991 AD, Oriya words like ଭିତୁରୁ /bhituru/ ‘from inside’ and ପନ୍ଦର /pɔndɔrɔ/ ‘fifteen’ can be found. ‘An [[Oriya script|Oriya]] Passage’ also has been found in another inscription of about 715 [[AD]].
 
 
* Early Middle Oriya (1200–1400): The earliest use of prose can be found in the [[Madala Panji]] or the Palm-leaf Chronicles of the Jagannatha temple at Puri, which date back to the 12th century.
 
 
* Middle Oriya (1400–1700): Mahabharat, Chandi Puran, Vilanka Ramayan of Shudramuni Sarala Das. Arjuna Das, a contemporary to Sarala Dasa, wrote Rama-Bibha, a significant long poem in Oriya. Towards the 16th century, five poets emerged, though there are hundreds year gap in between them. But they are known as Panchasakha's as they believed to same school of thought, Utkaliya Vaishnavism. The poets are Balaram Das, Jagannath Das, Achyutananda Das, Ananta Das and Jasobanta Das.
 
 
* Late Middle Oriya (1700–1850): Usabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Das, the Rahasya-manjari of Deva-durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini-bibha of Kartikka Das were written. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Upendra Bhanja took a leading role in this period, his creations were Baidehisha Bilasa, Koti Brahmanda Sundari, Lavanyabati were proved landmark in Oriya Literature. Dinakrushna Das’s Rasokallola and Abhimanyu samanta Simhara’s Bidagdha Chintamani are prominent Kavyas of this time. Four major poets emerged in the end of the era are Kabi surya Baladeb Rath, Santha Kabi or Andha Muni Bhima Bhoi, Brajanath Badajena and Gopal Krushna Pattanaik.
 
 
* Modern Oriya (1850 till present day): The first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries which made a great revolutions in Oriya literature and language.
 
 
===Ancient Form of Oriya Language in 2nd Century BC Rock edict King Ashoka===
 
 
The script in the [[edicts of Ashoka]] in 2nd century BC at [[Dhauli]] and Jaugada and the inscriptions of Kharavela in Hati Gumpha of [[Khandagiri]] give us the first glimpse of possible origin of Oriya language. From the point of view of language, the inscriptions of Hati Gumpha are near modern Oriya and essentially different from the language of the Ashokan edicts.<ref name="The Harvard Lecture"/> A point has also been made as to whether [[Pali]] was the prevalent language in Orissa during this period. The [[Hathigumpha inscription|Hati Gumpha inscriptions]], which are in Pali, are perhaps the only evidence of stone inscriptions in Pali. This may be the reason why the German linguist Prof. [[Hermann Oldenberg]] mentioned that Pali was the original language of Orissa.
 
 
Traces of Oriya words and expressions have been found in inscriptions dating from the 7th century AD. For example, the Oriya word କୁମ୍ଭାର /kumbha:rɔ/ ‘potter’ occurs in a copperplate inscription ‘belonging to a date not later than the 7th century AD’. Similarly, in inscriptions of 991 AD, Oriya words like ଭିତୁରୁ /bhituru/ ‘from inside’ and ପନ୍ଦର /pɔndɔrɔ/ ‘fifteen’ can be found. ‘An Oriya Passage’ also has been found in another inscription of about 715 AD.[[File:East-Hem 200ad.jpg|thumb|Eastern Hemisphere in 200 AD.]]
 
 
===Charyapada of 8th Century and its affinity with Oriya language===
 
 
The beginnings of Oriya poetry coincide with the development of [[Charya Sahitya]], the literature thus started by Mahayana Buddhist poets. This literature was written in a specific metaphor named “Sandhya Bhasha” and the poets like Luipa, Kanhupa are from the territory of Orissa. The language of Charya was considered as Prakrita. In one of his poems, Kanhupa wrote:
 
 
<poem>
 
"Your hut stands outside the city
 
Oh, untouchable maid
 
The bald Brahmin passes sneaking close by
 
Oh, my maid, I would make you my companion
 
Kanha is a kapali, a yogi
 
He is naked and has no disgust
 
There is a lotus with sixty-four petals
 
Upon that the maid will climb with this poor self and dance."
 
</poem>
 
 
The language of Kanhupa's poetry has strange resemblance with modern Oriya language. For example :
 
<poem>
 
"Ekaso padumo chowshathi pakhudi
 
Tahin chadhi nachao dombi bapudi"
 
</poem>
 
 
Paduma (Padma:Lotus), Chowshathi (64), Pakhudi (petals) Tahin (There), Chadhi (rise) nachao (to dance) Dombi (a female of Orissa from untouchable caste), Bapudi (a very colloquial Oriya language to apply as 'poor fellow').
 
 
or
 
 
<poem>
 
"Hali Dombi, Tote puchhami sadbhabe.
 
Isisi jasi dombi kahari nabe."
 
</poem>
 
 
These poems needn't require any translation in modern Oriya dilects.
 
 
===Poet Jayadeva's literary contribution===
 
 
[[Jayadeva]] was a Sanskrit poet. He was born in an [[Utkala Brahmin]] family of Puri in circa 1200 AD. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem [[Gita Govinda]], which depicts the divine love of the Hindu deity Krishna and his consort, Radha, and is considered an important text in the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. About the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, the influence of [[Works of Jayadeva|Jayadeva's literary contribution]] changed the pattern of versification in Oriya.{{Citation needed|date=May 2011}}
 
 
[[John Beames]], a British author and civil servant in [[British India]] who stayed for a considerable time in Orissa and worked for the survival of Oriya language quotes:
 
<blockquote>
 
At a period when Oriya was already a fixed and settled language, Bengali did not exist. The Bengalis spoke a vast variety of corrupt forms of Eastern Hindi. It is not till quite recent times that we find anything that can with propriety be called a Bengali language.<ref>Beams Comparative of four languages Vol I p. 119</ref>
 
</blockquote>
 
 
<blockquote>
 
We may place the Hindi with its subsidiary forms Gujurati and Punjabi first fixing their rise and establishment as a modern languages distinct from their previous existence as Prakrut till the 12th or m13th century. Oriya must have quite completed its transformation by the end of the 14th century. Bengali was no separate independent language but a maze of dialects without a distinct national or provincial type till the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. It was not till the gradual decay of the central Mohamedan power of Delhi enabled the provincial governors to assume an independent position that Bengali severed itself from Hindi and assumed characteristics which now vindicate for its right to be called a separate language.<ref>Beams, Comparative Grammar of four languages'', Vol I, p.120</ref>
 
</blockquote>
 
 
==Literature==
 
 
The history of Oriya literature begins in the 14th century, with the poet [[Sarala Dasa]]'s works [[Chandi Purana]] and [[Vilanka Ramayana]], in praise of the goddess [[Durga]]. [[Rama-bibaha]], written by [[Arjuna Dasa]], was the first long poem written in the Oriya language.
 
 
The following era is termed the [[Oriya Literature|Panchasakha Age]] and stretches until the year 1700. The period begins with the writings of [[Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu]] whose Vaishnava influence brought in a new evolution in Oriya literature. Notable religious works of the Panchasakha Age include the [[Balarama Dasa]], [[Jagannatha Dash]], [[Yasovanta]], Ananta and [[Acyutananda]]. The authors of this period mainly translated, adapted, or imitated Sanskrit literature. Other prominent works of the period include the [[Usabhilasa]] of [[Sisu Sankara Dasa]], the [[Rahasya-manjari]] of [[Deva-durlabha Dasa]] and the Rukmini-bibha of [[Kartikka Dasa]]. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when [[Ramachandra Pattanayaka]] wrote Haravali. Other poets like Madhusudana, [[Bhima Bhoi]], [[Dhivara]], [[Sadasiva]] and [[Sisu Isvara-dasa]] composed another form called [[kavyas]] (long poems) based on themes from Puranas, with an emphasis on plain, simple language.
 
 
However, during the [[Oriya_literature#Age_of_Upendra_Bhanja|Bhanja Age]] (also known as the Age of Riti Yuga) beginning with turn of the 18th century, verbally tricky Oriya became the order of the day. Verbal jugglery, obscenity and eroticism characterise the period between 1700 and 1850, particularly in the works of the era's eponymous poet [[Kabi Samrat Upendra Bhanja]] (1670–1720). Bhanja's work inspired many imitators of which the most notable is Arakshita Das. Family chronicles in prose relating religious festivals and rituals are also characteristic of the period.
 
 
The first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by Christian missionaries. Although the handwritten Oriya script of the time closely resembled the [[Bengali script|Bengali]] and [[Assamese script]]s, the one adopted for the printed typesets was significantly different, leaning more towards the [[Tamil script]] and [[Telugu script]]. [[Amos Sutton]] produced an Oriya Bible (1840), Oriya Dictionary (1841–43) and<ref>Biswamoy Pati Situating social history: Orissa, 1800-1997 p30</ref> an ''An Introductory Grammar of Oriya'' (1844).<ref>The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti): 2 p1030 ed. Amaresh Datta - 2006 "Amos Sutton also prepared a dictionary named Sadhu bhasharthabhidhan, a vocabulary of current Sanskrit terms with Oriya definitions which was also printed in Orissa Mission Press in 1844."</ref>
 
 
Oriya has a rich literary heritage dating back to the thirteenth century. [[Sarala Dasa]] who lived in the fourteenth century is known as the [[Vyasa]] of Orissa. He translated the [[Mahabharata]] into Oriya. In fact, the language was initially standardised through a process of translating classical Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata, [[Ramayana]] and Srimad Bhagabatam. The translation of the Srimad Bhagabatam by Jagannatha Das was particularly influential on the written form of the language. Oriya has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially [[worship|devotional]] poetry.
 
 
Other eminent Oriya poets include [[Kabi Samrat Upendra Bhanja]] and Kabi Surya Bala Dev Ratha.
 
 
Prose in the language has had a late development.
 
 
Three great poets and prose writers, [[Kabibar Radhanath Ray]] (1849–1908), [[Fakir Mohan Senapati]] (1843–1918) and [[Madhusudan Rao]] (1853–1912) made Oriya their own. They brought in a modern outlook and spirit into Oriya literature. Around the same time the modern drama took birth in the works of [[Rama Sankara]] Ray beginning with Kanci-Kaveri (1880).
 
 
One of the prominent writers of 19th and 20th century was [[Muralidhar Mallick]] (1927–2002). His contribution to Historical novels is beyond words. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1998 for his contributions to Oriya literature.
 
His son [[Khagendranath Mallick]] (born 1951) is also a well-known writer. His contribution towards poetry, criticism, essays, story and novels is commendable. He was the former President of Utkal Kala Parishad and also former President of Orissa Geeti Kabi Samaj. Presently he is a member of the Executive Committee of Utkal Sahitya Samaj. Another illustrious writer of the 20th century was Mr. Chintamani Das. A noted academician, he was written more than 40 books on fiction, short stories, biographies, storybooks for children. Born in 1903 in Sriramachandrapur village under Satyabadi block, Chintamani Das is the only writer who has written biographies on all the five 'Pancha Sakhas' of Satyabadi namely Pandit Gopabandhu Das, Acharya Harihara, Nilakantha Das, Krupasindhu Mishra and Pandit Godabarisha. Having served as the Head of the Oriya department of Khallikote College, Berhampur, Chintamani Das was felicitated with the Sahitya Akademi Samman in 1970 for his outstanding contribution to Oriya literature in general and Satyabadi Yuga literature in particular. Some of his well-known literary creations are 'Bhala Manisha Hua', 'Manishi Nilakantha', 'Kabi Godabarisha', 'Byasakabi Fakiramohan', 'Usha', 'Barabati'.
 
 
20th century writers in Oriya include Pallikabi [[Nanda Kishore Bal]] (1875–1928), [[Gangadhar Meher]] (1862–1924), [[Chintamani Mahanti]] and [[Kuntala-Kumari Sabat Utkala-Bharati]], besides [[Niladri Dasa]] and [[Gopabandhu Das]] (1877–1928). The most notable novelists were [[Umesa Sarakara]], [[Divyasimha Panigrahi]], [[Gopala Praharaja]] and [[Kalindi Charan Panigrahi]]. [[Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray]] is the great introducer of the ultra-modern style in modern Oriya poetry. Others who took up this form were [[Godabarisha Mohapatra]], [[Mayadhara Manasimha]], [[Nityananda Mahapatra]] and [[Kunjabihari Dasa]]. [[Prabhasa Chandra Satpathi]] is known for his translations of some western classics apart from [[Udayanatha Shadangi]], [[Sunanda Kara]] and [[Surendranatha Dwivedi]]. Criticism, essays and history also became major lines of writing in the Oriya language. Esteemed writers in this field were Professor [[Girija Shankar Ray]], [[Pandit Vinayaka Misra]], Professor [[Gauri Kumara Brahma]], [[Jagabandhu Simha]] and [[Harekrushna Mahatab]]. Oriya literature mirrors the industrious, peaceful and artistic image of the [[Oriya people]] who have offered and gifted much to the Indian civilization in the field of art and literature. Now Writers [[Manoj Das]]'s creations motivated & inspired people towards a possitive lifestyle .Distinguished prose writers of the modern period include [[Fakir Mohan Senapati]], [[Madhusudan Das]], Godabarisha Mohapatra, Kalindi Charan Panigrahi, [[Surendra Mohanty]], [[Manoj Das]], Kishori Charan Das, Gopinath Mohanty, Rabi Patnaik, Chandrasekhar Rath, Binapani Mohanty, [[Bhikari Rath]], [[Jagadish Mohanty]], [[Sarojini Sahoo]], Yashodhara Mishra, Ramchandra Behera, Padmaja Pal. But it is poetry that makes modern Oriya literature a force to reckon with. Poets like [[Kabibar Radhanath Ray]], Sachidananda Routray, Guruprasad Mohanty, Soubhagya Misra, [[Ramakanta Rath]], Sitakanta Mohapatra, Rajendra Kishore Panda, Pratibha Satpathy have made significant contributions towards Indian poetry.
 
 
[[Anita Desai]]'s novella, ''Translator Translated'', from her collection ''The Art of Disappearance'', features a translator of a fictive Oriyan short story writer; the novella contains a discussion of the perils of moving works composed in regional Indian languages into English.
 
 
==Writing system==
 
{{main|Oriya alphabet}}
 
 
==Phonology==
 
Oriya has 28 consonant phonemes and 6 vowel phonemes.
 
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
|+'''Vowels'''
 
!&nbsp;||Front||Back
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!High
 
|{{IPA|i}}||{{IPA|u}}
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Mid
 
|{{IPA|e}}||{{IPA|o}}
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Low
 
|{{IPA|a}}|||{{IPA|ɔ}}
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
|}
 
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
|+'''Consonants'''
 
!&nbsp;||Labial||Dental||Alveolar||Retroflex||Palatal||Velar||Glottal
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Voiceless stops
 
|{{IPA|p}}<br />{{IPA|pʰ}}||{{IPA|t̪}}<br />{{IPA|t̪ʰ}}||&nbsp;||{{IPA|ʈ}}<br />{{IPA|ʈʰ}}||{{IPA|t͡ʃ}}<br />{{IPA|t͡ʃʰ}}|| {{IPA|k}}<br />{{IPA|kʰ}}||&nbsp;
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Voiced stops
 
|{{IPA|b}}<br />{{IPA|bʱ}}||{{IPA|d̪}}<br />{{IPA|d̪ʱ}}||&nbsp;||{{IPA|ɖ}}<br />{{IPA|ɖʱ}}||{{IPA|d͡ʒ}}<br />{{IPA|d͡ʒʱ}}||{{IPA|ɡ}}<br />{{IPA|ɡʱ}}||&nbsp;
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Voiceless fricatives
 
|&nbsp;||&nbsp;||{{IPA|s}}||&nbsp;||&nbsp;||&nbsp;||{{IPA|h}}
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Nasals
 
|{{IPA|m}}||&nbsp;||{{IPA|n}}||{{IPA|ɳ}}||&nbsp;||&nbsp;||&nbsp;
 
|-style="text-align:center"
 
!Liquids
 
|&nbsp;||&nbsp;||{{IPA|l}}, {{IPA|r}}|||{{IPA|ɭ}}||&nbsp;||&nbsp;||&nbsp;
 
|}
 
 
Final vowels are standard and pronounced.
 
 
==Morphology==
 
{{Main|Oriya morphology}}
 
 
Unlike [[Hindi]], Oriya retains most of the cases of [[Sanskrit]]{{citation needed|date=June 2012}}, though the nominative and vocative have merged (both without a separate marker), as have the accusative and dative. There are three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and two grammatical numbers (singular and plural). There are three true tenses (the present, past and future), others being formed with auxiliaries.{{citation needed|date=June 2012}}
 
 
== See also ==
 
*[[Oriya script]]
 
*[[Oriya literature]]
 
*[[Oriya people]]
 
*[[Oriya morphology]]
 
*[[Languages of India]]
 
*[[Kalahandia Language]]
 
*[[Sambalpuri Language]]
 
*[[Languages with official status in India]]
 
*[[List of Indian languages by total speakers]]
 
*[[Brahmic family of scripts]]
 
*[[Madala Panji]]
 
*[[Laxmi Puran]]
 
 
== Bibliography ==
 
Neukom, Lukas and Manideepa Patnaik. 2003. ''A grammar of Oriya'' (ISBN 3-9521010-9-5). (Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft; 17). Zürich: Seminar für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Zürich.
 
 
''The evolution of oriya language and script''. Dr Kunja Bihari Tripathy - Utkal University - 1962.
 
 
== Further reading ==
 
*Ghosh, A. (2003). ''An ethnolinguistic profile of Eastern India: a case of South Orissa''. Burdwan: Dept. of Bengali (D.S.A.), University of Burdwan.
 
*Masica, Colin (1991). ''The Indo-Aryan Languages''. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2
 
*Mohanty, Prasanna Kumar (2007). ''The History of: History of Oriya Literature'' (Odia Sahityara Adya Aitihasika Gana).
 
* [http://www.odia.org/articles/harvardLecture.pdf The Harvard Lecture]
 
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
 
== External links ==
 
{{interwiki|code=or}}
 
{{Incubator|or|Wiktionary}}
 
*[http://www.iit.edu/~laksvij/language/oriya.html Romanised to Unicode Oriya transliterator]
 
*[http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/international/bylanguage/oriyachart.html Unicode Entity Codes for the Oriya Script]
 
*[http://oriya.sarovar.org Free/Open Source Oriya Computing] Rebati project
 
*[http://books.google.es/books?id=b7tmlF2a7fcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=oriya&as_brr=3] A Comprehensive English-Oriya Dictionary (1916–1922), available free at Google Books.
 
*[http://technical-hindi.googlegroups.com/web/ORB-TTGarima_to_Unicode_Oriya_Converter-16.html?hl=en&gda=rVU54mMAAAANVrw0Rm3VIAGdygBtpbs3UvE6MbtcuCVS2ZB_bplQyjbz0iS46tBHiSYstZRIBEVQ8_B3v-QS0cjByZJnL8-vq36jfQM1QADhjQkP2e1qIlMJP-kItwVPBwjdKujmMDMg9WBGCR9Xatk4Dsh_gTBq&gsc=oGLHAwsAAACI6cYe-NqUvBTwETwHsrTR ORB-TTGarima to Unicode Oriya Converter] (Online)
 
* [http://www.ciil-ebooks.net/html/bbjoriya/contents.html Bharatiya Bhasha Jyoti: Oriya] —a textbook for learning Oriya through Hindi from the Central Institute of Indian Languages.
 
 
{{Languages of India}}
 
{{Indo-Iranian languages}}
 
{{Orissa}}
 
{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2011}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Oriya Language}}
 
<!--Categories-->
 
[[Category:Oriya language]]
 
[[Category:Eastern Indo-Aryan languages]]
 
[[Category:Languages of India]]
 
[[Category:Subject–object–verb languages]]
 
 
<!--Interwikis-->
 
[[af:Oriya]]
 
[[az:Oriya dili]]
 
[[bn:ওড়িয়া ভাষা]]
 
[[be:Орыя, мова]]
 
[[br:Oriyeg]]
 
[[ca:Oriya]]
 
[[cv:Ори (чĕлхе)]]
 
[[da:Oriya]]
 
[[de:Oriya]]
 
[[et:Oria keel]]
 
[[es:Idioma oriya]]
 
[[eo:Orija lingvo]]
 
[[eu:Oriya]]
 
[[hif:Oriya bhasa]]
 
[[fr:Oriya]]
 
[[gu:ઉડિયા ભાષા]]
 
[[ko:오리야어]]
 
[[hi:ओड़िया भाषा]]
 
[[hr:Oriya jezici]]
 
[[bpy:ওড়িয়া ঠার]]
 
[[id:Bahasa Oriya]]
 
[[it:Lingua oriya]]
 
[[he:אורייה]]
 
[[ka:ორია (ენა)]]
 
[[rw:Icyoriya]]
 
[[kv:Ория]]
 
[[la:Lingua Orissensis]]
 
[[lez:Ория чӀал]]
 
[[ml:ഒഡിയ]]
 
[[mr:उडिया भाषा]]
 
[[nl:Odia]]
 
[[new:उडिया भाषा]]
 
[[ja:オリヤー語]]
 
[[no:Oriya]]
 
[[nn:Oriya]]
 
[[or:ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଭାଷା]]
 
[[pl:Język orija]]
 
[[pt:Língua oriá]]
 
[[qu:Oriya simi]]
 
[[ru:Ория (язык)]]
 
[[sa:ओडिया]]
 
[[simple:Oriya language]]
 
[[sr:Орија језик]]
 
[[sh:Oriya]]
 
[[fi:Orija]]
 
[[sv:Oriya]]
 
[[ta:ஒடியா மொழி]]
 
[[te:ఒరియా భాష]]
 
[[th:ภาษาโอริยา]]
 
[[tr:Oriya dili]]
 
[[uk:Орія (мова)]]
 
[[ur:اڑیہ زبان]]
 
[[ug:ئورىياچە]]
 
[[vi:Tiếng Oriya]]
 
[[zh:奥里亚语]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.957794
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:31:06 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:31:06 PM #101573
Bradley (anonymous)

aJfTvM http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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