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Article: Trolleybus
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There are currently around 315 cities or metropolitan areas where trolleybuses are operated,<ref name="janes2010"/> and more than 500 additional trolleybus systems have existed in the past.<ref name="Murray"/> For complete lists of trolleybus systems by location, with dates of opening and (where applicable) closure, see [[List of trolleybus systems]] and the related lists indexed there.
 
There are currently around 315 cities or metropolitan areas where trolleybuses are operated,<ref name="janes2010"/> and more than 500 additional trolleybus systems have existed in the past.<ref name="Murray"/> For complete lists of trolleybus systems by location, with dates of opening and (where applicable) closure, see [[List of trolleybus systems]] and the related lists indexed there.
   
The following are summary notes about current and past trolleybus operation in some countries.
+
Summary notes, originally included here, about current and past trolleybus operation in some countries, have been put under a separate topic, [[Trolleybus demography]].
{{dynamic list}}
 
 
===Africa===
 
No trolleybus systems currently exist in any African country, but in the past, trolleybuses provided service in several [[South Africa]]n cities, as well as two cities in [[Algeria]], three in [[Morocco]], one in [[Tunisia]] and one in [[Egypt]].<ref name="Murray"/> The last city on the continent to be served by trolleybuses was [[Johannesburg]], whose trolleybus system closed in 1986. See [[List of trolleybus systems#Africa]] for specific information.
 
 
=== Asia & Oceania ===
 
====Armenia====
 
24 trolleybus lines run in [[Yerevan]], [[Armenia]]. The trolleybuses have been operating in the streets of Yerevan since 1949.
 
 
====Australia====
 
Australia has no remaining trolleybus systems, but such systems existed in [[Adelaide]], [[Brisbane]], [[Hobart]], [[Launceston, Tasmania|Launceston]], [[Perth, Western Australia|Perth]] and [[Sydney]].<ref name="Murray"/> Trolleybuses are preserved in the [[Brisbane Tramway Museum]], [[Sydney Tramway Museum]], [[Powerhouse Museum]] (Sydney), the Australian Electric Transport Museum at Adelaide ([[South Australia]]), the Perth Electric Tramway Society Museum and the Bus Preservation Society of Western Australia, and at the Tasmanian Transport Museum in Hobart. Some of these historic trolleybuses are in operating condition, but there are no wired roadways on which to operate them.
 
 
====China====
 
[[File:Shanghai trolleybus, type SK5105.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A trolleybus in [[Shanghai]]]]
 
:''See also: [[List of trolleybus systems#Asia|List of trolleybus systems]] and [[Transport in the People's Republic of China|Transportation in China]]''
 
Trolleybuses have provided regular public transport service in 27 different cities in China at one time or another. Currently, ten systems are in operation, and they include [[Beijing]], [[Guangzhou]], [[Shanghai]], [[Wuhan]], [[Qingdao]] and [[Jinan]], among other locations. [[Trolleybuses in Shanghai|Shanghai's system]] is the oldest trolleybus system in the world, having been in operation since November 1914.<ref name="Murray"/> [[Beijing Trolleybus|Beijing's trolleybus]] system, the most extensive in China, is served by trolleybuses that can run for considerable distances on battery power. In Shanghai, new battery-only buses have been ordered to replace certain trolleybus routes. These buses charge at terminals and stops and operate from the electric power stored in supercapacitors. China also has a few very small trolleybus systems located away from urban areas, at [[Coal mining|coal mine]]s, with trolleybuses used for transporting of workers between the mines and the workers' housing areas. One such line is at the Wuyang Coal Mine, located near [[Changzhi]], in [[Shanxi|Shanxi province]], which opened in 1985 and, as of 2010, had a fleet of 10 articulated trolleybuses.<ref name=tm295p17>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 295 (January–February 2011), p. 17.</ref>
 
 
====India====
 
A small trolleybus system operated in [[Delhi]] from 1935 until about 1962. The [[Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport]] of [[Mumbai]] operated trolleybuses from 1962 to 1971.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bestundertaking.com/trans_land.asp |title=BEST Landmarks |accessdate=2009-02-12 |last=BEST |first=BEST |coauthors= |year=1962 |work= |publisher=BEST Undertaking }}</ref>
 
 
====Iran====
 
[[File:Tehran trolleybus 20.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A [[Trolleybuses in Tehran|Tehran trolleybus]] at [[Rahahan Square]].]]
 
{{main|Trolleybuses in Tehran}}
 
The only trolleybus system in Iran opened in 1992 in the capital, [[Tehran]], with a fleet of 65 [[Articulated bus|articulated]] vehicles serving a single transport corridor, mostly in reserved lanes.<ref name="Murray"/> In 2005, the size of the system was relatively unchanged. Five routes were in operation, of which two were [[limited-stop]] services, all starting at Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn ([[Imam Hossein Square]]),<ref name="tm265">''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 265 (January–February 2006), pp. 16–17. {{issn|0266-7452}}.</ref> near [[Imam Hossein Metro Station|Imam Hossein station]] of [[Tehran Metro]] Line 2.
 
 
====Japan====
 
Trolleybuses are in use on two unusual mountain lines, the [[Tateyama Tunnel Trolleybus]] line and the [[Kanden Tunnel Trolleybus]] line, both of which are mostly or entirely in tunnel and serve mainly tourists and hikers in a scenic area. These are now the country's only trolleybus lines, but seven Japanese cities had trolleybus systems in the past.<ref name="Murray"/> In Japan, this transport system is regarded as a [[railway]] so that Act on Rail Tracks/Railway Business Act are applied. The drivers are required to get a licence of [[Railroad engineer]] as well as [[Driver's license]].
 
 
====Kyrgyzstan====
 
The capital city, [[Bishkek]] uses trolley busses alongside buses and [[marshrutka]]s. The [[Trolleybuses in Bishkek|trolleybus system]] was introduced to [[Kyrgyzstan]] by the Soviet Union during the industrialization period of the city. The city still uses trolleybuses from that time, but has started to update the fleet with newer models.
 
 
====Mongolia====
 
The capital city, [[Ulaanbaatar]], has several{{citation needed|date=November 2011}} trolleybus-operating private companies. The [[Trolleybuses in Ulan Bator|trolleybus system]] was introduced to Mongolia by the Soviet Union during the industrialization period of the city.
 
 
====Nepal====
 
Chinese-built trolleybuses operated on a route from [[Kathmandu]] to [[Bhaktapur]] between 1975 and 2001. A limited trolleybus service was restarted in 2003, and there were plans to expand it,<ref>[http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/articles-58936_resource_1.pdf Feasibility Report, 2004] Winrock International.</ref> but they did not come to fruition. Trolleybus operation was suspended again in November 2008, and in 2009 that cessation was made permanent.<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 290 (March–April 2010), p. 42.</ref> ''See [[Trolleybuses in Kathmandu]].''
 
 
====New Zealand====
 
[[File:WellingtonNewTrolleybus.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A new-model Designline trolleybus operating in Wellington in December 2008]]
 
[[Wellington]] has the only public trolleybus system in [[Australasia]]. [[GO Wellington]] operates 61 [[Designline]] trolleybuses on nine suburban routes south, east and west of the city centre.
 
 
In [[Foxton, New Zealand|Foxton]] and at [[Ferrymead Heritage Park]] in [[Christchurch]] preserved trolleybuses operate. The Ferrymead system has trolleybuses from every New Zealand city that operated trolleybuses: Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin.
 
 
{{Further|Trolleybuses in Wellington}}
 
 
====North Korea====
 
[[File:In front of Pyongyang Station DPRK.jpg|thumb|150px|A trolleybus near Pyongyang Railway Station (2007)]]
 
{{See also|Trams and Trolleybuses in North Korea}}
 
Trolleybuses have operated in [[Pyongyang]] since 1962, with a large fleet serving several routes. Due to the closed nature of North Korea, the existence of trolleybus networks in other North Korean cities was generally unknown outside the country for many years, but it is now known that around 12 to 15 other cities also possess trolleybus systems, among them [[Chongjin]] and [[Nampho]].<ref name="Tarkhov NK">Tarkhov, Sergei; and Merzlov, Dmitriy. "North Korean Surprises". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' Nos. 244-6 (July, September and November 2002).</ref> A few other places have private, very small (in some cases only one or two vehicles) systems for transporting workers from a housing area to a nearby coal mine or other industrial site—or at least did at some time within recent years.<ref name="Tarkhov NK"/> Trolleybuses include both imported and locally made vehicles. Imported buses are from Europe and copied versions from China. There are a few local manufacturers of trolleybuses.
 
 
====Turkey====
 
In the Asian part of Turkey, trolleybuses have operated in Ankara and Izmir; see Turkey listing in ''Europe'' section, below, for details.
 
 
=== Europe ===
 
====Austria====
 
The largest trolleybus system in Austria is in [[Salzburg]], with nine routes and 80 trolleybuses, operating from 0600 to midnight. The system was introduced in 1940 and has been expanded during recent years. [[Linz]] has four routes and 19 vehicles; after years of uncertainty the continued existence of the system is guaranteed by the operator. The trolleybuses in [[Innsbruck]] went out of service in 2007 because of an expected expansion of the [[light rail]] system. A trolleybus system with two routes existed in [[Kapfenberg]] until 2002. The towns of [[Klagenfurt]] and [[Graz]] closed their trolleybus systems in the 1960s.
 
 
====Belarus====
 
[[File:AKCM-420 in Minsk - 04.jpg|thumb|150px|right|[[Belkommunmash]] AKSM-420 in [[Minsk]], Belarus, in 2007]]
 
{{See also|Trolleybuses in Belarus}}
 
The trolleybus system in [[Minsk]] (since 1952) is the second-largest in the world. Trolleybuses also work in [[Brest (Belarus)|Brest]], [[Vitebsk]], [[Gomel]], [[Grodno]], [[Mogilev]] and [[Babruysk]] (since 1978).
 
 
====Belgium====
 
No trolleybus systems remain in operation in Belgium, but in the past, trolleybuses provided a portion of the local transport service in [[Antwerp]], [[Brussels]], [[Liège]] and [[Ghent]].<ref name="Murray"/> The last system, that of Ghent, which ceased operation in June 2009,<ref>Isgar, Carl. "Farewell to Gent's Trolleybuses". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 288 (November–December 2009), pp. 126-131. National Trolleybus Assn. (UK).</ref> had opened much later than all of the other Belgian trolleybus systems, in 1989. Government funds to build the Ghent system were provided, in part, for the purpose of improving the prospects for the export of Belgian-built trolleybuses,<ref name="Murray"/> and the Ghent system's fleet was made up entirely of trolleybuses built by [[Van Hool]], a Belgian company. The Brussels system comprised only a single route (the 54), in contrast to that city's large [[Brussels trams|tram]] system. Liège had two independent trolleybus systems. One of them, a small system connecting Liège to the suburb of [[Seraing]], operated the world's only double-ended (bi-directional) trolleybuses; the vehicles were eventually rebuilt to conventional (single-ended) configuration.<ref name="Murray"/> One of those unique vehicles, restored to double-ended configuration, is preserved at the ''Musée des Transports en commun du Pays de Liège''.<ref>{{cite web|author=Corteil, A. and Roubinet, J.-M|title=Le trolleybus de Seraing (1936-1963)|language=French|url=http://www.trams-trolleybus.be/Trolleybus10.html|accessdate=2010-03-11}}</ref> Trolleybuses from the other Liège system and from Brussels and Ghent are preserved at various museums, including 1932-built Liège 425 at the [[The Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft|Sandtoft museum]], in England.
 
 
====Bosnia and Herzegovina====
 
Trolleybuses are in use only in the capital city, [[Sarajevo]]. Operation and maintenance is done by GRAS (City transportation). There are seven routes (101-107).{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}
 
 
====Bulgaria====
 
Trolleybus networks operate in [[Sofia]] (since 1941), [[Plovdiv]] (1955), [[Pleven]] (1985), [[Varna]] (1986), Kazanlak (1987), [[Stara Zagora]] (1988), [[Ruse, Bulgaria|Ruse]] (1988), [[Sliven]] (1988), [[Vratsa]] (1988), [[Dobrich]] (1988), [[Pernik]] (1989), [[Gabrovo]] (1990), [[Haskovo]] (1990), [[Veliko Tarnovo]] (1990), [[Burgas]] (1991) and [[Pazardzhik]] (1993). The most developed system in terms of density is in Pleven, with 14 trolleybus routes, totalling {{convert|75|km}}, and one bus route. The largest system is in Sofia: {{convert|105|km}}. Now the Kazanlak system is not in operation. In the late 80s the towns of [[Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria|Dimitrovgrad]] and [[Gorna Oryahovitsa]] started to build networks, but due to financial problems the projects were suspended. Also that is the reason for closing Kazanlak's system.
 
 
====Czech Republic====
 
The Czech Republic has 13 trolleybus systems, in towns both large and small, and in the past trolleybuses also operated in three other cities. See [[List of trolleybus systems#Czech Republic|List of trolleybus systems]] for details.
 
 
There also was a line between [[Ostrov (Karlovy Vary District)|Ostrov nad Ohří]] and [[Jáchymov]], taking advantage of steep gradients between these towns, used only for testing trolleybuses made at the [[Škoda Works|Škoda]] factory in Ostrov. The line was dismantled in 2004, following the cessation of production.
 
 
====Denmark====
 
Trolleybuses were introduced in [[Gentofte]] (a suburb of [[Copenhagen]]) with one line in 1927 - operated by the regional power company, NESA. The network was gradually expanded to connect to the suburbs of [[Lyngby]] and [[Gladsaxe|Søborg]] also. From 1938 to 1963 trolleybuses were operating on the route on Lyngbyvej to Nørreport Station (in downtown Copenhagen). From 1953 onward NESA operated 4 trolleybus lines. In 1963 the two lines to Nørreport Station were converted to operate with diesel buses. NESA replaced the last trolleybus with diesel buses in 1971.
 
 
The city of [[Odense]] also got a trolleybus line in 1939. In 1959 this line was converted to operate with diesel buses.
 
 
====Estonia====
 
[[Image:SolarisT18ACInTallinn.jpg|thumb|right|150px|Solaris T18AC in Tallinn]]
 
Trolleybuses are in use in [[Tallinn]]. The first trolleybus route opened on 6 July 1965. At its peak, the system had nine routes,<ref name=murray-p65>Murray (2000), p. 65.</ref> but one closed on 31 March 2000; the overhead wires remain in place.{{Citation needed|date=April 2012}} Old Skoda 14Tr and 15Tr trolleybuses are being replaced with newer low-floor Solaris/Ganz T12 and T18 [[Articulated bus|articulated]] models.
 
 
====Finland====
 
[[Tampere]] and [[Helsinki]] have had trolleybus systems in the past. In Tampere, trolleybus operations began in 1948 and ended in 1976. At the system's maximum extent seven trolleybus lines operated. Two trolleybuses have been preserved, in the collection of ''Tampereen kaupungin liikennelaitos''.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/tampere/tpelinja.htm |title=Johdinautokaupunki Tampere 1948-1976 |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last=Alameri |first=Mikko |coauthors= |year=1987 |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish}}</ref> In Helsinki a single trolleybus line was operated, 1949–1974.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/helsinki/hkijohd.htm |title=Helsingin Johdinautot |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish}}</ref> An attempt to restore trolleybus operation in Helsinki was made in the late 1970s and resulted in the acquisition of a prototype trolleybus which was used between 1979 and 1985.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/helsinki/hklsws/elvyty.pdf |title=Johdinautoliikenteen elvytyspyrkimykset ja Koejohdinautoprojekti |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last=Alameri |first=Mikko |coauthors= |year=1987 |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish |format=PDF}}</ref> Three Helsinki trolleybuses have been preserved. Of these, number 605 is on display at the Helsinki Tram Museum.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/helsinki/hkl604/hkl604.htm |title=HKL Trolleybuses 604&ndash;608 |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish/English}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/helsinki/hkl624/hkl624.htm |title=HKL Trolleybuses 624&ndash;626 |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish/English}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.raitio.org/trolley/helsinki/hklsws/hklsws.htm|title=HKL Trolleybus 1 |accessdate=2008-08-29 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=Finnish Tramway Society |language=Finnish/English}}</ref> Helsinki is considering restoring trolleybus services.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.hs.fi/autot/artikkeli/HKL+harkitsee+johdinautoja+ydinkeskustan+liikenteeseen/1135245359602 |title=HKL harkitsee johdinautoja ydinkeskustan liikenteeseen |author=Juha Salonen an Markku Karumo |date=2009-04-22 |publisher=[[Helsingin Sanomat]] |accessdate=17 August 2010 |language={{fi}}}}</ref>
 
 
====France====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in France}}
 
Trolleybuses are used in [[Limoges]], [[Lyon]], [[Nancy, France|Nancy]] and [[Saint-Étienne]], which have expanded their use. Preserved trolleybuses are at the ''Musée des Transports'' (AMTUIR) in Colombes.
 
 
====Germany====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Germany}}
 
Trolleybuses operate in [[Eberswalde]] (near Berlin), [[Esslingen]] (near Stuttgart) and [[Solingen]] (near Düsseldorf). There were over 60 trolleybus systems in the late 1950s, many having replaced under-used tram services.<ref>{{Cite book |title=Wuppertal Schwebebahn Album |author=Groneck, Christoph |coauthors=Lohkemper, Paul |year=2007 |publisher=Robert Schwandl |location=Berlin |page=58}}</ref>
 
 
====Greece====
 
[[File:Athens Neoplan N6216 trolleybus 8073.jpg|thumb|150px|right|A trolleybus in Athens in 2009]]
 
{{See also|ILPAP}}
 
22 Trolleybus lines in the Athens metropolitan area serve [[Athens]], [[Piraeus]] and other municipalities. The trolleybus network, which is operated by [[ILPAP]], is one of the largest in Europe,<ref name="janes2009">Webb, Mary (ed.) (2009). ''Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009-2010''. Coulsdon, Surrey (UK): [[Jane's Information Group]]. ISBN 978-0-7106-2903-6.</ref> with more than 360 trolleybuses. The entire fleet was replaced with new [[Neoplan]] and [[Van Hool]] [[low floor|low-floor]] trolleybuses from 1999 to 2004.
 
 
====Hungary====
 
Trolleybuses are used in [[Budapest]], [[Szeged]] and [[Debrecen]]. In [[Budapest]] the fleet is operated by [[BKV|Budapesti Közlekedési Vállalat Zrt]].
 
 
====Italy====
 
[[File:Bologna Autodromo trolleybus at Piazza Mercanzia.jpg|thumb|150px|A trolleybus in [[Bologna]].]]
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Italy}}
 
Trolleybuses are in use in [[Ancona]], [[Bologna]], [[Cagliari]], [[Chieti]], [[Genoa]], [[La Spezia]], [[Lecce]], [[Milan]], [[Modena]], [[Naples]], [[Parma]], [[Rimini]], [[Rome]] and [[Sanremo|San Remo]]. The largest systems are in Milan (about 150 vehicles, serving four routes) and Naples (100 vehicles, eight routes), the latter being divided between two separate transport authorities ([[ANM (Naples)|ANM]] and CTP). Work is under way to reopen a system in [[Bari]] that closed in 1987. New systems are under construction in [[Avellino]] and [[Pescara]],<ref name="janes2010"/> and are planned in [[Verona]]<ref name="janes2010"/> and [[Vicenza]].<ref name="tm289p17">''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 289 (January–February 2010), p. 17.</ref>
 
 
====Latvia====
 
Trolleybuses have been used in [[Riga]] since 1947. Currently there are 324 trolleybuses operated on 19 routes by [[Rīgas Satiksme]].<ref>{{cite web |title=About us |url=http://www.rigassatiksme.lv/?sadala=319 |work=Rīgas Satiksme |accessdate=2011-11-30}}</ref>
 
 
{{Further|Rīgas Satiksme#Trolleybuses}}
 
 
====Lithuania====
 
Trolleybuses have been used in [[Vilnius]] since 1956 (21 routes) and [[Kaunas]] (16 routes) since 1965.
 
 
====Moldova====
 
Trolleybuses are used in [[Chişinău]] (1949), currently 318 trolleybuses serving near 30 routes, [[Bălţi]] (1972), [[Bender, Moldova|Tighina]] (1993) and [[Tiraspol]] (1967). Trolleybuses are the most used transport in [[Chişinău]]
 
 
====Netherlands====
 
Trolleybuses have been in use in [[Trolleybuses in Arnhem|Arnhem]] since 1949. Past trolleybus systems were located in [[Groningen (city)|Groningen]] (1927–65) and [[Nijmegen]] (1952–69).
 
 
====Norway====
 
In [[Bergen]], Norway, trolleybuses have been in use since 1950.
 
{{Further|Trolleybuses in Bergen}}
 
 
In 1909, [[Trolleybuses in Drammen|Drammen]] had the first trolleybus system in Scandinavia, running until 1967, and trolleybuses also served [[Oslo]] and [[Stavanger]] from the 1940s until the 1960s.
 
 
====Poland====
 
Three cities operate trolleybuses: [[Lublin]], [[Tychy]] and [[Gdynia]]. Several other Polish cities had trolleybus systems in the past; see [[List of trolleybus systems#Poland|List of trolleybus systems]].
 
 
{{Further|Transportation in Poland|Trolleybuses in Gdynia}}
 
 
====Portugal====
 
Trolleybuses are currently operated only in [[Coimbra]], where the system is managed by a municipal authority, SMTUC. Construction of a new trolleybus system in [[Amadora]], a suburb of [[Lisbon]], is planned.<ref name="tm289p17"/> Two other cities used trolleybuses in the past: [[Braga]] was served by trolleybuses from 1963 to 1979. In [[Porto]], [[Sociedade de Transportes Colectivos do Porto]] operated several trolleybus routes from 1959 to 1997 and has preserved some of its historic vehicles. Unusually, the Porto fleet included [[Double-decker bus|double-deck]] trolleybuses.
 
 
====Romania====
 
[[Image:Baia.Mare.Trolleybus.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A trolleybus in [[Baia Mare]]]]
 
In addition to [[Bucharest]] (1949), where around 300 vehicles were serving 19 routes as of early 2009,<ref name="janes2009"/> the larger trolleybuses systems opened in 1959: [[Brașov]] (shrunk considerably in the 2000s), [[Cluj-Napoca|Cluj]] (1959), [[Constanta]] (1959; shrunk considerably in the 2000s; closed 2010). An exception is [[Timişoara]] (1942) built with Italian equipment and vehicles. Most smaller systems were opened through a government program in the 1980s and 1990s, though only about half survive: [[Sibiu]] (1983; closed 2009),<ref>[http://www.evz.ro/articole/detalii-articol/872450/14-noiembrie-ultima-zi-cu-troleibuzul-prin-Sibiu/ "14 noiembrie, ultima zi cu troleibuzul prin Sibiu"], ''Evenimentul Zilei'', October 20, 2009</ref> [[Iaşi]] (1985; closed 2006), [[Suceava]] (1987; closed 2006), [[Brăila]] (1989; closed 1999), [[Galaţi]] (1989), [[Mediaş]] (1989), [[Satu Mare]] (1994; closed 2005), [[Vaslui]] (1994), [[Piatra Neamţ]] (1995), [[Târgu Jiu]] (1995), [[Târgovişte]] (1995; closed 2005), [[Baia Mare]] (1996), [[Slatina, Romania|Slatina]] (1996; closed 2005), [[Ploieşti]] (1997). A "[[Rocar DAC|DAC 117 E]]" (1987) is preserved by the TRANSIRA Association.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://forum.transira.ro/viewtopic.php?t=1459 |title=TRANSIRA :: Vizualizare subiect - DAC 117 E -Meditur MEDIAS 330 |publisher=Forum.transira.ro |date= |accessdate=2010-11-29}}</ref>
 
 
====Russia====
 
:''See also: [[List of trolleybus systems in Russia]] and [[Trolleybus in former Soviet Union countries]]''
 
Trolleybus systems operate in 87 cities, including the largest network in the world, in Moscow. In Moscow, preserved vintage trolleybuses are available to the public only at transport-dedicated exhibitions and at parades on celebration days. In [[Saint Petersburg]] and [[Nizhny Novgorod]] museum trolleybuses may be hired for city excursions and parties.
 
 
====Serbia====
 
[[Image:Beogradski trolejbus.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A [[Belkommunmash]] AKSM-32100S trolleybus in [[Belgrade]]]]
 
There are eight trolleybus routes in [[Belgrade]]. Three of them are variations of the original line established shortly after World War II with Russian-made vehicles, with the same terminus in the heart of old [[downtown]] next to the [[Kalemegdan]] fortress. Another is a completely independent line built perpendicular to the other three in the early 1980s. The fleet had 154 operable trolleybuses as of December 2005.<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 266 (March–April 2006), p. 42.</ref>
 
 
====Slovakia====
 
The first trolleybus system connected Poprad with Starý Smokovec from 1904 to 1906. The second trolleybus system was built in 1909 in [[Bratislava]], but served only until 1915.<ref name="imhd.sk BA">{{cite web|title=History of public transport|publisher=imhd.sk|date=2012-06-16|url=http://imhd.sk/ba/doc/en/10225/History-of-public-transport.html|accessdate=2012-06-16}}</ref> The route led to the hilly recreational area of Železná studienka and the trolleybuses' motors were fed by a four-wheel bogie running on top of the wires and connected to the vehicle by a cable. Trolleybuses in Bratislava were reintroduced in 1941, with standard trolley poles.<ref name="imhd.sk BA" /> In 1962 trolleybuses were introduced in [[Prešov]]. [[Banská Bystrica]] introduced trolleybuses in 1989, [[Košice]] in 1993 and [[Žilina]] in 1994. All trolleybuses were made by [[Škoda Works|Škoda]].
 
 
====Slovenia====
 
[[File:Piran-Tartini Square-Trolleybus.jpg|thumb|A postcard of Piran, [[Austria-Hungary]] (nowadays [[Slovenia]]) from 1909. The Tartini Square and the former trolleybus (in operation between 1909 and 1912) are shown.]]
 
The first trolleybus line in the [[Balkans]] opened to the public on 24 October 1909 in the coastal town of [[Piran]], then part of [[Austria-Hungary]]. It ran from the [[Tartini Square]], the central square of the town, along the coast and the shipyard to [[Portorož]] and [[Lucija, Piran|Lucija]]. The town authorities bought five trolleybuses manufactured by the Austrian company [[Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft]].<ref name="bam.czp-vecer.si">{{Cite web|url=http://bam.czp-vecer.si/bonbon/default.asp?kaj=1&id=5345203|title=Prvi trolejbus so imeli Pirančani |accessdate=2011-01-06|work=bam.czp-vecer.si}} {{Sl icon}}</ref><ref name="vecer.com">{{Cite web|url=http://www.vecer.com/clanekrep2009102705480808|title=Gremo v Piran, Piran|accessdate=2011-01-06|work=vecer.com}} {{Sl icon}}</ref> In August 1912, it was replaced by the [[Piran tram system|town's tram system]] on the same route. From 1951 until 1971, trolleybuses served [[Ljubljana]], the capital of the then [[Socialist Republic of Slovenia]], till 1958 alongside the tram. There were five trolleybus lines in Ljubljana.
 
 
====Spain====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Spain}}
 
Trolleybuses are currently in use only in [[Castellón de la Plana]], where a new system opened on 25 June 2008;<ref name="tm-castellon">Haseldine, Peter. "Trolleybuses Return to Spain". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 281 (September–October 2008), p. 98.</ref> trolleybuses had previously served the town from 1963 to 1969.<ref name="Castellón_Photos">{{cite web|url=http://members.shaw.ca/synt/Castellon-photos.htm|title=Castellón-de-la-Plata (sic) Trolleybus Photos|accessdate=2010-04-12}}</ref> The Irisbus Civis vehicles are [[Guided bus#Optical guidance|optically guided]] and are capable of switching to [[Dual-mode bus|diesel power]] for turning in front of the Parque Ribalto.<ref name="tm-castellon"/><ref name="innov">{{cite web|last=Holtkamp|first=Angela|title=A First in Spain: Optiguide for Castellon's Trolleybus Line|publisher=Siemens, via The Innovations Report|date=2008-07-07|url=http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/logistics/report-113808.html|accessdate=2010-04-12}}</ref>
 
 
Earlier, at least 12 trolleybus systems existed in Spain;<ref name="Murray"/> see [[List of trolleybus systems in Spain|list]]. While most were urban systems, there were also some interurban lines, including a 33-km route from [[A Coruña]] to Carballo and a 12-km route from [[Tarragona]] to Reus.<ref name="Murray"/> Until the opening of the second Castellón system, in 2008, the last Spanish system to operate had been the one in [[Pontevedra]], which closed in 1989.<ref name="Murray"/> In the 1960s and 1970s, more than 100 secondhand London double-deck trolleybuses operated on various Spanish systems.<ref name="patton">Patton, Brian (2004). ''Double-Deck Trolleybuses of the World, beyond the British Isles'', p. 80. Sutherland (UK): Adam Gordon. ISBN 1-874422-50-8.</ref>
 
 
====Sweden====
 
In [[Landskrona]], a single trolleybus route connects the railway station with the city centre and the wharf area. The system opened in 2003 and employs four trolleybuses,<ref>Brown, Terry. "Trolleybuses in Sweden, Once Again". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 253, Jan.-Feb. 2004, p. 14.</ref> making it one of the world's smallest systems. Forty years earlier trolleybus systems existed in [[Gothenburg]] and [[Stockholm]], the latter a large system with 12 routes.<ref name="Murray"/>
 
 
====Switzerland====
 
[[File:LighTram3-Linie-31-Zürich-Bild-1.jpg|thumb|300px|A double-articulated [[Carrosserie Hess]] [[Hess lighTram 3|lighTram 3]] in [[Zürich]] (24.7&nbsp;m)]]
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Switzerland}}
 
Trolleybuses are in use in cities including [[Lausanne]] (10 lines), [[Lucerne]] (7 lines), [[Geneva]] (6 lines), [[Zürich]] (6 lines), [[Bern]] (5 lines), [[St. Gallen]] (4 lines), [[Neuchâtel]] (4 lines), [[Winterthur]] (4 lines), [[Fribourg]] (3 lines), [[La Chaux-de-Fonds]] (3 lines), [[Biel]] (2 lines), [[Schaffhausen]] (1 line), [[Vevey]]&ndash;[[Montreux]] (1 line).
 
 
The last trolleybus ran in [[Lugano]] in June 2001<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 239 (September–October 2001), p. 119.</ref> and in [[Basel]], where they have been replaced by gas powered buses, on 30 June 2008.<ref>Basler Verkehrsbetriebe: [http://www.bvb.ch/23-06-08_adieu_trolleybus.pdf Adieu Trolleybus], Press statement dated 23 June 2008</ref> These are the only urban networks that have been closed in Switzerland.
 
 
In Lausanne, the Association RétroBus has preserved several vintage trolleybuses, the oldest example being a 1932 [[Franz Brozincevic Wetzikon|FBW]],<ref>Stubbs, Tim. "Trolleybus Preservation in Switzerland". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 281 (September–October 2008), pp. 101–102.</ref> and operates them periodically on public excursions, especially on summer weekends.
 
 
====Turkey====
 
Trolleybuses have operated in three cities: [[Ankara]], [[Istanbul]] and [[Izmir]]. Turkey's first trolleybus line began operating in 1947 in the capital, Ankara. On 1 June 1947, 10 [[J. G. Brill Company|Brill]] trolleybuses, joined in 1948 by 10 [[Franz Brozincevic Wetzikon|FBW]] vehicles, started running between the Ulus and Bakanliklar districts.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} In 1952 13 more trolleybuses were bought from MAN. The system closed in 1986.<ref name="Murray"/> In the financial and cultural capital, Istanbul, the first trolleybuses were introduced in the early 1960s. The first line was the Topkapi-Eminönü line and was constructed by the Italian Ansaldo San Giorgia company. The total length of trolleybus line was 45&nbsp;km, and there were 100 buses in operation at the system's peak. However, due to frequent power losses it was decided to close the system, and the last trolleybus ran in 1984.<ref>[http://www.iett.gov.tr/metin.php?no=189 Troleybüs] (history). {{tr icon}} [[IETT]]. Retrieved 2011-03-22.</ref><ref name=iett-english>[http://www.iett.gov.tr/en/tarihcekro.php?tarih=1961 Last tramcar in Istanbul]. [[IETT]]. Retrieved 2011-03-22.</ref>
 
 
====Ukraine====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Ukraine}}
 
[[File:ElektroLAZ in Ternopil.jpg|thumb|right|150px|LAZ trolleybus in [[Ternopil]]]]
 
Trolleybus systems run in more than 25 cities, including the interurban [[Crimea]]n network connecting [[Simferopol]] with [[Alushta]] and [[Yalta]] on the coast. The [[Crimean Trolleybus|Crimean trolleybus]] network includes the longest trolleybus route in the world,<ref name="Murray"/> the 86-km (54&nbsp;mi.) route from Yalta to Simferopol.<ref>Makewell, Roy. "Trolleybuses Over the Yaila Mountains". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 193 (January–February 1994), pp. 2-16. National Trolleybus Assn. (UK).</ref>
 
 
====United Kingdom====
 
[[Image:Trolley bus 553381 ef7d052a.jpg|thumb|right|150px|A [[Trolleybuses in Derby|Derby Corporation trolleybus]] in 1967. This vehicle is preserved in running order at the Black Country Living Museum.]]
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in the United Kingdom}}
 
No trolleybus systems are in operation but a new [[Leeds Trolleybus|Leeds trolleybus]] system is planned and the project was given preliminary government approval and funding in March 2010.<ref name="leeds2010mar">{{cite news|last=Hookham|first=Mark|title=Leeds trolleybus gets go-ahead|date=22 March 2010|publisher=[[Yorkshire Evening Post]]|url=http://www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk/news/Leeds-trolleybus-gets-goahead.6169837.jp|accessdate=2010-04-05}}</ref> In the past, more than 50 systems existed and a large number of trolleybuses have been preserved at British [[museum]]s. The last trolleybuses in Britain ran in Bradford in 1972. The world's largest collection of preserved trolleybuses is at [[The Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft]] in England. Examples are also preserved at the [[East Anglia Transport Museum]] and the [[Black Country Living Museum]] in England.
 
 
=== North America ===
 
====Canada====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Canada}}
 
 
[[Edmonton]] was the most recent city to abandon its trolleybus network, ending service in May 2009, despite opposition from local citizens.<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 286 (July–August 2009).</ref> Vancouver is currently the only Canadian city operating trolleybuses, with several other cities considering new trolleybus networks, including [[Laval, Quebec|Laval]] and [[Montréal]].
 
 
[[File:Vancouver trolley bus - New Flyer E60LFR.jpg|thumb|150px|right|One of [[Vancouver]]'s New Flyer E60LFR articulated trolleybuses, on route 20.]]
 
[[TransLink (British Columbia)|TransLink]] operates a fleet of 262 vehicles in [[Vancouver]],<ref name="tm294-van">"Vancouver Update". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 294 (November–December 2010), p. 131.</ref> locally known as [[Trolleybuses in Vancouver|"trolleys"]].<ref name="vanc60">{{cite press release| title = Trolley service begins the next 60 years| publisher = [[TransLink (British Columbia)|TransLink]]| date = August 16, 2008|url = http://www.translink.ca/en/About-TransLink/Media/2008/August/Trolley-service-begins-the-next-60-years.aspx|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20110719211350/http://www.translink.ca/en/About-TransLink/Media/2008/August/Trolley-service-begins-the-next-60-years.aspx|archivedate=19 July 2011|accessdate = 2012-04-21}}</ref> The city's aging trolley fleet was replaced in 2006–2009 with new [[low-floor]] models built in Canada by [[New Flyer]], including 74 [[Articulated bus|articulated]] units.<ref name="tm294-van"/> The trolleys are valued in the Vancouver transit network for their "greener" energy usage and emissions (relying on hydro-electric power), quieter operation over diesels and the high-torque electric motors are well-suited to hilly areas of the city.
 
 
In [[Laval, Quebec]] (within the [[Greater Montreal]] area), the transit system operator, [[Société de transport de Laval]] (STL), launched a study in spring 2009 into the possible construction of a new, four-route trolleybus system.<ref name="courrier">{{cite news| last = LeBlanc| first = Benoit| title = Trolleybuses in Laval? STL and Hydro-Québec launch feasibility study| publisher = Courrier Laval| date = March 18, 2009| url = http://www.courrierlaval.com/Transport-en-commun/2009-03-18/article-1125006/Trolleybuses-in-Laval/1| accessdate = 2009-09-06}}</ref> Funded jointly by STL and [[Hydro-Québec]],<ref>{{cite press release| title = Trolleybus in Laval?| publisher = Société de transport de Laval | date = March 16, 2009|url = http://cnwtelbec.com/en/releases/archive/March2009/16/c9206.html| accessdate = 2010-04-25}}</ref> the study was completed in 2010. In discussing the Laval study, some provincial officials indicated they would like to see transport agencies in other major Québec cities also consider installing trolleybus networks.<ref name="courrier"/> At the end of the study, the Laval transit authority decided to experiment with [[Battery electric bus|rechargeable battery-powered buses]] first, before making a decision on whether to proceed with trolleybuses.<ref name="stl-2010nov2">{{cite press release|title=STL to test all-electric buses|date=2 November 2010|publisher= Société de transport de Laval |url= http://www.stl.laval.qc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Trolleybus_DepotEtude_Electrification_final_20101031-ANG2.pdf |format=PDF|accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
 
| last = Riga
 
| first = Andy
 
| title = Laval transit agency to test electric buses before trolleys
 
| newspaper = [[The Gazette (Montreal)|Montreal Gazette]]
 
| date = November 3, 2010
 
| url = http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/montreal/Laval+transit+agency+test+electric+buses+before+trolleys/3768032/story.html
 
| accessdate = 2010-11-11
 
}}</ref> Among the points noted in the study's findings were that installing a trolleybus system would require a significant initial capital investment in infrastructure, but that trolleybuses are a technology that is known to be able to operate reliably in harsh winter temperatures, whereas it is uncertain whether other types of electric buses would be able to do so, and testing of this is now planned.<ref name="stl-2010nov2"/>
 
 
A new trolleybus system is also proposed for the city of [[Montréal]] proper, by [[Société de transport de Montréal|STM]].<ref>{{cite news| last = Riga| first = Andy| title = STM chief urges hike in gas tax: Would fund expansion of public transit, Michel Labrecque says| newspaper = [[The Gazette (Montreal)|Montreal Gazette]]| date = 25 March 2010}}</ref> Montreal was previously served by trolleybuses from 1937 until 1966.<ref name="Murray"/>
 
 
Several other Canadian cities have operated trolleybus systems in the past. In Hamilton, where they were referred to as "trolley coaches", they were used from 1951 until the end of 1992. Toronto initially had an experimental fleet of four trolleybuses from 1922 through 1927, but later maintained a fleet of about 150 vehicles from 1947 through 1992. Another 40 trolleybuses leased from Edmonton continued operation in Toronto until the lease expired, in July 1993, and the buses were returned to Edmonton a few months later. Most of Canada's other trolleybus systems were abandoned during the 1960s and 1970s; the last two to disappear at that time (Saskatoon and Calgary) closed down in 1974 and 1975, respectively.<ref name="Murray"/>
 
 
The [[Transit Museum Society]], in [[Vancouver]], has preserved at least five trolleybuses retired from service on that city's trolleybus system, and some are maintained in running condition for occasional operation on the system, in cooperation with the transit agency [[TransLink (British Columbia)|TransLink]].
 
 
====Mexico====
 
[[Servicio de Transportes Eléctricos|Servicio de Transportes Eléctricos (STE)]] of [[Mexico City]] is one of the largest systems in North America. In the 1960s and 1970s STE acquired trolleybuses withdrawn from service in many Canadian and U.S. cities, including Montreal, Winnipeg, Cleveland, Dallas, Indianapolis, Johnstown, Little Rock, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Shreveport and San Francisco, and placed them in service in Mexico City,<ref>Sebree, Mac; and Ward, Paul (1974). ''The Trolley Coach in North America'', pp. 347–355. Los Angeles: [[Interurban Press|Interurbans]]. LCCN 74-20367.</ref><ref>Porter, Harry; and Worris, Stanley F.X. (1979). ''Trolleybus Bulletin No. 109: Databook II'', pp. 40–41. North American Trackless Trolley Association (defunct).</ref> following these later with a similar acquisition of 37 [[New Flyer Industries|Flyer]]s from Edmonton in 1987. Since 1981 more than 700 trolleybuses have been purchased from [[MASA (company)|Mexicana de Autobuses S.A. (MASA)]],<ref name="Murray"/> fitted with electrical equipment by various suppliers (including Hitachi, Toshiba, Kiepe and Mitsubishi) for batches of vehicles ordered at different times.<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'', November–December 1990 and May–June 2005 issues.</ref> The size of the fleet in 2008 was around 400.<ref>Webb, Mary (ed.) (2008). ''Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2008-2009'', p. 244. [[Jane's Information Group]].</ref>
 
 
[[Guadalajara]] opened a trolleybus system in 1976 using ex-Chicago trolleybuses dating from 1951-52. The last of these were withdrawn in January 1993,<ref>Morgan, S. J. "Better Times Ahead in Mexico", parts 1 and 2. ''Trolleybus Magazine'' Nos. 208 (July-Aug. 1996) and 209 (Sep.-Oct. 1996).</ref> and since then the service has been provided by MASA trolleybuses, most of which had been acquired new in 1982-85.
 
 
====United States====
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in the United States}}
 
 
Since the opening of the first system, a relatively short-lived one opened in 1910 in Los Angeles, more than 60 cities in the United States have been served by trolleybuses, in some instances by two or more independent systems operated by different private companies.<ref name="Murray"/>
 
 
[[File:Philadelphia E40LFR trolleybus 817.jpg|right|150px|thumb|SEPTA trackless trolley on Frankford Avenue in Philadelphia in 2010]]
 
Trolleybus systems are currently in operation in five U.S. metropolitan areas:<ref name="janes2008">Webb, Mary (ed.) (2008), ''Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2008-2009''. Coulsdon, Surrey (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2860-2.</ref>
 
*[[Boston]], Massachusetts: [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority]]'s [[Silver Line (MBTA)|Silver Line Waterfront]] service
 
**[[Cambridge, Massachusetts]]: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority; see [[Boston-area trackless trolleys]]
 
*[[Philadelphia]], Pennsylvania: [[Philadelphia Light Rail|SEPTA]]; see [[Trolleybuses in Philadelphia]]
 
*San Francisco, California: [[San Francisco Municipal Railway|San Francisco Muni]]
 
*[[Seattle]], Washington: [[King County Metro#Trolleys|King County Metro]]
 
*[[Dayton, Ohio]]: [[Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority]]; see [[Trolleybuses in Dayton]]
 
 
=====Preservation=====
 
*The [[Illinois Railway Museum]] in Union maintains an historical collection of 20 trolleybuses from [[Chicago]], [[Dayton, Ohio|Dayton]], [[Cleveland]], [[Des Moines, Iowa|Des Moines]], [[Vancouver, British Columbia|Vancouver]], Toronto, Seattle, San Francisco, Edmonton and [[Milwaukee]]. Several of the preserved coaches are operable and periodically provide rides for visitors over the museum's 0.6-mile (1&nbsp;km) demonstration line, such service usually being scheduled on the first Saturday of June, July, September and October each year.
 
*There are 18 historic trolleybuses in the collection of the [[Seashore Trolley Museum]] in [[Kennebunkport, Maine]].<ref>[http://www.trolleymuseum.org/collection/trackless.html Trackless Trolley Collection.] [[Seashore Trolley Museum]].</ref> Some are only on display or stored, but seven are in operating condition, and the museum has an approximately quarter-mile trolleybus line, on which operation takes place on about two or three weekends each year.
 
*In Seattle, transit authority [[King County Metro]] has preserved several historic trolleybuses and diesel buses that used to serve the city, and adds more to its collection as additional types are withdrawn from use on the Metro transit system. Volunteers from a group of current and retired employees of the agency, the Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association (MEHVA), formed in 1981, restore and maintain the vehicles and operate them on public excursions a few times each year.<ref name="seatimes-2009oct">{{cite news|last=Tan|first=Vinh|title= Take a ride down memory lane — or to see fall foliage — aboard a vintage transit bus|date=15 October 2009|newspaper=[[The Seattle Times]]|url=http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/outdoors/2010064974_nwwbus15.html|accessdate=2012-04-21}}</ref> As of 2009, the historic-vehicle fleet includes six trolleybuses, of which one is also a [[dual-mode bus]].<ref>[http://www.mehva.org/fleet.php Our Fleet.] Metro Employees Historic Vehicle Association (Seattle). Retrieved 2010-04-17.</ref>
 
*[[San Francisco Municipal Railway|San Francisco Muni]] has a collection of seven historic trolleybuses, including three [[New Flyer Industries|Flyer]] E800s of mid-1970s vintage, in operating condition, and four older vehicles which are not in running condition.
 
*A number of other museums in the United States have trolleybuses on static display only.
 
 
=== South America ===
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems#South America|List of trolleybus systems}}
 
 
====Argentina====
 
[[File:Trole b.JPG|150px|thumb|A Russian [[Trolza|ZIU]] trolleybus in [[Córdoba (city, Argentina)|Córdoba]], Argentina.]]
 
The capital of [[Mendoza Province|Mendoza province]], Argentina, had the first trolleybus operation in Latin America and one of the first in the world. South American Railless Traction Co., organized in London in 1912, planned to cover the continent with trolleybus lines and built an experimental route in Mendoza in 1913. (It was the only line that it built).<ref name="morrison-pioneers">Morrison, Allen (November 1999). [http://www.tramz.com/tb/p.html Trolleybus Pioneers in Latin America]. Retrieved 2011-03-22.</ref>
 
In 1952 the Argentine government imported 700 new trolleybuses from Germany (350 [[Mercedes-Benz buses|Mercedes-Benz]], 175 [[Henschel & Son|Henschel]] and 175 from [[Maschinenfabrik Esslingen|Maschinenfabrik]] Augsburg Nürnberg). Most of the vehicles ran in the capital, [[Buenos Aires]], but about 110 were sent to provincial cities: [[Bahía Blanca]], [[La Plata]], [[San Miguel de Tucumán|Tucumán]], [[Mar del Plata]] and [[Rosario, Santa Fe|Rosario]].
 
Trolleybuses are currently in use in [[Mendoza, Argentina|Mendoza]], [[Rosario, Santa Fe|Rosario]] and [[Córdoba, Argentina|Córdoba]].
 
 
====Brazil====
 
 
{{See also|List of trolleybus systems in Brazil}}
 
 
Trolleybuses are currently in use only in [[São Paulo (city)|São Paulo]] and [[Santos (São Paulo)|Santos]]. In São Paulo (city), there are two separate trolleybus systems, operated or regulated by two different public agencies: [[SPTrans]], in the central and eastern areas, and [[Empresa Metropolitana de Transportes Urbanos de São Paulo|EMTU]], in the southeastern suburbs and the cities of [[Santo André, São Paulo|Santo André]], [[São Bernardo do Campo]], [[Mauá]] and [[Diadema, São Paulo|Diadema]]. The trolleybus system of SPTrans (formerly CMTC), which opened in 1949, is the oldest surviving trolleybus system in Latin America<ref name="Murray"/> and also the largest system in South America.<ref name="morr-LA2011">Morrison, Allen (2011). [http://www.tramz.com/tb/s.html The Trolleybuses of Latin America in 2011]. Retrieved 2011-03-25.</ref> In the past, trolleybus systems existed in eleven other Brazilian cities; see [[List of trolleybus systems in Brazil|list]].
 
 
Two trolleybuses are preserved and exhibited at the SPTrans (São Paulo Transportation Authority) Museum at Gaetano Ferrola. Another five trolleybuses built by CMTC (SPTrans' predecessor, until 1995) and Villares between 1958 and 1965 are awaiting restoration in the SPTrans garage at Santa Rita. A trolleybus built in the United States by [[J. G. Brill Company|ACF-Brill]] in 1948 was restored in 1999 and operates during special celebrations, such as the city's 454th anniversary celebration on 25 January 2008.
 
 
====Chile====
 
[[Image:Trolleybuses in Valparaiso.JPG|thumb|150px|rightTrolleybus|Various trolleybuses in [[Valparaíso|Valparaíso, Chile]]]]
 
{{Further|Trolleybuses in Valparaíso}}
 
[[Valparaíso]], one of the largest cities of Chile, has the only trolleybus service currently, and it is managed by a private company, Trolebuses de Chile S.A. (formerly Empresa de Transportes Colectivos Eléctricos). The single route is numbered 802 in the regional transport scheme and is about 5&nbsp;km in length. The fleet is a distinctive mix of old American, Swiss and Chinese vehicles. The most famous vehicles are the [[Pullman Company|Pullman-Standard]]s, built in 1946-52, which are the oldest trolleybuses still in service anywhere in the world.<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 281 (September–October 2008), p. 110.</ref> They were declared national monuments in 2003.<ref>''La Estrella'' (Chilean newspaper), 29 July 2003 [http://www.estrellavalpo.cl/site/edic/20030729102025/pags/20030729122931.html "Quince troles porteños son monumentos históricos''] {{es icon}}, among other sources.</ref> The company has faced fierce competition from bus operators, and has come close to bankruptcy a few times, but many Valparaíso inhabitants feel an emotional link to the service, and vigorously defend the trolleybuses. During one such crisis in May 2007, even the country's president, [[Michelle Bachelet]], expressed support for keeping the historic system running.<ref name="valpotimes2007-05-29">{{cite web| last= Evans | first= Monica | title= Chile's Bachelet: The trolleys can't stop running in Valparaíso | date= 29 May 2007 | publisher= ''The Valparaíso Times'' | url= http://www.valparaisotimes.cl/content/view/98/388/ | accessdate= 2011-03-22}}</ref> In October 2007, the Chilean government's [[National Monuments Council]] extended the national monument status to include also the system's operations infrastructure (overhead wires, support poles and substations).<ref name=cmn2007>[http://www.monumentos.cl/OpenDocs/asp/pagDefault.asp?argInstanciaId=53&argTablaNombre=Doc_Documento&argRegistroId=851 Expansion of national monument declaration] for Valparaíso's trolleybus system to cover the "associated assets" (fixed infrastructure). [[National Monuments Council|''Consejos de Monumentos Nacionales'' (Council of National Monuments)]]. {{es icon}} 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-22.</ref>
 
 
Trolleybuses operated in [[Santiago de Chile|Santiago]] from 1947–1978 and 1991–1994.<ref name="Murray"/><ref name=morrison-santiago>Morrison, Allen (October 2006). [http://www.tramz.com/cl/s/tae.html The Trolleybuses of Santiago, Chile] (detailed history). Retrieved 2011-03-22.</ref>
 
 
====Colombia====
 
Trolleybuses systems were operated in [[Medellín]] from 1929 to 1951 and in [[Bogotá]] (where the service was managed by the local government) from 1948 until 1991.<ref name="Murray"/> Russian-built [[Trolza|ZIU]] and Romanian-built [[Rocar DAC|DAC]] trolleybuses comprised the entire fleet in the system's last several years of operation.<ref name="morrison-bogotá">{{cite web|last=Morrison|first=Allen|title=The Trolleybuses of Bogotá, Colombia|url=http://www.tramz.com/co/bg/b/be.html|accessdate=22 March 2011}}</ref>
 
 
====Ecuador====
 
{{Main|Trolleybuses in Quito}}
 
A distinctive and heavily used trolleybus system opened in [[Quito]] in stages in 1995-96.<ref name="tm208">Morrison, Allen. "Railless Rapid Transit in Ecuador". ''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 208 (July–August 1996), pp. 86–89.</ref> The single-corridor [[Trolleybuses in Quito|Quito trolleybus system]], named "El Trole", is a high-capacity design, featuring dedicated trolleybus-only lanes over almost its entire length and with boarding taking place exclusively at high-platform stations, through all three vehicle doorways simultaneously, akin to modern-day [[light rail|light-rail transit]] systems.<ref name="janes03quito">Webb, Mary (ed.) (2003). ''Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2003-2004'', pp. 87–88. [[Jane's Information Group]]. ISBN 0-7106-2565-0.</ref> The initial fleet of 54 [[articulated bus|articulated]] trolleybuses was expanded to 113 vehicles in 1999-2000.<ref name="janes03quito"/> The [[headway]] is as short as 90 seconds in peak periods, and average daily patronage exceeds 250,000 passengers. Extensions to the route were opened in 2000 and 2008, and it is now {{convert|18.7|km}} in length.<ref>Morrison, Allen (March 2009). [http://www.tramz.com/ec/q/b1.html The Trolleybus System of Quito, Ecuador.]. Retrieved 2010-04-17.</ref> Five different overlapping trolleybus services are operated along the corridor. The system inspired the design of a new trolleybus system in [[Trolleybuses in Mérida|Mérida, Venezuela]], the first stage of which opened in 2007.
 
 
====Peru====
 
A small trolleybus system operated in [[Lima]] from 1928 to 1931, using just six vehicles on a single 3.3-km route.<ref name="Murray"/><ref name="morrison-pioneers"/> The six trolleybuses were rebuilt as [[tram]]s in 1931, the only known instance of trolleybuses' being converted into trams.<ref name="morrison-pioneers"/>
 
 
====Uruguay====
 
Trolleybuses served the capital, [[Montevideo]], from 1951 until 1992. The fleet originally included 18 British-built [[British United Traction|BUT]] vehicles, but Italian-built [[Alfa Romeo]] or [[Fiat]] trolleybuses were later acquired in much larger numbers and comprised the entire fleet for the system's last several years.<ref name="Murray"/>
 
 
====Venezuela====
 
A trolleybus system opened in [[Mérida, Mérida|Mérida]] in June 2007.<ref name="tm275">''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 275 (September–October 2007), p. 119.</ref><ref name="morrison-merida">Morrison, Allen (5 January 2009). [http://www.tramz.com/ve/me/me.html The Trolleybuses of Mérida, Venezuela]. Retrieved 2010-02-05.</ref> Like the 1995-opened [[Trolleybuses in Quito|Quito trolleybus system]], the new [[Trolleybuses in Mérida|Mérida system]] is a [[Bus rapid transit|Bus Rapid Transit]] (BRT) system, using dedicated trolleybus-only lanes over the entire length of the route, with [[Traffic signal preemption|signals giving priority]] over other traffic, and with all boarding and alighting taking place at enclosed "stations". A fleet of 45 [[Articulated bus|articulated]] trolleybuses built in Spain by [[Mercedes-Benz buses|Mercedes-Benz]] and [[Hispano Carrocera]] provides the service.<ref name="morrison-merida"/> A similar new trolleybus BRT system is under construction in [[Barquisimeto]],<ref>''Trolleybus Magazine'' No. 272 (March–April 2007), p. 47.</ref> and for this system 80 articulated trolleybuses have been purchased from [[Neoplan]], in Germany. Many years earlier, a small trolleybus system (using only 11 vehicles) operated in [[Caracas]] from 1937<ref name="morrison-pioneers"/> until about 1949.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.892377
Reporter Information
Reporter: Mark (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 12th of May 2016 at 10:47:00 PM
Status: Reported
Thursday, the 6th of September 2012 at 08:00:07 PM #88105
Ajaynejr (anonymous)

This is a false positive.

At the top of the article in question (Trolleybus) there is a comment about subdividing the article. I have tried to do just that, taking a large portion of the content of Trolleybus and putting it into the recently created article Trolleybus demography.

Thursday, the 12th of May 2016 at 10:47:00 PM #104367
Mark (anonymous)

5yYOh7 http://www.y7YwKx7Pm6OnyJvolbcwrWdoEnRF29pb.com

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