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User: Gautam008
Article: Voyeurism
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Voyeurism is a sexual activiy, but is now banned from the Metropeliecan Police
{{Redirect|Voyeur}}
 
 
==See also==
[[Image:Caraglio Voyeurism.jpg|right|thumb|275px|[[Mercury (mythology)|Mercury]], [[Aglaulus, daughter of Cecrops|Aglaulos]] and [[Herse]]]]
 
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What not to do at a Stoplight
   
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Sex and the law
In clinical [[psychology]], '''voyeurism''' is the sexual interest in or practice of [[Espionage|spying]] on people engaged in intimate behaviors, such as undressing, sexual activity, or other activity usually considered to be of a private nature.<ref>Hirschfeld, M. (1938). ''Sexual anomalies and perversions: Physical and psychological development, diagnosis and treatment'' (new and revised edition). London: Encyclopaedic Press.</ref><ref>Smith, R. S. (1976). Voyeurism: A review of the literature. ''Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5,'' 585-608.</ref> In popular imagination the term is used in a more general sense to refer to someone who habitually observes others without their knowledge, with no necessary implication of sexual interest.
 
 
Voyeurism (from the French ''voyeur'', "one who looks") can take several forms, but its principal characteristic is that the voyeur does not normally relate directly with the subject of their interest, who is often unaware of being observed.
 
 
==DSM IV Classification==
 
{{Infobox disease
 
| Name = Voyeurism
 
| ICD10 = {{ICD10|F|65|3|f|60}}
 
| ICD9 = {{ICD9|302.82}}
 
}}
 
Certain voyeuristic fantasies, urges and behavior patterns are classified as a [[paraphilia]] in the [[Diagnostic and Statistical Manual]] of the [[American Psychiatric Association]] and a disorder of sexual preference in the [[ICD-10]].<ref name="ICD-10">{{cite web
 
|url=http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/gf60.htm
 
|title=ICD-10
 
|accessdate=2008-09-13
 
}}</ref><ref>[http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/voyeurismTR.htm BehaveNet Clinical Capsule: Voyeurism]</ref> The diagnosis would not be given to people who experience typical [[sexual arousal]] simply by seeing nudity or sexual activity.
 
 
==Legal position==
 
Voyeurism is not a crime in [[common law]]. In common law countries it is only a crime if made so by legislation. In Canada, for example, voyeurism was not a crime when the case ''[[Frey v. Fedoruk et al.]]'' arose in 1947. In that case, in 1950, the [[Supreme Court of Canada]] held that courts could not criminalize voyeurism by classifying it as a [[breach of the peace]] and that Parliament would have to specifically outlaw it. On November 1, 2005, this was done when section 162 was added to the [[Canadian Criminal Code]], declaring voyeurism to be a sexual offense.<ref>[http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowDoc/cs/C-46/bo-ga:l_IV::bo-ga:l_V//en?page=4&isPrinting=false#codese:162 Criminal Code]</ref>
 
 
In some cultures, voyeurism is considered to be [[deviant]] and even a [[sex crime]]{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}}. In the United Kingdom, non-consensual voyeurism became a criminal offense on May 1, 2004.<ref>Section 67 of the [[Sexual Offences Act 2003]]</ref> However, some societies tolerate it in some circumstances (e.g., adolescent "Peeping Toms" and the UK [[Dogging (sexual slang)|dogging]] craze).{{Citation needed|date=November 2008}}. Little to no research has been done into the demographics of voyeurs.
 
 
In the English case of ''R v Turner''<ref>(2006) All ER (D) 95 (Jan)</ref>, the manager of a sports center filmed four women taking showers. There was no indication that the footage had been shown to anyone else or distributed in any way. The defendant pleaded guilty. The [[Court of Appeal of England and Wales|Court of Appeal]] confirmed a [[sentence (law)|sentence]] of nine months' imprisonment to reflect the seriousness of the abuse of trust and the traumatic effect on the victims.
 
 
Another English case in 2009, "R v Wilkins",<ref>(2010) Inner London Crown Court, R v Wilkins.</ref><ref>BBC Radio producer jailed over sex tapeshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/8549608.stm</ref> resulted in a man who filmed his intercourse with five of his lovers for his own private viewing, being sentenced to imprisonment for eight months and ordered to sign the Sex Offenders Register, where his name would remain for ten years.
 
 
In the United States, video voyeurism is an offense in nine states and may require the convicted criminal to register as a [[sex offender]].<ref>[http://definitions.uslegal.com/p/peeping-tom Peeping Tom Law & Legal Definition]{{Failed verification|date=June 2010}}</ref> The original case that led to the criminalization of voyeurism has been made into a television movie called ''[[Video Voyeur]]'' and documents the criminalization of [[secret photography]]. Criminal voyeurism statutes are related to invasion of privacy laws<ref>[http://definitions.uslegal.com/i/invasion-of-privacy/ Invasion of Privacy Law & Legal Definition]</ref> but are specific to unlawful surreptitious surveillance without consent and unlawful recordings including the broadcast, dissemination, publication, or selling of recordings involving places and times when a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy and a reasonable supposition they are not being photographed or filmed by "any mechanical, digital or electronic viewing device, camera or any other instrument capable of recording, storing or transmitting visual images that can be utilized to observe a person."<ref>[http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/legalservices/ch69_2003_stephanie_vidvoy.htm Stephanie's Law]</ref>
 
 
In the [[Louise Ogborn]] [[strip search]] incident, the perpetrator was said to be engaged in a form of ''virtual voyeurism''.<ref>[[Strip search prank call scam]].</ref>
 
 
==Technique==
 
A voyeur may observe others without them being aware of it by a number of strategies. The voyeur may observe the subject from a distance, or use stealth to observe the subject with the use of peep-holes, [[two-way mirror]]s, [[hidden camera]]s, [[secret photography]] and other devices and strategies. Secret photography may involve the use of normal cameras, but with the photographer being concealed. Sometimes the camera itself is disguised or concealed. The use of [[telephoto lens]] enables the distance from the subject to provide concealment.
 
 
Although spy cameras small enough to fit inside a pocket-watch had existed since the 1880s,<ref>[http://www.d-log.info/?p=2416 Secret watch camera, c.1886]</ref> advances in miniaturization and electronics since the 1950s have greatly aided the ability to conceal [[Minox|miniature cameras]], and the quality and affordability of tiny cameras (often called "spy cameras" or [[Subminiature photography|subminiature cameras]]) has now greatly increased. Some consumer digital cameras are now so small that in previous decades they would have qualified as "spy cameras", and [[digital camera]]s of five [[megapixel]]s or more are now being embedded in some mobile [[camera phone]]s.
 
 
Some institutions, such as gyms and schools, have banned camera phones because of the privacy issues they raise in areas like [[changeroom]]s (locker rooms). [[Saudi Arabia]] banned the sale of camera phones nationwide for a period, but reversed the ban in 2004. [[South Korea]] requires that all camera phones sold in the country make a clearly audible sound whenever a picture is being taken.
 
 
Secret photography by law enforcement authorities is called [[surveillance]] and is not considered to be voyeurism, though it may be unlawful or regulated in some countries.
 
 
Certain image capturing devices are capable of producing images through materials that are opaque to visible light, including clothing. These devices form images by using electromagnetic radiation outside the visible range. Infrared and terahertz-wave cameras are capable of creating images through clothing, though these images differ from what would be created with visible light.<ref>[http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/04/16/camera.england/index.html cnn, 16 April 2008: New security camera can 'see' through clothes]</ref><ref>[http://www.i4u.com/article15314.html ThruVision T5000 T-Ray Camera sees through Clothes]</ref>
 
 
==Historical aspects==
 
{{Expand section|date=December 2009}}
 
[[Image:Etty-Candaules King of Lydia Shews his Wife to Gyges.JPG|thumb|250px|''Candaules, King of Lydia, Shews his Wife by Stealth to Gyges, One of his Ministers, As She Goes to Bed'' by [[William Etty]]. This image illustrates [[Herodotus]]'s version of the tale of Gyges.]]
 
Voyeurism is not a new phenomenon, and, according to one study, instances of it can be found in [[the Bible]].<ref name="aggrawal_2009_16_3">{{cite journal |author=Aggrawal, Anil. |title=References to the paraphilias and sexual crimes in the Bible |journal=J Forensic Leg Med |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=109–14 |year=2009 |month=April |pmid=19239958 |doi=10.1016/j.jflm.2008.07.006 |url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8CY1-4TRHCD9-1&_user=5081486&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000047720&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=5081486&md5=ccfb8545a50236e6819a0666ba569db2}}</ref>
 
 
==Criminology==
 
The US FBI assert that some individuals who engage in "nuisance" offenses (such as voyeurism) may also have a propensity for violence based on behaviors of serious sex offenders.<ref>R.R. Hazelwood and J. Warren, "The Serial Rapist: His Characteristics and Victims," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, February 1989, 18-25</ref> An FBI researcher has suggested that voyeurs are likely to demonstrate some characteristics that are common, but not universal, among serious sexual offenders who invest considerable time and effort in the capturing of a victim (or image of a victim); careful, methodical planning devoted to the selection and preparation of equipment; and often meticulous attention to detail.<ref>[http://www.fbi.gov/library/leb/leb.htm The Criminal Sexual Sadist]{{Dead link|date=June 2010}}</ref>
 
 
==In popular culture==
 
Some [[Fine art photography|fine art photographers]] have displayed a fascination with the forms of secret voyeuristic photography.
 
 
Voyeuristic photography has also been centrally explored in movies such as [[Michael Powell (director)|Michael Powell]]'s ''[[Peeping Tom (film)|Peeping Tom]]'', and [[Michelangelo Antonioni]]'s ''[[Blowup]]'', and has appeared to comic effect in films such as ''[[Gregory's Girl]]'' and ''[[American Pie (film)|American Pie]]''.
 
 
Voyeurism is a common [[plot device]] in both serious (e.g. ''[[Rear Window]]'', ''[[Klute]]'' and more recently ''[[Disturbia (film)|Disturbia]]'') and humorous (e.g. ''[[Porky's]]'', ''[[Animal House]]'' and more recently ''[[Semi-Pro]]'', ''[[American Pie]]'') films.
 
 
The [[anime]] ''Colorful'' is devoted almost entirely to voyeurism. Also, in the anime [[Baka to Test to Shōkanjū]], Kōta Tsuchiya is subject to voyeurism, explaining why he is referred to as "Voyeur".
 
 
The 2002 [[television movie]] ''[[Video Voyeur|Video Voyeur: The Susan Wilson Story]]'' is based on a true story about a woman who was secretly videotaped. The movie subsequently helped to get the law against voyeurism passed in parts of the United States. In ''[[Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema]]'', [[Laura Mulvey]] talks about [[scopophilia]] &ndash; deriving pleasure from looking &ndash; in terms of feminist film theory. In [[That '70s Show]], [[Fez (That '70s Show)|Fez]] is known to always want to watch his friends make out, among other things.
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Clothed female, naked male]]
 
* [[Clothed male, naked female]]
 
* [[Courtship disorder]]
 
* [[Invasion of privacy]]
 
* [[Scopophobia]], the fear of being stared at
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category}}
 
* [http://counsellingresource.com/distress/paraphilias/index.html Paraphilias, including voyeurism: symptoms, description and treatment]
 
* [http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/30042--b.htm#67 UK law on voyeurism]
 
* [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c108:S.1301: Proposed US Video Voyeurism Prevention Act of 2003]
 
* [http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:wPeVV5kUt-QJ:www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx%3FdbName%3DDocumentViewer%26DocumentID%3D40459+voyeurism+violation+privacy&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=us Video Voyeurism Laws]
 
* [http://www.washtimes.com/news/2009/aug/18/the-rise-of-a-paraphilia Expert: Technology fosters voyeurism]
 
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{{nudity}}
 
{{Mental and behavioural disorders|selected = adult}}
 
{{paraphilia}}
 
 
[[Category:French loanwords]]
 
[[Category:Visual perception]]
 
 
[[ar:شهوة التلصص]]
 
[[bs:Voajerizam]]
 
[[bg:Воайорство]]
 
[[ca:Voyeurisme]]
 
[[cs:Voyeurismus]]
 
[[da:Voyeurisme]]
 
[[de:Voyeurismus]]
 
[[es:Voyeurismo]]
 
[[eo:Rigardismo]]
 
[[eu:Voyeurismo]]
 
[[fr:Voyeurisme]]
 
[[gl:Voyeurismo]]
 
[[hr:Voajerizam]]
 
[[id:Voyeurisme]]
 
[[is:Gægjuhneigð]]
 
[[it:Voyeurismo]]
 
[[he:מציצנות]]
 
[[ka:ვუაიერიზმი]]
 
[[lt:Vojerizmas]]
 
[[nl:Voyeurisme]]
 
[[ja:窃視症]]
 
[[pl:Voyeuryzm]]
 
[[pt:Voyeurismo]]
 
[[ru:Вуайеризм]]
 
[[sk:Voyeurizmus]]
 
[[sr:Воајеризам]]
 
[[sh:Voajerizam]]
 
[[fi:Voyeurismi]]
 
[[sv:Voyeurism]]
 
[[tl:Paninilip]]
 
[[uk:Вуаєризм]]
 
[[vi:Thị dâm]]
 
[[zh:窥阴癖]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.930608
Reporter Information
Reporter: Josiah (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 05:58:45 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:11:19 PM #100431
Bradley (anonymous)

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Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 05:58:45 AM #100769
Josiah (anonymous)

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Sunday, the 5th of March 2017 at 07:12:30 PM #108467
TerraCodes

Not a false positive.

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