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Article: Massachusetts
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Massachusetts is a state where people came from...
{{pp-protected|expiry=2012-10-01T14:05:48Z|small=yes}}{{About|the U.S. state}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2011}}
{{Infobox U.S. state
| Name = Massachusetts
| Fullname = Commonwealth of Massachusetts
| Flag = Flag_of_Massachusetts.svg
| Flaglink = [[Flag of Massachusetts|Flag]]
| Seal = Seal_of_Massachusetts.svg
| Map = Massachusetts in United States.svg
| Nickname =The Bay State, The Old Colony, The Codfish State<ref>,741245</ref>
| Motto = [[Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem]] ([[Latin]])
| MottoEnglish = By the sword she seeks peace under liberty
| Former = Province of Massachusetts Bay
| Demonym = [[Bay Stater]] (official)<ref>{{cite web| title = Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth|url=|publisher=The Commonwealth of Massachusetts| accessdate =February 29, 2008}}</ref> Massachusite (traditional)<ref>_____, page 435. ''Collections'', [[Massachusetts Historical Society]]. MHS, Boston; 1877. Additional on-line source: [ Google Books].</ref><ref>Jones, Thomas, page 465. ''History of New York During the Revolutionary War'', [[New York Historical Society]]. Edward Floyd DeLancey, Ed., New York; 1879. Additional on-line source: [ Google Books]</ref> Massachusettsian (archaic)<ref></ref>
| Capital = [[Boston]]
| LargestCity = capital
| LargestMetro = [[Greater Boston]]
| Governor = [[Deval Patrick]] (D)
| Lieutenant Governor = [[Tim Murray]] (D)
| Legislature = [[Massachusetts General Court|General Court]]
| Upperhouse = [[Massachusetts Senate|Senate]]
| Lowerhouse = [[Massachusetts House of Representatives|House of Representatives]]
| Senators = [[John Kerry]] (D) <!-- John Kerry is the current senior senator from Massachusetts, his name goes first; please leave it this way. --><br />[[Scott Brown]] (R)
| Representative=10 Democrats
| PostalAbbreviation = MA
| TradAbbreviation = Mass.
| OfficialLang = None
| AreaRank = 44th
| TotalAreaUS = 10,555<ref name=2000census/><!--To nearest sqmi., from USCensus web page-->
| TotalArea = 27,336 <!--conversion to nearest km²-->
| LandAreaUS = 7,840
| LandArea = 20,306
| WaterAreaUS = 2,715
| WaterArea = 7,031
| PCWater = 25.7 <!--calculation: Water area over Total area-->
| PopRank = 14th
| 2000Pop = 6,587,536 (2011 est)<ref name=PopEstUS/>
| DensityRank = 3rd
| 2000DensityUS = 840
| 2000Density = 324
| MedianHouseholdIncome = $65,401 (2008)
| IncomeRank = 6th |
| AdmittanceOrder = 6th
| AdmittanceDate = February 6, 1788
| TimeZone = [[Eastern Time Zone (North America)|Eastern]]: [[Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]][[Eastern Time Zone|-5]]/[[Eastern Daylight Time|-4]]
| Latitude = 41° 14′ N to 42° 53′ N
| Longitude = 69° 56′ W to 73° 30′ W
| LengthUS = 113
| Length = 182
| WidthUS = 183
| Width = 295
| HighestPoint = [[Mount Greylock]]<ref>{{cite ngs|name=Greylock RM 1 Reset|id=MZ1957}}</ref><ref name=USGS>{{cite web|url=|title=Elevations and Distances in the United States|publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]]|year=2001|accessdate=October 21, 2011}}</ref><ref name=NAVD88>Elevation adjusted to [[North American Vertical Datum of 1988]].</ref>
| HighestElevUS = 3,489
| HighestElev = 1063.4
| MeanElevUS = 500
| MeanElev = 150
| LowestPoint = Atlantic Ocean<ref name=USGS/>
| LowestElevUS = 0
| LowestElev = 0
| ISOCode = US-MA
| Website =
{{Infobox U.S. state symbols
|Name = Massachusetts
|Bird = [[Black-capped Chickadee]], [[Wild Turkey]]
|Fish = [[Atlantic cod|Cod]]
|Flower = [[Epigaea repens|Mayflower]]
|Insect = [[Coccinella septempunctata|Ladybug]]
|Mammal = [[Right whale]], [[Morgan horse]], [[Tabby cat]], [[Boston Terrier]]
|Reptile = [[Garter snake]]
|Tree = [[American Elm]]
|Beverage = [[Cranberry Juice]]
|Colors = Blue, Green, Cranberry
|Dance = [[Square Dance]]
|Food = [[Cranberry]], Corn [[muffin]], [[Navy bean]], [[Boston cream pie]], [[Chocolate chip cookie]], [[Boston cream donut]]
|Fossil = [[Mastodon]]
|Gemstone = [[Rhodonite]]
|Mineral = [[Babingtonite]]
|Poem = [ "Blue Hills of Massachusetts"]
|StateRock = [[Roxbury Conglomerate|Roxbury Puddingstone]]
|Shell = Wrinkled [[Whelk]]
|Ships = ''[[Schooner Ernestina]]''
|Slogan = ''Make It Yours'',<br />''The Spirit of America''
|Soil = [[Paxton (soil)|Paxton]]
|Song = ''[[All Hail to Massachusetts]]''
|Sport = [[Basketball]]<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts? |author=Michael Levenson |date=August 9, 2006 |work=Boston Globe |accessdate=February 14, 2012}}</ref>
|Route Marker = MA Route 24.svg
|Quarter = 2000 MA Proof.png
|QuarterReleaseDate = 2000
'''Massachusetts''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Massachusetts.ogg|ˌ|m|æ|s|ə|ˈ|tʃ|uː|s|ɨ|t|s}}), officially the '''Commonwealth of Massachusetts''', is a [[U.S. state]] in the [[New England]] region of the [[Northeastern United States|northeastern]] [[United States of America]]. It is bordered by [[Rhode Island]] and [[Connecticut]] to the south, [[New York]] to the west, and [[Vermont]] and [[New Hampshire]] to the north; at its east lies the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. Massachusetts is the [[List of U.S. states and territories by area|7th least extensive]], but the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population|14th most populous]] and the [[List of U.S. states and territories by population density|3rd most densely populated]] of the [[50 United States]]. The commonwealth features two separate metropolitan areas: [[Greater Boston]] in the east and the [[Springfield, Massachusetts metropolitan area|Springfield ]] metropolitan area in the west.
Approximately two thirds of the commonwealth's population lives in Greater Boston, most of which is either urban or suburban. [[Western Massachusetts]] features one urban area – the [[Knowledge Corridor]] along the [[Connecticut River]] – and a mix of [[college towns]] and rural areas. Many of Massachusetts' towns, cities, and counties [[List of cities in England|have names identical to ones in England]]. Massachusetts is the most populous of the six New England states and has the US's sixth highest [[List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal)|GDP per capita.]]
Massachusetts has played a significant historical, cultural, and commercial role in [[History of the United States|American history]]. [[Plymouth, Massachusetts|Plymouth]] was the site of the colony founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the ''[[Mayflower]]''. [[Harvard University]], founded in 1636, is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. In 1692, the towns surrounding [[Salem, Massachusetts|Salem]] experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the [[Salem Witch Trials]].
In the 18th century, the Protestant [[First Great Awakening]], which swept the Atlantic world, originated from the pulpit of [[Northampton, Massachusetts]] preacher [[Jonathan Edwards (theologian)|Jonathan Edwards]]. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the [[American Revolution]] and the [[independence]] of the United States from [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]]. In 1777, General [[Henry Knox]] founded the [[Springfield Armory]], which during the [[Industrial Revolution]] catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including [[interchangeable parts]]. In 1786, [[Shays' Rebellion]], a populist revolt by Western Massachusetts farmers, led directly to the [[Constitutional Convention (United States)|United States Constitutional Convention]].
Before the [[American Civil War]], Massachusetts was a center for the [[temperance movement|temperance]], [[transcendentalist movement|transcendentalist]], and [[abolitionist]] movements. In 1837, [[Mount Holyoke College]], the United States' first college for women, was opened in the [[Connecticut River Valley]] town of [[South Hadley, Massachusetts|South Hadley]]. In the late 19th century, the (now) Olympic sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the Western Massachusetts cities of [[Springfield, Massachusetts|Springfield]] and [[Holyoke]], respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize [[Same-sex marriage in Massachusetts|same-sex marriage]] as a result of the decision of the commonwealth's Supreme Judicial Court. The commonwealth has contributed many prominent politicians to national service, including members of the [[Adams family]] and of the [[Kennedy family]].
Originally dependent on fishing, agriculture, and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, the commonwealth's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. In the 21st century, Massachusetts is a leader in higher education, health care technology, high technology, and [[financial services]].
[[File:National-atlas-massachusetts.png|thumb|450px|Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts.]]
The [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] was named after the indigenous population, the [[Massachusett]], whose name can be segmented as ''mass-adchu-s-et'', where ''mass-'' is "large", ''-adchu-'' is "hill", ''-s-'' is a [[diminutive]] suffix meaning "small", and ''-et'' is a [[locative]] suffix, identifying a place. It has been translated as "near the great hill",<ref>William Wallace Tooker. [ Algonquian Names of some Mountains and Hills]. 1904.</ref> "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the [[Blue Hills Reservation|Blue Hills]], or in particular, [[Great Blue Hill]], located on the boundary of [[Milton, Massachusetts|Milton]] and [[Canton, Massachusetts|Canton]].<ref name="Camp">Salwen, Bert, 1978. ''Indians of Southern New England and Long Island: Early Period''. In "Northeast", ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of "Handbook of North American Indians", ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 160–176. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Quoted in: Campbell, Lyle. 1997. ''American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 401</ref><ref>Bright, William (2004). ''Native American Place Names of the United States''. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 270</ref> Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as ''Moswetuset'', from the name of the [[Moswetuset Hummock]] (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy]] where [[Plymouth Colony]] commander [[Miles Standish]] and [[Squanto]], a [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]], met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621.<ref name="tcpl-hummock">{{cite web|url=|title=East Squantum Street (Moswetuset Hummock)|year=1986|work=Quincy, Mass. Historical and Architectural Survey|publisher=[[Thomas Crane Public Library]]|accessdate=June 24, 2009}}</ref><ref name="neal-history-of-ne">{{cite book|last=Neal|first=Daniel|title=The history of New-England|publisher=Printed for A. Ward|location=London|year=1747|edition=2|volume=2|page=216|chapter=XIV: The Present State of New England|oclc=8616817|url=|accessdate=June 24, 2009}}</ref>
The official name of the state is the "[[Commonwealth (U.S. state)|Commonwealth]] of Massachusetts".<ref>{{cite web | title = Part One: Concise Facts – Name | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Colloquially, it is often referred to simply as "the Commonwealth". While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states.<ref>{{cite web | title = Kentucky as a Commonwealth | publisher=Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
{{Main|Geography of Massachusetts}}
Massachusetts is the [[List of U.S. states by area|7th smallest]] state in the United States. It is located in the [[New England]] region of the northeastern United States, and has an area of {{convert|10555|sqmi|km2}}.<ref name=2000census>{{cite web | url = | title = Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographically ranked by total population): 2000 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> Several large [[headlands and bays|bays]] distinctly shape its coast. Boston is the largest city, at the inmost point of [[Massachusetts Bay]], the mouth of the [[Charles River]], which is the longest river entirely within Massachusetts. The commonwealth extends from the mountains of the [[Appalachian Mountains|Appalachian]] system in the west to the sandy beaches and rocky shorelines of the Atlantic coast.
The [[National Park Service]] administers a number of natural and historical [[List of areas in the National Park System in Massachusetts|sites in Massachusetts]].<ref name=NPS1>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts | publisher=[[National Park Service]] | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Along with twelve national historic sites, areas, and corridors, the National Park Service also manages the [[Cape Cod National Seashore]] and the [[Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area]].<ref name=NPS1/> In addition, the [[Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation]] maintains a number of parks, trails, and beaches throughout the commonwealth.<ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts State Parks | publisher=[[Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation]] | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Trail Maps | publisher=[[Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation]] | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Getting Wet! | publisher=[[Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation]] | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
The primary [[biome]] of inland Massachusetts is [[temperate deciduous forest]].<ref>{{cite web | title = A Short Introduction to Terrestrial Biomes | | accessdate =October 17, 2009 | url =}}{{dead|date=August 2012}}</ref> Although much
of the commonwealth had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of [[old growth forest]] in isolated pockets,
secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned.<ref>Stocker, Carol. ''Old growth, grand specimens drive big-tree hunters'' [] ''[[The Boston Globe]]''. November 17, 2005. . Retrieved October 17, 2009.</ref> Currently, forests cover around 62% of Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite web | title = Current Research&nbsp;— Working Landscapes | publisher=The Center for Rural Massachusetts&nbsp;— The [[University of Massachusetts Amherst]] | accessdate =March 19, 2009 | url=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts Forests | publisher=MassWoods Forest Conservation Program&nbsp;— The [[University of Massachusetts Amherst]] | accessdate =March 19, 2009 | url =}}</ref> The areas most affected by human development include the Greater Boston area in the east, the smaller Springfield metropolitan area in the west, and the largely agricultural Pioneer Valley.<ref>{{cite web | title = Northeastern Coastal Zone&nbsp;— Ecoregion Description | publisher=[[United States Geological Survey]] | accessdate =October 17, 2009 | url =}}</ref> Animals that have become locally extinct over the past few centuries include [[gray wolves]], [[elk]], [[wolverines]], and [[mountain lions]].<ref name=mammallist>{{cite web | title = State Mammal List | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =October 17, 2009 | url =}}</ref>
[[File:Charadrius-melodus-004 edit.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Many coastal areas in Massachusetts provide breeding areas for species such as the [[Piping Plover]].]]
A number of species are doing well despite (and in some cases because of) the increased urbanization of the commonwealth. [[Peregrine falcons]] utilize office towers in larger cities as nesting areas,<ref>{{cite web | title = Peregrine Falcon | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and the population of [[coyotes]], whose diet may include garbage and roadkill, has been increasing in recent decades.<ref>{{cite web | title = Eastern Coyote in Massachusetts | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref> [[White-tailed deer]], [[raccoon]]s, [[wild turkey]]s and [[eastern gray squirrel]]s are also found throughout Massachusetts.<ref name=mammallist/><ref>{{cite web | title = Wild Turkey in Massachusetts | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref> In more rural areas in the western part of the commonwealth, larger mammals such as [[moose]] and [[American Black Bear|black bears]] have returned, largely due to reforestation following the regional decline in agriculture.<ref>{{cite web | title = Moose in Massachusetts | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Black Bears in Massachusetts | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Massachusetts is located along the [[Atlantic Flyway]], a major route for migratory waterfowl along the Atlantic coast.<ref>{{cite web | title = Atlantic Flyway | publisher=University of Nebraska | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Lakes in central Massachusetts provide habitat for the [[common loon]], especially [[Quabbin Reservoir]],<ref>{{cite web | title = Common Loon | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref> while a significant population of [[Long-tailed Duck|long-tailed ducks]] winter off [[Nantucket]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Telemetry Research:Long-Tailed Ducks | publisher=Mass Audubon | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Small offshore islands and beaches are home to [[roseate tern]]s and are important breeding areas for the locally threatened [[piping plover]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Roseate Tern | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Coastal Waterbird Program | publisher=Mass Audubon | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Protected areas such as the [[Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge]] provide critical breeding habitat for shorebirds and a variety of marine wildlife including a large population of [[Gray Seal|gray seals]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge – Wildlife and Habitat | publisher=[[United States Fish and Wildlife Service]] | accessdate =May 26, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Freshwater fish species in the commonwealth include [[Bass (fish)|bass]], [[Common carp|carp]], [[catfish]], and [[trout]],<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Best Bets for Fishing | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Wildlife & Fisheries | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> while saltwater species such as [[Atlantic cod]], [[haddock]] and [[American lobster]] populate offshore waters.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Species Profiles | publisher=Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> Other marine species include [[Harbor seals]], the endangered [[North Atlantic right whale]]s, as well as [[humpback whales]], [[fin whale]]s, [[minke whales]] and [[Atlantic White-sided Dolphin|Atlantic white-sided dolphins]].<ref name=mammallist/>
{{Main|History of Massachusetts}}
[[File:MayflowerHarbor.jpg|thumb|250px|The [[Mayflower]] ''in Plymouth Harbor'' by [[William Halsall]] (1882) The [[Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony)|Pilgrims]] were a group of [[Puritans]] who founded [[Plymouth, Massachusetts|Plymouth]] in 1620.]]
Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the [[Algonquian languages|Algonquian language family]] such as the [[Wampanoag]], [[Narragansett (tribe)|Narragansett]], [[Nipmuc]], [[Pocomtuc]], [[Mahican]], and [[Massachusett]].<ref name=BT67>Brown and Tager, pp. 6–7.</ref><ref name=Mohican>{{cite web | title = Origin & Early Mohican History | publisher=Stockbridge-Munsee Community&nbsp;— Band of Mohican Indians | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}}</ref> While cultivation of crops like [[squash (plant)|squash]] and [[maize|corn]] supplemented their diets, these tribes were generally dependent on hunting, gathering and fishing for most of their food supply.<ref name=BT67/> Villages consisted of lodges called [[wigwams]] as well as [[longhouse|long house]]s,<ref name=Mohican/> and tribes were led by male or female elders known as [[sachem]]s.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 7.</ref>
===Colonial period (1620-1780)===
In the early 1600s (after contact had been made with Europeans, but before permanent settlements were established), large numbers of the [[indigenous people]] in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by [[virgin soil epidemics]] such as [[smallpox]], [[measles]], [[influenza]], and perhaps [[leptospirosis]].<ref name="hoxie-164">{{cite book|last=Hoxie|first=Frederick E.|title=Encyclopedia of North American Indians|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Harcourt|year=1996|location=Boston|page=164|isbn=978-0-395-66921-1|oclc=34669430|url=|accessdate=July 30, 2009}}; {{doi|10.3201/e0di1602.090276}} Marr, JS and Cathey, JT, "New hypothesis for cause of an epidemic among Native Americans, New England, 1616–1619," ''Emerging Infectious Disease'', 2010 Feb.</ref> In 1617–1619, smallpox reportedly killed 90% of the [[Massachusetts Bay]] [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native Americans]].<ref>Koplow, p. 13.</ref>
The first English settlers in Massachusetts, the [[Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony)|Pilgrims]], established their settlement at [[Plymouth (town), Massachusetts|Plymouth]] in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native [[Wampanoag people|Wampanoag]].<ref>Goldfield, et al., pp. 29–30.</ref> This was the second successful permanent English colony in North America, after the [[Jamestown Colony]]. The Pilgrims were soon followed by [[Puritan]]s who established the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] at present-day Boston in 1630.<ref>Goldfield, et al., p. 30.</ref>
The Puritans, who believed the [[Church of England]] was too hierarchical (among other disagreements) came to Massachusetts for religious freedom,<ref>Goldfield, et al., p. 29.</ref> although, unlike the Plymouth colony, the bay colony was founded under a royal charter. Both religious dissent and expansionism resulted in several new colonies being founded shortly after Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay elsewhere in New England. Dissenters such as [[Anne Hutchinson]] and [[Roger Williams (theologian)|Roger Williams]] were banished due to religious disagreements; (Hutchinson held meetings in her home discussing flaws in the Puritan beliefs, while Williams believed that the Puritan beliefs were wrong, and the Indians must be respected.) In 1636, Williams founded the colony of [[Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations|Rhode Island]] and Hutchinson joined him there several years later.<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 30–32.</ref>
In 1691, the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were united (along with present-day [[Maine]], which had previously been divided between Massachusetts and [[Province of New York|New York]]) into the [[Province of Massachusetts Bay]].<ref name=Goldfield66>Goldfield, et al., p. 66.</ref> Shortly after the arrival of the new province's first governor, Sir [[William Phips]], the [[Salem witch trials]] took place, in which a number of men and women were hanged.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 50</ref>
The [[1755 Cape Ann Earthquake|most destructive earthquake]] yet known in [[New England]] occurred in 1755, causing considerable damage across the commonwealth.<ref>U.S.G.S. Historic Earthquakes: The Great Earthquake of 1755,, accessed February 7, 2011; Memorandum, ''[[Boston Gazette]]'', November 24, 1755, p. 1.</ref>
[[File:Percy's Rescue at Lexington Detail.jpg|thumb|250px|''Percy's Rescue at Lexington'' by [[Ralph Earl]] and Amos Doolittle from 1775, an illustration of the [[Battles of Lexington and Concord]].]]
Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]]; colonists here had long had uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the [[Dominion of New England]] in the 1680s.<ref name=Goldfield66/> Protests against British attempts to tax the colonies after the [[French and Indian War]] ended in 1763 led to the [[Boston Massacre]] in 1770, and the 1773 [[Boston Tea Party]] escalated tensions to the breaking point.<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 63–83.</ref> Anti-Parliamentary activity by men such as [[Samuel Adams]] and [[John Hancock]], followed by reprisals by the British government, were a primary reason for the unity of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] and the outbreak of the [[American Revolution]].<ref>Goldfield, et al., pp. 88–90.</ref>
The [[Battles of Lexington and Concord]] initiated the [[American Revolutionary War]] and were fought in the Massachusetts towns of [[Concord, Massachusetts|Concord]] and [[Lexington, Massachusetts|Lexington]].<ref>Goldfield, et al., pp. 95–96.</ref> Future President [[George Washington]] took over what would become the Continental Army after the battle. His first victory was the [[Siege of Boston]] in the winter of 1775–6, after which the British were forced to evacuate the city.<ref>Goldfield, et al., pp. 96–97.</ref> The event is still celebrated in [[Suffolk County, Massachusetts|Suffolk County]] as [[Evacuation Day (Massachusetts)|Evacuation Day]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts Legal Holidays | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
===Federal period===
Bostonian [[John Adams]], known as the "Atlas of Independence", was an important figure in both the struggle for independence as well as the formation of the new United States.<ref name=Adams>{{cite web | url = | title = John Adams Biography | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> Adams was highly involved in the push for separation from Britain and the writing of the [[Massachusetts Constitution]] in 1780 (which, in the [[Elizabeth Freeman (Mum Bett)|Elizabeth Freeman]] and [[Quock Walker]] cases, effectively made Massachusetts the first state to have a constitution that declared universal rights and, as interpreted by Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice [[William Cushing]], abolished slavery).<ref name=Adams/><ref name="sjc-slavery">{{cite web|url=|title=Massachusetts Constitution, Judicial Review, and Slavery&nbsp;– The Quock Walker Case|year=2007|publisher=Massachusetts Judicial Branch|accessdate=December 11, 2009}} The [[Constitution of the Vermont Republic]], adopted in 1777, prohibited involuntary servitude. Vermont became a state in 1791 and subsequently ratified a newer constitution in 1793. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 [] made Pennsylvania the first state to abolish slavery by statute.[]</ref> Later, Adams was active in early American foreign affairs and succeeded Washington as US President.<ref name=Adams/> His son, [[John Quincy Adams]], would go on to become the sixth US President.<ref name=Adams/>
After independence and during the formative years of independent American government, [[Shays' Rebellion]] was an [[rebellion|armed uprising]] in the western half of the state from 1786 to 1787. The rebels were mostly small farmers angered by crushing war debt and taxes. The rebellion was one of the major factors in the decision to draft a stronger national constitution to replace the [[Articles of Confederation]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Shays Rebellion | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the [[United States Constitution|U.S. Constitution]].<ref>{{cite web | title = The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution in Massachusetts | publisher=[[Massachusetts Historical Society]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
===19th century===
In 1820, [[Maine]] separated from Massachusetts, of which it had been first a contiguous and then a non-contiguous part, and entered the Union as the 23rd state as a result of the ratification of the [[Missouri Compromise]].<ref>{{cite web| url = | title =Maine History (Statehood)|| accessdate =April 11, 2008}}</ref>
[[File:Mill Building (now museum), Lowell, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|250px|[[Textile mill]]s such as the Boott Mills in [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]] made Massachusetts a leader in the US [[industrial revolution]].]]
During the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national leader in the American [[Industrial Revolution]], with factories around Boston producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing precision manufacturing tools and paper.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 129.</ref><ref>Brown and Tager, p. 211.</ref> The economy transformed from one based primarily on agriculture to an industrial one, initially making use of waterpower and later the steam engine to power factories, and canals and later railroads for transporting goods and materials.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 202.</ref> At first, the new industries drew labor from [[Yankee]]s on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon [[Immigration to United States|immigrant]] labor from Europe and Canada.<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 133–136.</ref><ref>Brown and Tager, p. 179.</ref>
In the years leading up to the [[American Civil War|Civil War]], Massachusetts was a center of [[social progressivism]], [[Transcendentalism]], and [[abolitionist]] activity. [[Horace Mann]] made the state system of schools the national model.<ref>Goldfield, et al., p. 251.</ref> [[Henry David Thoreau]] and [[Ralph Waldo Emerson]] made major contributions to American thought.<ref name=Goldfield254>Goldfield, et al., p. 254.</ref> Members of the Transcendentalism movement, they emphasized the importance of the natural world and emotion to humanity.<ref name=Goldfield254/>
Although significant opposition to abolitionism existed early on in Massachusetts, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots between 1835 and 1837,<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 185.</ref> opposition to slavery gradually increased in the next few decades.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 183.</ref><ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 187–193.</ref> The works of abolitionists contributed to subsequent actions of the state during the Civil War. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a [[African-American|Black]] regiment with [[White (people)|White]] officers, the [[54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment | publisher=[[National Park Service]] | accessdate =October 19, 2009 | url =}}</ref> The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial in [[Boston Common]] contains a relief depicting the 54th regiment.<ref>{{cite web | title = Augustus Saint-Gaudens | publisher=[[National Gallery of Art]] | accessdate =October 19, 2009 | url =}}</ref>
===20th century===
[[File:Boston CAT Project-construction view from air.jpeg|thumb|right|Part of the "[[Big Dig]]" construction project; this portion is over the [[Charles River]].]]
The industrial economy began a decline in the early 20th century with the exodus of many manufacturing companies. By the 1920s competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the [[Great Depression]], led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and mechanized transportation.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 246.</ref> This decline would continue into the latter half of the century; between 1950 and 1979, the number of Bay Staters involved in textile manufacturing declined from 264,000 to 63,000.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 276.</ref> This spurred an exodus of high-paying jobs from Western Massachusetts, which suffered greatly as it de-industrialized during the last 40 years of the 20th century.<ref>[ "Job Loss, Shrinking Revenues, and Grinding Decline in Springfield, Massachusetts: Is A Finance Control Board the Answer<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service and high-tech based economy.<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 275–283.</ref> Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. Suburbanization flourished, and by the 1970s, the [[Massachusetts Route 128|Route 128]] corridor was dotted with [[high tech|high-technology]] companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education.<ref name=Brown284>Brown and Tager, p. 284.</ref>
The [[Kennedy family]] was prominent in Massachusetts politics in the 20th century. Children of businessman and ambassador [[Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.]] included [[John F. Kennedy]], who was a senator and US president before [[Assassination of John F. Kennedy|his assassination]] in 1963, [[Robert F. Kennedy]], who was a senator, US attorney general and presidential candidate before [[Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy|his assassination]] in 1968, [[Ted Kennedy]], a senator from 1962 until his death in 2009,<ref>{{cite web | title = Biography: Edward Moore Kennedy |work=[[American Experience]] | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and [[Eunice Kennedy Shriver]], a co-founder of the [[Special Olympics]].<ref>{{cite web | title = The Kennedys: A Family Tree |work=[[St. Petersburg Times]] | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref> The famous [[Kennedy Compound]] is located at [[Hyannisport]] on [[Cape Cod]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Kennedy Compound | publisher=[[National Park Service]] | accessdate =May 28, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
===Recent history===
In 1987, the state received federal funding for the Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Commonly known as "the [[Big Dig (Boston, Massachusetts)|Big Dig]]", it was at the time the biggest federal highway project ever approved.<ref name=BigDig1>Grunwald, Michael. ''Dig the Big Dig'' [] ''[[The Washington Post]]''. August 6, 2006. . Retrieved May 31, 2010.</ref> The project included making the [[Central Artery]] a tunnel under downtown Boston, in addition to the re-routing of several other major highways.<ref name=BigDig2>{{cite web | url = | title = The Big Dig | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Transportation | accessdate =May 31, 2010}}</ref> Often controversial, with numerous claims of graft and mismanagement, and with its initial price tag of $2.5 billion increasing to a final tally of over $15 billion, the Big Dig has nonetheless changed the face of Downtown Boston.<ref name=BigDig1/> It has connected areas that were once divided by elevated highway, (much of the raised old Central Artery was replaced with the [[Rose Kennedy Greenway|Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway]]) and improved traffic conditions along a number of routes.<ref name=BigDig1/><ref name=BigDig2/>
{{Main|Demographics of Massachusetts}}
[[File:Massachusetts population map.png|thumb|350px|Massachusetts population density map.]]
|1790 = 378787 |1800 = 422845 |1810 = 472040 |1820 = 523287 |1830 = 610408 |1840 = 737699 |1850 = 994514 |1860 = 1231066 |1870 = 1457351 |1880 = 1783085 |1890 = 2238947 |1900 = 2805346 |1910 = 3366416 |1920 = 3852356 |1930 = 4249614 |1940 = 4316721 |1950 = 4690514 |1960 = 5148578 |1970 = 5689170 |1980 = 5737037 |1990 = 6016425 |2000 = 6349097 |2010 = 6547629 | footnote= '''Sources:'''<ref name=09CenEst/><ref>{{PDFlink|[ Population: 1790 to 1990]|35.4&nbsp;KB}}</ref><ref>[ Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000]</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=2010 Census Data |url= |title=2010 Census Data – 2010 Census | |accessdate=February 1, 2011}}</ref>
The [[United States Census Bureau]] estimates that the population of Massachusetts was 6,587,536 on July 1, 2011, a 0.61% increase since the [[2010 United States Census]].<ref name=PopEstUS>{{cite web|url=|title=Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011|format=[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2011 Population Estimates|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date=December 2011|accessdate=December 21, 2011}}</ref>
Massachusetts had an estimated 2009 population of 6,593,587.<ref name=09CenEst>{{cite web | title = Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate =December 23, 2009 | url =}}</ref> As of 2000, Massachusetts was estimated to be the [[List of U.S. states by population density|third most densely populated U.S. state]], with 809.8 per square mile, behind [[New Jersey]] and [[Rhode Island]].<ref name=2000census/> Massachusetts in 2008 included 919,771&nbsp;foreign-born residents.<ref name=Demographics2>{{cite web | url = | title = Fact Sheet: Massachusetts | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Most Bay Staters live within the Boston Metropolitan Area, also known as [[Greater Boston]], which in its most expansive sense includes New England's two largest cities, Boston and [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]]. The state's only other metropolitan area is the [[Springfield Metropolitan Area]], also known as Greater Springfield. Centered in the [[Connecticut River Valley]], Greater Springfield includes the revitalizing city of [[Springfield, Massachusetts|Springfield]], and an eclectic array of [[college towns]], (e.g. [[Amherst, Massachusetts|Amherst]] and [[Northampton, Massachusetts|Northampton]]) and rural areas to the north and west. Geographically, the [[center of population]] of Massachusetts is located in the town of [[Natick, Massachusetts|Natick]].<ref>[ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000]. United States Census Bureau, United States Deparatment of Commerce. Retrieved January 14, 2007.</ref>
Like the rest of the northeastern United States, the population of Massachusetts has continued to grow in the past few decades, although at a slower pace than states in the [[Southern United States|South]] or [[Western United States|West]].<ref name=GlobeDemographics1>Mishra, Raja. ''State's population growth on stagnant course'' [] ''[[Boston Globe]]''. December 22, 2006. . Retrieved June 5, 2010.</ref> The latest census estimates show that the commonwealth's population grew by 3.9% since 2000, compared with nearly 10% nationwide. In their decisions to leave Massachusetts, most former residents cited high housing costs and a high cost of living.<ref>[ Experts say housing costs, schools key to job creation in Massachusetts – Framingham, MA – The MetroWest Daily News<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Another factor has been the transformation from a manufacturing economy into one based on high technology, leaving limited employment options for lower-skilled workers, particularly males.<ref name=GlobeDemographics2>Levenson, Michael. ''Bay state's labor force diminishing'' []''[[Boston Globe]]''. December 10, 2006. . Retrieved June 5, 2010.</ref>
Foreign immigration is more than making up for these losses, causing the state's population to continue to grow as of the [[2010 United States Census|2010 Census]] (particularly in [[Massachusetts gateway cities]] where costs of living are lower).<ref name=GlobeDemographics1/><ref name=USAToday1>Bayles, Fred. ''Minorities account for state population growth'' [] ''[[USA Today]]''. March 21, 2001. Retrieved June 5, 2010.</ref> 40% of foreign immigrants were from Central or South America, according to a 2005 Census Bureau study. Many residents who have settled in [[Greater Springfield]] claim [[Puerto Rico|Puerto Rican]] descent.<ref name=GlobeDemographics1/> Many areas of the commonwealth showed relatively stable population trends between 2000 and 2010.<ref name=USAToday1/> [[Exurb]]an Boston and coastal areas grew the most rapidly, while [[Berkshire County, Massachusetts|Berkshire County]] in far [[Western Massachusetts]] and [[Barnstable County]] on [[Cape Cod]] were the only counties to lose population as of the [[2010 United States Census|2010 Census]].<ref name=USAToday1/> Both of these counties feature many "second homes," and constitute major centers of Massachusetts tourism.
In 2005, 79% of the state population spoke English, 7% spoke Spanish, 3.5% spoke Portuguese, and 1% spoke either French or Chinese.<ref>[ Most spoken languages in Massachusetts] ''MLA Language Map Data Center.'' Modern Language Association. Retrieved February 23, 2007.</ref>
===Race and ancestry===
According to the [[2010 U.S. Census]], the population was 6,547,629, of which 3,166,628 (48.4%) were male and 3,381,001 (51.6%) were female. In terms of age, 78.3% were over 18 years old and 13.8% were over 65 years old; the median age is 39.1 years. The median age for males is 37.7 years and 40.3 years for females.
In terms of race and ethnicity, Massachusetts was 84.1% White (76.4% [[Non-Hispanic Whites]]), 7.8% [[African American|Black]] or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 5.6% [[Asian American|Asian]] (1.9% Chinese, 1.2% Asian Indian, and 0.7% Vietnamese), <0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.7% from Some Other Race, and 2.0% from Two or More Races. [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanics]] and Latinos of any race made up 9.9% of the population (4.1% Puerto Rican).<ref name=census/><ref></ref>
The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.4% in 1970 to 76.4% in 2011.<ref name=census>{{cite web |url= |title=Massachusetts QuickFacts |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Massachusetts - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|url=}}</ref> As of 2011, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 63.6% of all the births.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot|last=Exner|first=Rich|date=June 3, 2012|work=[[The Plain Dealer]]}}</ref>
As late as 1795, the population of Massachusetts was nearly 95% of English ancestry.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 173.</ref> During the early and mid 19th century, immigrant groups began arriving to the commonwealth in large numbers; first from Ireland in the 1840s,<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 173–179.</ref> The [[Irish people|Irish]] are the largest ancestry group in the state at nearly 25% of the total population. Others arrived later from Quebec as well as places in Europe such as Italy and Poland.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 203.</ref> In the early 20th century, a number of [[Great Migration (African American)|African Americans immigrated to Massachusetts]], although in somewhat fewer numbers than many other Northern states.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 301.</ref> Later in the 20th century, immigration from Latin America, Africa, and East Asia increased considerably. Massachusetts has the third largest population of [[Haiti]]ans in the United States.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Imagine all the people:Haitian immigrants in Boston | publisher=Boston Development Authority | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Massachusetts also has a relatively large population of [[Portuguese Americans|Portuguese]] descent. Many of the earliest Portuguese-speaking immigrants came from the [[Azores]] in the 19th century to work in the whaling industry in cities like [[New Bedford, Massachusetts|New Bedford]].<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Whaling Industry and Portuguese Immigration Centered in New Bedford, Mass. | publisher=Library of Congress | accessdate =June 1, 2010}}</ref><ref name=Brettell>Brettell, pp. xii–xiv.</ref> Later, further waves of Portuguese arrived, this time often finding work in the textile mills.<ref name=Brettell/> [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]] is home to the second largest [[Cambodian American|Cambodian (Khmer)]] community in the nation.<ref>Schweitzer, Sarah. ''Lowell hopes to put 'Little Cambodia' on the map'' [] ''[[The Boston Globe]]''. February 15, 2010. . Retrieved May 31, 2010.</ref> The [[Wampanoag people|Wampanoag]] tribe maintains reservations at [[Aquinnah, Massachusetts|Aquinnah]], at Grafton, on Martha's Vineyard, and at [[Mashpee, Massachusetts|Mashpee]] on Cape Cod,<ref>Associated Press. [ Wampanoag Tribe Receives Federal Recognition] ''WBZ-TV,'' Boston Massachusetts. Retrieved February 20, 2007.</ref><ref>Weber, David. [ Mashpee Wampanoag Indians receive federal recognition] ''The Boston Globe'' February 15, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.</ref> while the [[Nipmuck]] maintain two state-recognized reservations in the central part of the state. While Massachusetts had avoided many of the more violent forms of racial strife seen elsewhere in the US, examples such as the successful electoral showings of the [[Nativism (politics)|nativist]] (mainly [[Anti-Catholicism|anti-Catholic]]) [[Know Nothing]]s in the 1850s,<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 180–182.</ref> the controversial [[Sacco and Vanzetti]] executions in the 1920s,<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 257–258.</ref> and Boston's opposition to desegregation busing in the 1970s<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 300–304.</ref> show that the ethnic history of the commonwealth was not completely harmonious.
Massachusetts was founded and settled by the Puritans in 1628. The descendants of the Puritans belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the [[Congregational church|Congregational]]/[[United Church of Christ]], and congregations of [[Unitarian Universalist Association]]. Most people in Massachusetts were Christians. Some also believed in [[predestination]]. The headquarters of the [[Unitarian Universalist Association]] is located on Beacon Hill in Boston.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = About Unitarian Universalism | publisher=Blue Hills Unitarian Universalist Fellowship | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref>
Today Protestants make up less than 1/4 of the state's population. Roman Catholics now predominate because of massive immigration from primarily Ireland, followed by [[Italy]], [[Portugal]], [[Quebec]], and Latin America. A large Jewish population came to the Boston and Springfield areas 1880–1920. [[Mary Baker Eddy]] made the Boston Mother Church of [[Christian Science]] the world headquarters. [[Buddhists]], [[Paganism|Pagans]], [[Hindus]], [[Seventh-day Adventist Church|Seventh-day Adventists]], Muslims, and [[Mormons]] also can be found. [[Kripalu Center]] in [[Stockbridge, Massachusetts|Stockbridge]], the Shaolin Meditation Temple in Springfield, and the Insight Meditation Center in [[Barre, Massachusetts|Barre]] are examples of non-western religious centers in Massachusetts. According to the [[Association of Religion Data Archives]] the largest single denominations are the Roman Catholic Church with 3,092,296; the [[United Church of Christ]] with 121,826; and the [[Episcopal Church (United States)|Episcopal Church]] with 98,963 adherents. [[Judaism|Jewish congregations]] had about 275,000 members.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The Association of Religion Data Archives &#124; Maps & Reports | |accessdate=February 1, 2011}}</ref>
The religious affiliations of the people of Massachusetts, according to a 2001 survey, are shown below:<ref>{{cite web | url = | title=American Religious Identification Survey | work=Exhibit 15 | publisher=The Graduate Center, City University of New York | accessdate =September 21, 2007}}</ref>
[[File:OldShipEntrance.jpg|thumb|250px|Built in 1681, the [[Old Ship Church]] in [[Hingham, Massachusetts|Hingham]] is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>Butterfield, Fox. ''The Perfect New England Town'' [] ''[[The New York Times]]''. May 14, 1989. . Retrieved May 30, 2010.</ref>]]
*Christian – 69%
**Catholic – 44%
**Protestant denominations – 25%
***Non-specific Protestant – 4%
***[[Baptist]] – 4%
***[[Congregational church|Congregational]]/[[United Church of Christ]] – 3%
***[[Episcopal Church in the United States of America|Episcopal]] – 3%
***Other denominations (2% or less each) – 11%
*Jewish – 2%
*Muslim – 1%
*Other – 7%
*No Religion – 16%
*Refused to answer – 7%
{{See also|Massachusetts locations by per capita income|Category:Economy of Massachusetts}}
The United States [[Bureau of Economic Analysis]] estimates that the Massachusetts gross state product in 2008 was US$365 billion.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Gross Domestic Product by State | publisher=[[Bureau of Economic Analysis]]| accessdate =June 1, 2010}}</ref> The per capita personal income in 2008 was $50,735, making it the third highest state in the nation.<ref name=PCI1>{{cite web | url = | title = State Personal Income 2008 | publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis | accessdate =June 8, 2010}}</ref> 13 [[Fortune 500]] companies are located in the commonwealth, the largest of which are the [[Liberty Mutual Insurance Group]] of Boston and [[MassMutual]] Financial Services of Springfield.<ref>{{cite news| date = July 27, 2010 | url =| title =Fortune 500 – States|publisher=CNN | accessdate =July 27, 2010}}</ref> CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized Massachusetts as the fifth best state in the nation.<ref>America's Top States for Business 2010." CNBC Special Report (2010): 1. Web. May 9, 2011. <>.</ref>
Sectors vital to the Massachusetts economy include higher education, [[biotechnology]], finance, health care, and tourism. Route 128 was a major center for the development of [[minicomputers]] and electronics.<ref name=Brown284/> High technology remains an important sector, though few of the largest technology companies are based there. In recent years tourism has played an ever-important role in the state's economy, with Boston and [[Cape Cod]] being the leading destinations. Other popular tourist destinations include [[Salem, Massachusetts|Salem]], [[Plymouth, Massachusetts|Plymouth]] and [[the Berkshires]]. As of June 2012, the state's unemployment rate was 6.0%,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Mass. unemployment rate falls to 6.0% in March, down from 6.9% in February |work=[[Boston Globe]] | accessdate =June, 14 2011}}</ref> well below the national level of 8.2%.
[[File:Sunset on Cape Cod Bay.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Cape Cod Bay]], a leading tourist destination in Massachusetts. Tourism is of growing importance to the state's economy.]]
As of 2005, there were 7,700&nbsp;farms in Massachusetts encompassing a total of {{convert|520000|acre|km2|-1}}, averaging {{convert|68|acre|km2}} apiece.<ref name=USDA2>{{cite web | url = | title =2009 State Agriculture Overview (Massachusetts) | publisher=[[United States Department of Agriculture]]| accessdate =June 1, 2010}}</ref> Almost 2,300 of the state's 6,100 farms grossed under $2,500 in 2007.<ref name=USDA2/> Particular agricultural products of note include tobacco, livestock, and fruits, tree nuts, and berries, for which the state is nationally ranked 11th, 17th, and 16th, respectively.<ref name=USDA2/> Massachusetts is the second largest cranberry producing state in the union (after [[Wisconsin]]).<ref>{{cite web| date =January 26, 2007 | url =| title =Massachusetts Cranberries| publisher=[[United States Department of Agriculture]]| accessdate =May 23, 2010}}</ref>
==== Taxation ====
The overall state and local tax burden in Massachusetts ranks 11th highest in the United States.<ref name=MassTaxes1>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts | publisher=[[The Tax Foundation]] | accessdate =May 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Massachusetts has a flat-rate personal [[income tax]] of 5.25%,<ref>{{cite web | title = Mass. income tax rate cut by .05 percent | publisher=[[Yahoo]] | accessdate =May 10, 2012 | url =}}</ref> after a 2002 voter referendum to eventually lower the rate to 5.0%.<ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts Implements Reduction in Personal Income Tax Rates | publisher=[[The Tax Foundation]] | accessdate =May 10, 2012 | url =}}</ref> There is an exemption for income below a threshold that varies from year to year. The corporate income tax rate is 8.8%,<ref name=MassTaxes1/> and the short-term [[capital gains tax|capital gains]] tax rate is 12%.<ref name=MassTax2>{{cite web | title = Tax Rates | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Revenue | accessdate =May 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
The state imposes a 6.25% [[sales tax]]<ref name=MassTaxes1/> on retail sales of tangible personal property—except for groceries, clothing (up to $175.00), and periodicals.<ref name=SalesTax1>{{cite web | title = A Guide to Sales and Use Tax | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Revenue | accessdate =May 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> The sales tax is charged on clothing that costs more than $175.00.<ref name=SalesTax1/> All real and tangible [[personal property]] located within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. Property taxes in the state were the eighth highest in the nation.<ref name=MassTaxes1/> There is no [[inheritance tax]] and limited Massachusetts [[estate tax]] related to federal estate tax collection.<ref name=MassTax2/>
The state's electricity generation market was made competitive in 1998, enabling retail customers to change suppliers without changing utility companies.<ref>[ Good Energy<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Though most residential customers remain with incumbent generators, most of the 4.3 billion kilowatt-hours consumed in the state in July 2011 were generated competitively.<ref>[ ]{{dead link|date=January 2012}}</ref> In 2011, Massachusetts was ranked as the most energy efficient state in America.<ref>{{cite web|author=Andrew Shen | Oct. 25, 2011, 9:35 AM | 3,610 | 12 |url= |title=Massachusetts Passes California As The Most Energy Efficient State | |date=2011-10-25 |accessdate=2012-01-25}}</ref>
{{See also|Category:Transportation in Massachusetts}}
[[File:MBTA services sampling excluding MBTA Boat.jpg|thumb|250px|The [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority]], serving [[Greater Boston]].]]
Massachusetts has 10 regional [[metropolitan planning organization]]s and three non-metropolitan planning organizations covering the remainder of the state; statewide planning is handled by the [[Massachusetts Department of Transportation]].
===Rail service===
[[Amtrak]] operates [[inter-city rail]], including the high-speed [[Acela]] service to cities such as [[Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]], [[New Haven, Connecticut|New Haven]], [[New York City]], and [[Washington, D.C.]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Routes – Acela Express | publisher=[[Amtrak]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
===Regional services===
The [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority]] (MBTA) operates public transportation in the form of [[Rapid transit|subway]],<ref>{{cite web | title = Subway Map | publisher=[[Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref> [[bus]]<ref>{{cite web | title = Bus Schedules & Maps | publisher=[[Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and ferry<ref>{{cite web | title = Boat Map and Schedules | publisher=[[Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref> systems in the [[Metro Boston]] area. It also operates longer distance [[commuter rail]] services throughout the larger [[Greater Boston]] area, including service to [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]] and [[Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]], Rhode Island.<ref>{{cite web | title = Commuter Rail Maps and Schedules | publisher=[[Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority]] | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Fifteen other regional transit authorities provide public transportation in the form of bus services in their local communities.<ref>{{cite web | title = Your Transit Authorities | publisher=Massachusetts Association of Regional Transit Authorities | accessdate =May 23, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Two [[heritage railway]]s are in operation: the [[Cape Cod Central Railroad]] and the [[Berkshire Scenic Railway]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Cape Cod Central Railroad | publisher=[[Cape Cod Central Railroad]] | accessdate =May 23, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = 2010 Scenic Train Schedule | publisher=Berkshire Scenic Railway Museum | accessdate =May 23, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
As of 2006, a number of freight railroads were operating in Massachusetts, with [[CSX Transportation|CSX]] being the largest carrier. Massachusetts has a total of {{convert|1079|mi|km}} of freight trackage in operation.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Railroad Service in Massachusetts | publisher=Association of American Railroads | accessdate =June 2, 2010}}</ref> [[The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority]] regulates freight and passenger ferry service to the islands and operates some of those lines.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Background | publisher=[[The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority]] | accessdate =May 24, 2010}}</ref>
===Air service===
The major airport in the state is [[Logan International Airport]]. The airport served over 28 million passengers in 2007 and is used by around 50 airlines.<ref name=MassPort1>{{cite web | title = Who We Are | publisher=[[Massachusetts Port Authority]] | accessdate =May 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Logan International Airport has service to numerous cities throughout the United States, as well as international service to Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Europe and Asia. Logan, [[Hanscom Field]] in [[Bedford, Massachusetts|Bedford]], and [[Worcester Regional Airport]] are operated by [[Massport]], an independent state transportation agency.<ref name=MassPort1/> Massachusetts has approximately 42 public-use airfields, and over 200 private landing spots.<ref></ref> Some airports receive funding from the Aeronautics Division of the [[Massachusetts Department of Transportation]] and the [[Federal Aviation Administration]]; FAA is also the primary regulator.
{{further2|[[List of airports in Massachusetts]]}}
There are a total of {{convert|31300|mi|km}} of [[Interstate highway|interstates]] and highways in Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Transportation | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts | accessdate =May 31, 2010}}</ref> [[Interstate 90]], also known as the [[Massachusetts Turnpike]], is the longest interstate in the commonwealth. The route runs {{convert|136|mi|km|abbr=on}} generally west to east from the New York state line near the town of [[West Stockbridge]] and passes just north of [[Springfield, Massachusetts|Springfield]], just south of [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]] and through [[Framingham, Massachusetts|Framingham]] before terminating near Logan International Airport in Boston. Other major interstates include [[Interstate 91]], which runs generally north and south along the [[Connecticut River]], [[Interstate 93]], which runs north and south through central Boston, then passes [[Methuen, Massachusetts|Methuen]] and [[Lawrence, Massachusetts|Lawrence]] before entering New Hampshire. [[Interstate 95]], which follows most of the US Atlantic coastline, connects [[Providence, Rhode Island]] with Greater Boston, forming a loop around the more urbanized areas (for some distance cosigned with [[Massachusetts Route 128|Route 128]]) before continuing north along the coast.
[[Interstate 495 (Massachusetts)|Interstate 495]] forms a wide loop around the outer edge of Greater Boston. Other major interstates in the commonwealth include [[Interstate 291 (Massachusetts)|I-291]], [[Interstate 391 (Massachusetts)|I-391]], [[Interstate 84 (east)|I-84]], [[Interstate 195 (Rhode Island-Massachusetts)|I-195]], [[Interstate 395 (Connecticut)|I-395]], [[Interstate 290 (Massachusetts)|I-290]], and [[Interstate 190 (Massachusetts)|I-190]]. Major non-interstate highways in Massachusetts include [[United States Numbered Highways|U.S. Routes]] [[U.S. Route 1 in Massachusetts|1]], [[U.S. Route 3 (Massachusetts)|3]], [[U.S. Route 6|6]], and [[U.S. Route 20|20]], and state routes [[Route 2 (Massachusetts)|2]], [[Route 3 (Massachusetts)|3]], [[Route 24 (Massachusetts)|24]] and 128. A great majority of interstates in Massachusetts were constructed during the mid 20th century, and at times were controversial, particularly the routing of I-95 through central Boston. Opposition to continued construction grew, and in 1970 Governor [[Francis W. Sargent]] issued a general prohibition on most further freeway construction within the I-95/Route 128 loop in the Boston area.<ref>Brown and Tager, pp. 283–284.</ref> A massive undertaking to depress I-93 in downtown Boston, called the [[Big Dig (Boston, Massachusetts)|Big Dig]], has brought the city's highway system under public scrutiny over the last decade.<ref name="BigDig1"/>
==Government and politics==
[[File:Mass statehouse eb1.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Massachusetts State House]] facing [[Boston Common]].]]
The government of Massachusetts is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The commonwealth has a long political history; earlier political structures included the [[Mayflower Compact]] of 1620, the separate [[Massachusetts Bay Colony|Massachusetts Bay]] and [[Plymouth Colony|Plymouth]] colonies, and the combined colonial [[Province of Massachusetts]]. The [[Massachusetts Constitution]] was ratified in 1780 while the [[Revolutionary War]] was in progress, four years after the [[Articles of Confederation]] was drafted, and eight years before the present [[United States Constitution]] was ratified on June 21, 1788. Drafted by [[John Adams]], the Commonwealth's constitution is one of the oldest functioning written constitutions in continuous effect in the world.<ref name="sjc-massgov">{{cite web|url=|title=John Adams and the Massachusetts Constitution|year=2007|publisher=Massachusetts Judicial Branch,|accessdate=July 18, 2009}}</ref>
In recent decades, Massachusetts politics have been generally dominated by the [[United States Democratic Party|Democratic Party]], and the state has a reputation for being one of the most [[Modern liberalism|liberal]] in the country. In 1974, [[Elaine Noble]] became [[List of the first LGBT holders of political offices|the first]] openly [[lesbian]] or [[gay]] candidate elected to a state legislature in US history.<ref name="glbtq">{{cite web | last =Gianoulis
| first =Tina | title = Noble, Elaine | publisher =glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture | date =2005-10-13
| url =
| accessdate =2007-09-24 }}</ref> The state housed the first openly gay member of the [[United States House of Representatives]], [[Gerry Studds]].
{{Main|Government of Massachusetts}}
The [[Massachusetts government|Government of Massachusetts]] is divided into three branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The [[governor of Massachusetts]] heads the executive branch; duties of the governor include signing or vetoing legislation, filling judicial and agency appointments, granting pardons, preparing an annual budget, and commanding the [[Massachusetts National Guard]].<ref name=MassPol1>{{cite web | url = | title = Massachusetts Facts: Politics | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts | accessdate =June 1, 2010}}</ref> Massachusetts governors, unlike those of most other states, are addressed as His/Her Excellency.<ref name=MassPol1/> The current governor is [[Deval Patrick]], a Democrat from [[Milton, Massachusetts|Milton]]. The executive branch also includes the Executive Council, which is made up of eight elected councilors and the [[Lieutenant Governor]].<ref name=MassPol1/>
Abilities of the Council include confirming gubanatorial appointments and certifying elections.<ref name=MassPol1/> The [[Massachusetts House of Representatives]] and [[Massachusetts Senate]] comprise the legislature of the commonwealth, known as the [[Massachusetts General Court]].<ref name=MassPol1/> The House consists of 160 members while the Senate has 40 members.<ref name=MassPol1/> Leaders of the House and Senate are chosen by the members of those bodies; the leader of the House is known as the Speaker while the leader of the Senate is known as the President.<ref name=MassPol1/>
Each branch consists of several committees.<ref name=MassPol1/> Members of both bodies are elected to two-year terms. The Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Judicial Court, which serves over a number of lower courts.<ref name=MassPol1/> The Supreme Judicial Court is made up of a chief justice and six associate justices.<ref name=MassPol1/> Judicial appointments are made by the governor and confirmed by the executive council.<ref name=MassPol1/>
The Congressional delegation from Massachusetts is almost entirely [[U.S. Democratic Party|Democratic]].<ref name=USSenate>{{cite web |url=|title=Members of the 111th Congress |publisher=[[United States Senate]] |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref><ref name=USHouse>{{cite web |url=|title=Massachusetts Congressional Districts |publisher=[[Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth]] |format=PDF |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref> Currently, the [[United States Senate|U.S. senators]] are Democrat [[John Kerry]] and Republican [[Scott Brown]]. The ten members of the state's delegation to the [[U.S. House of Representatives]] (all Democrats) are [[John Olver]], [[Richard Neal]], [[Jim McGovern (congressman)|Jim McGovern]], [[Barney Frank]], [[Niki Tsongas]], [[John F. Tierney]], [[Ed Markey]], [[Mike Capuano]], [[Stephen Lynch (politician)|Stephen Lynch]], and [[William R. Keating|Bill Keating]].<ref name=USHouse/>
Federal court cases are heard in the [[United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts]], and appeals are heard by the [[United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit]].<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web |url=|title=Geographic Boundaries of United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts | |format=PDF |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref> In US presidential elections, Massachusetts is allotted 12 votes in the [[United States Electoral College|electoral college]], out of a total of 538.<ref>{{cite web | title = U.S. Electoral College – 2008 Presidential Election | | accessdate =June 2, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Like most states, the commonwealth's electoral votes are granted in a winner-take-all system.<ref>{{cite web | title = U.S. Electoral College – Frequently Asked Questions | | accessdate =June 2, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
{{Main|Politics of Massachusetts}}
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; font-size:110%;"
|+ '''Presidential elections results'''
|- style="background:lightgrey;"
! Year
! [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]
! [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|36% ''1,105,908
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''62%''' ''1,894,067
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 2004|2004]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|37% ''1,070,109
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''62%''' ''1,803,801
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 2000|2000]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|33% ''878,502
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''60%''' ''1,616,487
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1996|1996]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|28% ''718,107
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''62%''' ''1,571,763
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1992|1992]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|29% ''805,049
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''48%''' ''1,318,662
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|[[United States presidential election, 1988|1988]]
| style="text-align:center; background:#fff3f3;"|46% ''1,194,635
| style="text-align:center; background:#f0f0ff;"|'''53%''' ''1,401,416
Throughout the mid 20th century, Massachusetts has gradually shifted from a [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]]-leaning state to one largely dominated by [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]]; the [[United States Senate election in Massachusetts, 1952|1952 victory]] of [[John F. Kennedy]] over incumbent Senator [[Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.]] is seen as a watershed moment in this transformation. His younger brother [[Ted Kennedy|Edward M. Kennedy]] held that seat until his death from a brain tumor in 2009.<ref>Brown and Tager, p. 310.</ref> Massachusetts has since gained a reputation as being a politically liberal state and is often used as an archetype of [[modern liberalism in the United States|modern liberalism]], hence the usage of the phrase "[[Massachusetts liberal]]".<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Does 'Massachusetts liberal' label still matter?|author=Susan Page and Jill Lawrence|work=USA Today|date=July 11, 2004|accessdate=October 17, 2009}}</ref>
Massachusetts routinely votes for the Democratic Party, with the core concentrations in the Boston metro area, the Cape and Islands, and Western Massachusetts. Pockets of Republican strength are in the central areas along the I-495 crescent, and communities on the south and north shores,<ref></ref>but the state as a whole has not given its [[Electoral College (United States)|Electoral College]] votes to a Republican in a [[United States presidential election|presidential election]] since [[Ronald Reagan]] carried it in [[United States presidential election, 1984|1984]]. Additionally, Massachusetts provided Reagan with his smallest margins of victory in both the [[United States presidential election, 1980|1980]] and 1984 elections. In recent elections, even [[Scott Brown]]'s 2010 win, Western MA is more reliably blue (by city/town) than Eastern MA.
As of the 2006 election, the Republican party holds less than 13% of the seats in both legislative houses of the [[Massachusetts General Court|General Court]]: in the House, the balance is 141&nbsp;Democratic to 19&nbsp;Republican, and in the Senate, 35–5.<ref>[ "State Vote 2006: Election Profile, Massachusetts"] ''State Legislatures Magazine,'' National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved November 17, 2007.</ref>
Although Republicans held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to 2007, they have been among the more socially liberal Republican leaders in the nation.<ref>Gordon, Meryl. ''Weld At Heart'' [] [[New York (magazine)|''New York'']]. January 14, 2002. . Retrieved May 23, 2010.</ref><ref>Vennochi, Joan. ''Romney's liberal shadow'' [] ''[[The Boston Globe]]''. June 17, 2007. . Retrieved May 23, 2010.</ref> In the [[United States presidential election, 2004|2004 election]], Massachusetts gave native son [[John Kerry]] 61.9% of the vote, his best showing in any state.<ref>{{cite web | title = Federal Elections 2004 (page 22)| publisher=[[Federal Election Commission]] | accessdate =October 17, 2009 | url =}}</ref> In [[United States presidential election, 2008|2008]], President [[Barack Obama]] carried the state with 61.8% of the vote.<ref>{{cite web | title = 2008 Presidential Popular Vote Summary| publisher=[[Federal Election Commission]] | accessdate =October 17, 2009 | url =}}</ref> In a recent statewide election, a [[United States Senate special election in Massachusetts, 2010|special election in 2010]] for the U.S. Senate, saw Republican [[Scott Brown]] defeat Democrat [[Martha Coakley]] in an upset, by a 52% to 47% margin.<ref>{{cite news | title=Interactive Map, Election Results and Analysis |work=The New York Times | last1=Bloch | first1=Matthew | last2=Cox | first2=Amanda | last3=Ericson | first3=Matthew | last4=Hossain | first4=Farhana | last5=Tse | first5=Archie | date=January 19, 2010 | accessdate=May 22, 2010 | url=}}</ref>
A number of contemporary national political issues have been influenced by events in the commonwealth, such as the 2003 state Supreme Court decision [[Same-sex marriage in Massachusetts|allowing same-sex marriage]]<ref>{{cite news |url=|title=Same-sex couples ready to make history in Massachusetts |publisher=CNN |date=May 17, 2004 |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref> and [[Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform Statute|a 2006 bill]] which mandated health insurance for all Bay Staters.<ref>{{cite web |url=|title=Massachusetts Makes Health Insurance Mandatory |publisher=[[National Public Radio]] |date=July 3, 2007 |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref> In 2008, Massachusetts voters passed [[Massachusetts Sensible Marijuana Policy Initiative|an initiative]] decriminalizing possession of small amounts of [[marijuana]].<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=2008 Return of Votes Complete |publisher=[[Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth]] |format=PDF |date=December 17, 2008 |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref>
{{Further2|[[Political party strength in Massachusetts]]}}
==Cities, towns, and counties==
[[File:DowntownBoston.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Boston]], the capital and largest city of Massachusetts.]]
{{Main|Massachusetts Government#Local government|l1=Local Government}}
There are [[List of municipalities in Massachusetts|50 cities and 301 towns]] in Massachusetts, grouped into [[List of Massachusetts counties|14 counties]].<ref name=MassCities1>{{cite web|url=|title=Information and Historical Data on Cities, Towns, and Counties in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts|publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts|accessdate=June 8, 2010}}</ref> The fourteen counties, moving roughly from west to east, are [[Berkshire County, Massachusetts|Berkshire]], [[Franklin County, Massachusetts|Franklin]], [[Hampshire County, Massachusetts|Hampshire]], [[Hampden County, Massachusetts|Hampden]], [[Worcester County, Massachusetts|Worcester]], [[Middlesex County, Massachusetts|Middlesex]], [[Essex County, Massachusetts|Essex]], [[Suffolk County, Massachusetts|Suffolk]], [[Norfolk County, Massachusetts|Norfolk]], [[Bristol County, Massachusetts|Bristol]], [[Plymouth County, Massachusetts|Plymouth]], [[Barnstable County, Massachusetts|Barnstable]], [[Dukes County, Massachusetts|Dukes]], and
[[Nantucket County, Massachusetts|Nantucket]]. Eleven communities which call themselves "towns" are, by law, cities since they have traded the [[town meeting]] form of government for a mayor-council or manager-council form.<ref>See [[Administrative divisions of Massachusetts#The city/town distinction]].</ref>
Boston is the state capital and largest city in Massachusetts. The population of the city proper is 609,023,<ref name="City population">{{cite web|url=|title=Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population : April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (SUB-EST2008-01)|publisher=United States Census Bureau, Population Division|accessdate=October 19, 2009|format=CSV}}</ref> and [[Greater Boston]], with a population of 4,522,858, is the 10th largest [[metropolitan area]] in the nation.<ref name=PopEstCBSA>{{cite web|url=|title=Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008|format=[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2008 Population Estimates|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date=March 19, 2009|accessdate=October 19, 2009}}</ref> Other cities with a population over 100,000 include [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]], [[Springfield, Massachusetts|Springfield]], [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]], and [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]].<ref name=2007CityPopEst>{{cite web | url = | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for all Incorporated Places in Massachusetts: 2000–2007 | publisher=United States Census Bureau | accessdate =October 19, 2009}}</ref> [[Plymouth, Massachusetts|Plymouth]] is the largest municipality in the state by land area.<ref name=MassCities1/>
Massachusetts, along with the five other [[New England]] states, features the local governmental structure known as [[New England town|the New England town]].<ref name=Sokolow>Sokolow, pp. 293–6</ref> In this structure, incorporated towns—as opposed to townships or counties—hold many of the responsibilities and powers of local government.<ref name=Sokolow/> Some of the county governments were abolished by the commonwealth in 1997, and elect only a sheriff and registrar of deed who are part of the state government.<ref name=Counties1>{{cite web | url = | title = Massachusetts Government: County Government | publisher=[[League of Women Voters]] | accessdate =October 19, 2009}}</ref> Others have been reorganized, and a few still retain county councils.<ref name=Counties1/>
{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
| width = 180
| align = right
| footer = [[Harvard University]] and [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] are both widely regarded as in the top handful of universities worldwide for academic research in a myriad of disciplines.
| image1 = HarvardWidenerLibrary.jpg
| image2 = MIT_Building_10_and_the_Great_Dome,_Cambridge_MA.jpg
Massachusetts was the first state to require municipalities to appoint a teacher or establish a grammar school with the passage of the [[Massachusetts Education Laws|Massachusetts Education Law]] of 1647,<ref>Dejnozka, et al., p. 313.</ref> and 19th century reforms pushed by [[Horace Mann]], founder of [[Westfield State University]], laid much of the groundwork for contemporary universal public education.<ref>Dejnozka, et al., p. 311.</ref><ref>Goldfield, et al. pp. 251–252.</ref> Massachusetts is home to the country's oldest public elementary school ([[The Mather School]], founded in 1639), oldest high school ([[Boston Latin School]], founded in 1635),<ref>Ramírez, Eddy. ''The First Class State'' [] ''[[U.S. News & World Report]]''. November 29, 2007. . Retrieved June 5, 2010.</ref> oldest boarding school ([[The Governor's Academy]], founded in 1763), oldest college ([[Harvard University]], founded in 1636)<ref>Rimer, Sara and Finder, Alan. ''Harvard Plans to Name First Female President'' [] ''[[The New York Times]]''. February 10, 2007. . Retrieved June 5, 2010.</ref> and oldest women's college ([[Mount Holyoke College]], founded in 1837).<ref>[ Mount Holyoke Admissions | StudyPoint's Guide to Admissions<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
In 1852, Massachusetts became the first state to pass compulsory school attendance laws.<ref>[ Compulsory Education] ''National Conference of State Legislatures.'.' Retrieved December 28, 2006.</ref> The per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools (kindergarten through grade 12) was fifth in the nation in 2004, at $11,681.<ref>[ Table 5. Current Expenditures ($) per Student in Public K-12 Schools, 2004–05] Source footnote: "Rankings & Estimates 2005–2006, Rankings, Table H-11." ( NEA Research, Estimates Database (2006). K–12 = "Elementary and Secondary".) ''National Education Association'.' Retrieved January 12, 2007.</ref> In 2007, Massachusetts scored highest of all the states in math on the National Assessments of Educational Progress.<ref>{{cite web | title = 2007 NAEP Tests: Summary of Results for Massachusetts | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Elemtary & Secondary Education | accessdate =May 22, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Massachusetts is home to 121 institutions of higher education.<ref name=Education1>{{cite web | url = | title = A Practical Guide to Living in the State – Education | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts | accessdate =June 2, 2010}}</ref> Harvard University and the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], both located in [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]], consistently rank among the world's best universities.<ref>{{cite web | title = World's Best Universities:Top 400 |work=[[US News & World Report]] | accessdate =May 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Academic Rankings of World Universities – 2009 | publisher=[[Academic Ranking of World Universities]] | accessdate =May 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Top 200 World Universities | publisher=[[Times Higher Education World University Rankings]] | accessdate =May 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref> In addition to Harvard and MIT, several other Massachusetts universities consistently rank in the top 40 at the national level in the [[College and university rankings#United States|widely cited rankings]] of ''[[U.S. News and World Report]]'': [[Tufts University]] (#29 for 2012), [[Boston College]] (#31), and [[Brandeis University]] (also #31).
Among [[liberal arts colleges]], three of the top handful in the nation are within the state of Massachusetts: [[Williams College]] (#1 in the liberal arts ranking of ''USNWR''), [[Amherst College]] (#2), and [[Wellesley College]] (#6). Others regularly placing in the top 40 are [[Smith College]] (#19), [[College of the Holy Cross]] (#29), and [[Mount Holyoke College]] (also #29). According to this "granddaddy of the college rankings", roughly five (12.5%) of the top 40 research universities and six (15%) of the top 40 liberal arts colleges reside in this state that contains only 2% of the U.S. population.
The public [[University of Massachusetts]] (nicknamed ''UMass'') features five campuses in the state, with its flagship campus in [[Amherst, Massachusetts|Amherst]] that enrolls over 25,000 students.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = The UMass System | publisher=[[University of Massachusetts Amherst]] | accessdate =May 25, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = UMass – Facts 2009–2010 | publisher=[[University of Massachusetts Amherst]] | accessdate =May 25, 2010}}</ref>
{{Further| List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts|List of engineering schools in Massachusetts|List of high schools in Massachusetts}}
==Arts and culture==
[[File:Site of Thoreau's cabin.JPG|thumb|250px|The site of [[Henry David Thoreau]]'s cabin at [[Walden Pond]] near [[Concord, Massachusetts|Concord]].]]
Massachusetts has contributed much to American arts and culture. Drawing from its Native American and Yankee roots, along with later immigrant groups, the commonwealth has produced a number of writers, artists, and musicians. A number of major museums and important historical sites are also located there, and events and festivals throughout the year celebrate the state's history and heritage.
Massachusetts was an early center of the [[Transcendentalism|Transcendentalist]] movement, which emphasized intuition, emotion, human individuality and a deeper connection with nature.<ref name="Goldfield254"/> [[Ralph Waldo Emerson]], who was from Boston but spent much of his later life in [[Concord, Massachusetts|Concord]], largely created the philosophy with his 1836 work [[Nature (essay)|''Nature'']], and continued to be a key figure in the movement for the remainder of his life. Emerson's friend, [[Henry David Thoreau]], who was also involved in Transcendentalism, recorded his year spent alone in a small cabin at nearby [[Walden Pond]] in the 1854 work ''[[Walden; or, Life in the Woods]]''.<ref>{{cite web | title = Walden Pond State Reservation | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Other famous authors and poets born or strongly associated with Massachusetts include [[Nathaniel Hawthorne]], [[John Updike]], [[Emily Dickinson]], [[Henry Wadsworth Longfellow]], [[E.E. Cummings]], [[Sylvia Plath]], and [[Dr. Seuss|Theodor Seuss Geisel]], better known as "Dr. Seuss".<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Henry Wadsworth Longfellow | publisher=National Park Service | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Details – Sunday – Massachusetts | publisher=Academy of American Poets | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref name=MassMisc>{{cite web | url = | title = Miscellaneous Massachusetts Facts | publisher=Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> Famous painters from Massachusetts include [[Winslow Homer]] and [[Norman Rockwell]];<ref name=MassMisc/> many of the latter's works are on display at the [[Norman Rockwell Museum]] in [[Stockbridge, Massachusetts|Stockbridge]].<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Details – Norman Rockwell Museum | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref>
[[File:InsideOutStage.jpg|thumb|250px|An outdoor dance performance at [[Jacob's Pillow Dance|Jacob's Pillow]] in [[Becket, Massachusetts|Becket]].]]
The commonwealth is also an important center for the performing arts. Both the [[Boston Symphony Orchestra]] and [[Boston Pops Orchestra]] are based in Massachusetts.<ref name=BostonArts1>{{cite web | url = | title = Music | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref> Other orchestras in the commonwealth include the [[Cape Cod Symphony Orchestra]] in [[Barnstable, Massachusetts|Barnstable]] and the [[Springfield Symphony Orchestra]].<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = About the Cape Cod Symphony Orchestra | publisher=[[Cape Cod Symphony Orchestra]] | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Our History | publisher=[[Springfield Symphony Orchestra]] | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref> [[Tanglewood]], in western Massachusetts, is a music venue that is home to both the [[Tanglewood Music Festival]] and [[Tanglewood Jazz Festival]], as well as the summer host for the Boston Symphony Orchestra.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Tanglewood Jazz Festival | publisher=Boston Symphony Orchestra | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Arts | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 30, 2010}}</ref> [[Jacob's Pillow]] in [[the Berkshires]] hosts a number of traditional and contemporary musical and dance events.<ref>{{cite web | title = Details – Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Other performing arts and theater organizations in Massachusetts include the [[Boston Ballet]],<ref>{{cite web | title = Details – Boston Ballet | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref> the [[Boston Lyric Opera]],<ref name=BostonArts1/> and the [[Lenox, Massachusetts|Lenox]]-based [[Shakespeare & Company (Massachusetts)|Shakespeare & Company]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Details – Shakespeare & Company | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref> In addition to classical and folk music, Massachusetts has produced musicians and bands spanning a number of contemporary genres, such as the [[classic rock]] band [[Aerosmith]], the [[New Wave music|New Wave]] band [[The Cars]], and the [[alternative rock]] band [[Pixies]].<ref>Leddy, Chuck. ''Rocking history lesson shows city was in a class by itself''[] ''[[Boston Globe]]''. January 10, 2008. . Retrieved May 29, 2010.</ref> Film events in the state include the [[Boston Film Festival]], the [[Boston International Film Festival]], and a number of smaller film festivals in various cities throughout the commonwealth.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Film Festivals | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref>
[[File:USS Constitution salutes Bataan 2005.jpg|thumb|250px|[[USS Constitution|USS ''Constitution'']] fires a salute during its annual Fourth of July turnaround cruise.]]
Massachusetts is home to a large number of museums and historical sites. The [[Boston Museum of Fine Arts]], the [[Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston|Institute of Contemporary Art]] and the [[DeCordova Museum|DeCordova]] contemporary art and sculpture museum in [[Lincoln, Massachusetts|Lincoln]] are all located within the commonwealth,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Museums | publisher=City of Boston | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = About the DeCordova Sculpture Park | publisher=DeCordova Sculpture Park | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref> and the [[Maria Mitchell Association]] in [[Nantucket]] includes several observatories, museums, and an aquarium.<ref name=Museums1>{{cite web | title = Art Museums | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Historically themed museums and sites such as the [[Springfield Armory National Historic Site]] in [[Springfield, Massachusetts|Springfield]],<ref name="NPS1"/> Boston's [[Freedom Trail]] and nearby [[Minute Man National Historical Park]], both of which preserve a number of sites important during the [[American Revolution]],<ref name=NPS1/><ref>{{cite web | title = Places To Go | publisher=[[National Park Service]] | accessdate =December 30, 2009 | url =}}</ref> the [[Lowell National Historical Park]], which focuses on some of the earliest mills and canals of the [[industrial revolution]] in the US,<ref name=NPS1/> the [[Black Heritage Trail]] in Boston, which includes important African-American and abolitionist sites in Boston,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Black Heritage Trail | publisher=Museum of African American History | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref> and the [[New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park]]<ref name=NPS1/> all showcase various periods of the commonwealth's history.
[[Plimoth Plantation]] and [[Old Sturbridge Village]] are two [[open-air museum|open-air]] or "living" museums in Massachusetts, recreating life as it was in the 17th and early 19th centuries, respectively.<ref>{{cite web | title = About Plimoth Plantation | publisher=[[Plimoth Plantation]] | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Our Museum | publisher=Old Sturbridge Village | accessdate =May 29, 2010}}</ref> Boston's annual [[St. Patrick's Day]] parade and "Harborfest", a week-long [[Fourth of July]] celebration featuring a fireworks display and concert by the Boston Pops as well as a turnaround cruise in Boston Harbor by [[USS Constitution|USS ''Constitution'']],<ref>{{cite web | title = Details – Sunday – July 4th | publisher=Boston Harborfest | accessdate =May 29, 2010 | url =}}</ref> are popular events. The [[New England Summer Nationals]], an [[auto show]] in Worcester, draws tens of thousands of attendees every year.<ref>{{cite web|author=Kush, Bronislaus B.|url=|title=Summer Nationals Weekend Revs Up|accessdate=March 15, 2011|publisher=Worcester Telegram}}</ref>
{{See also|List of television stations in Massachusetts|List of newspapers in Massachusetts|List of radio stations in Massachusetts}}
There are two major television media markets located in Massachusetts. The Boston/Manchester market is the fifth largest in the United States.<ref name=Nielson>{{cite web| date = 2005-6 | url = | title = Nielson Media Research Local Universe Estimates (US) | publisher=Nielson Media | accessdate =May 27, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 17, 2006}}</ref> All major networks are represented. The other market surrounds the Springfield area. [[WGBH-TV]] in Boston is a major public television station and produces national programs such as [[Nova (TV series)|''Nova'']], [[Frontline (U.S. TV series)|''Frontline'']], and ''[[American Experience]]''.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = WGBH – About Us | publisher=[[WGBH-TV]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = American Experience | publisher=[[WGBH-TV]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010}}</ref>
''[[The Boston Globe]]'', ''[[Boston Herald]]'', ''[[Springfield Republican]]'' and the ''[[Worcester Telegram & Gazette]]'' are the commonwealth's largest daily newspapers.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = US Newspaper – Search Results (Massachusetts) | publisher=Audit Bureau of Circulation | accessdate =May 25, 2010}}</ref> In addition, there are many community dailies and weeklies. There are a number of major [[AM broadcasting|AM]] and [[FM broadcasting|FM]] stations which serve Massachusetts,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = FM Query Results (Massachusetts) | publisher=[[Federal Communications Commission]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010}}</ref> along with many more regional and community-based stations. Some colleges and universities also operate campus television and radio stations, and print their own newspapers.<ref>{{cite web | title = About Us | publisher=UCV-TV | accessdate =May 27, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = About WMUA | publisher=[[WMUA]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = General | publisher=[[WZBC]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = About |work=[[Harvard Crimson]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = About the BU Literary Society and Clarion | publisher=[[Boston University]] | accessdate =May 27, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
{{See also|List of hospitals in Massachusetts|Massachusetts health care reform|Governorship of Mitt Romney#Health care}}
Massachusetts generally ranks highly among states in most health and disease prevention categories. In 2009, the United Health Foundation ranked the state as third healthiest overall.<ref name=AHR1>{{cite web | title = America's Health Ranking – Massachusetts (2009) | publisher=United Health Foundation | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> However, the study also pointed to several areas in which Massachusetts ranked below average, such as the state's rate of [[binge drinking]], which was the 11th highest in the country.<ref name=AHR1/> Massachusetts has the most doctors per 100,000 residents,<ref>{{cite web | title = Doctors per 100,000 Resident Population, 2007 | publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> the second lowest [[infant mortality rate]],<ref>{{cite web | title = Infant Mortality Rate, 2006 | publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and the lowest percentage of uninsured residents (for both children as well as the total population).<ref>{{cite web | title = Persons With and Without Health Insurance Coverage by State: 2007 | publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> According to ''[[Businessweek]]'', commonwealth residents have an average life expectancy of 78.4 years, the fifth longest in the country.<ref>{{cite web | title = U.S. States Ranked by Life Expectancy |work=Bloomberg Businessweek | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> 37.2% of the population is overweight and 21.7% is obese,<ref name=CDC1>{{cite web | title = Overweight and Obesity (BMI) – 2007 | publisher=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and Massachusetts ranks sixth highest in the percentage of residents who are considered neither obese nor overweight (41.1%).<ref name=CDC1/>
The nation's first [[Marine Hospital Service|Marine Hospital]] was erected by federal order in Boston in 1799.<ref name=jama-marinehosp>{{cite journal|title=The United States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service|journal=Journal of the American Medical Association|date=July 30, 1904|volume=43|url=|accessdate=February 20, 2011|author1=Association|first1=American Medical|last2=Press|first2=Highwire}}</ref><ref name=chelsea-marine>{{cite web|title=U.S. Marine Hospital|url=|publisher=Chelsea Historical Society|accessdate=February 20, 2011}}</ref> The Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine lists a total of 132 hospitals in the state.<ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts Area Hospitals | publisher=Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> According to rankings by ''[[US News & World Report]]'', [[Massachusetts General Hospital]] in Boston is the third best overall hospital in the nation;<ref>{{cite web | title = Best Hospitals 2010–11: The Honor Roll |work=[[US News & World Report]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> the hospital also ranked first in [[psychiatry]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Massachusetts General Hospital |work=[[US News & World Report]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Massachusetts General was founded in 1811 and serves as the largest teaching hospital for nearby [[Harvard University]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Hospital Overview | publisher=[[Massachusetts General Hospital]] | accessdate =October 24, 2010 | url =}}</ref>
Other teaching and medical institutions affiliated with Harvard include [[Brigham and Women's Hospital]], [[Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center]] and [[Dana-Farber Cancer Institute]], among others.<ref>{{cite web | title = Facts and Figures: 2009–2010 | publisher=[[Harvard Medical School]] | accessdate =October 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref> Boston is also the location of [[New England Baptist Hospital]], [[Tufts Medical Center]] and [[Boston Medical Center]], the latter of which is the primary teaching hospital for [[Boston University]].<ref>{{cite web | title = About Us | publisher=[[Boston University School of Medicine]] | accessdate =October 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref> The [[University of Massachusetts Medical School]] is located in [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]].<ref>{{cite web | title = An Introduction to UMass Medical School | publisher=[[University of Massachusetts Medical School]] | accessdate =October 25, 2010 | url =}}</ref> The [[Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences]] has campuses in both Boston and Worcester.<ref>{{cite web | title = About us | publisher=The [[Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences]] | url =}}</ref>
==Sports and recreation==
===Organized sports===
[[File:NBA Game.jpg|thumb|250px|[[TD Garden]] in Boston is home to the [[Boston Celtics]] of the [[National Basketball Association|NBA]] and the [[Boston Bruins]] of the [[National Hockey League|NHL]].]]
The Olympic sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in Western Massachusetts, (in Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.) The [[Basketball Hall of Fame]], a shrine to the sport's history, is a major tourist destination in the City of Springfield. The [[Volleyball Hall of Fame]] is located in Holyoke.<ref>{{cite news |url=|title=Volleyball pushed as official team sport of Mass. |work=[[Boston Herald]] |date=October 4, 2009 |accessdate=October 18, 2009}}</ref>
Massachusetts has a long history with amateur athletics and professional teams. Most of the major professional teams have won multiple championships in their respective leagues. Massachusetts teams have won six [[Stanley Cup]]s ([[Boston Bruins]]),<ref>{{cite web | title = Stanley Cup Winners | publisher=[[Hockey Hall of Fame]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref> seventeen [[NBA Finals|NBA Championships]] ([[Boston Celtics]]),<ref>{{cite web | title = Celtics History&nbsp;— Championship Wins | publisher=[[National Basketball Association]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref> three [[Super Bowl]]s ([[New England Patriots]]),<ref>{{cite web | title = Super Bowl History | publisher=[[National Football League]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref> and eight [[World Series]] (seven for the [[Boston Red Sox]], one for the [[Atlanta Braves|Boston Braves]]).<ref>{{cite web | title = MLB World Series Winners | publisher=[[ESPN]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref> The [[American Hockey League]], (AHL,) the NHL's development league, is headquartered in Springfield. Other professional sports teams in Massachusetts include the [[Springfield Falcons]] AHL team, the [[Worcester Sharks]] AHL team, and the [[Springfield Armor]] [[NBA Development League]] team.
Massachusetts is also the home of the [[Cape Cod Baseball League]], rowing events such as the [[Eastern Sprints]] on Lake Quinsigamond in Worcester and the [[Head of the Charles Regatta]],<ref>{{cite web | title = Cornell Rowing Excels at Eastern Sprints | publisher=Cornell University | accessdate =June 6, 2010 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = History of the Head of the Charles Regatta | publisher=Head of the Charles Regatta | accessdate =June 6, 2010 | url =}}</ref> and the [[Boston Marathon]].<ref>{{cite web | title = 114th Boston Maraton | publisher=Boston Athletic Association | accessdate =June 6, 2010 | url =}}</ref> A number of major golf events have taken place in Massachusetts, including nine [[U.S. Open (golf)|U.S. Opens]] and two [[Ryder Cup]]s, among others.<ref>{{cite web | title = 2009 U.S. Open&nbsp;— Past Champions | publisher=[[United States Golf Association]] | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Past Results | publisher=[[Ryder Cup]] | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = Deutsche Bank Championship | publisher=[[Professional Golfers' Association of America]] | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}}</ref> The [[New England Revolution]] is the [[Major League Soccer]] team in Massachusetts,<ref>{{cite web | title = Stadium Information | publisher=[[Gillette Stadium]] | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}}</ref> and the [[Boston Cannons]] are the [[Major League Lacrosse]] team.<ref>{{cite web | title = MLL Standings | publisher=[[Major League Lacrosse]] | accessdate =October 21, 2009 | url =}}</ref> The [[Boston Breakers (WPS)|Boston Breakers]] are the [[Women's Professional Soccer]] in Massachusetts.
A gymnastics center called Brestyan's American Gymnastics has also become well known in the competitive gymnastics world{{by whom|date=August 2012}} in the last decade for producing several internationally successful gymnasts like Olympic silver medalist and vault world champion [[Alicia Sacramone]], 2011 world champion and two time Olympic Gold medalist [[Aly Raisman]], and Canadian national team member [[Talia Chiarelli]].
Several universities in Massachusetts are notable for their college athletics. [[Boston College]] fields teams in the nationally televised [[Atlantic Coast Conference]], while [[Harvard University]] competes in the famed [[Ivy League]]. [[Boston University]], [[Northeastern University (Boston, Massachusetts)|Northeastern University]], [[College of the Holy Cross]], and [[University of Massachusetts Amherst|UMass]] also participate in Division I athletics.<ref>{{cite web | title = College Football Teams (FBS and FCS) | publisher=[[ESPN]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = College Basketball Teams&nbsp;— Division I Teams | publisher=[[ESPN]] | accessdate =October 18, 2009 | url =}}</ref> Many other Massachusetts colleges compete in lower divisions such as [[Division III (NCAA)|Division III]], where [[MIT]], [[Amherst College]], [[Williams College]], and others field teams.
===Outdoor recreation===
Long-distance hiking trails in Massachusetts include the [[Appalachian Trail]], the [[New England National Scenic Trail]], the [[Metacomet-Monadnock Trail]], the [[Midstate Trail (Massachusetts)|Midstate Trail]], and the Bay Circuit Trail.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Greenways and Trails | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Southern New England | publisher=[[Appalachian Mountain Club]] | accessdate =June 2, 2010}}</ref> Other outdoor recreational activities in the commonwealth include sailing and yachting, freshwater and deep-sea fishing,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Fishing & charters | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref> [[whale watching]],<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Whale watching | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref> downhill and cross-country skiing,<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Skiing/snowboarding | publisher=Massachusetts Department of Tourism | accessdate =June 5, 2010}}</ref> and hunting.
==See also==
{{portal|History|Native America|British Empire|Geography|North America|<!-- Northern America -->|United States|New England|Massachusetts}}
*Topic overview:
<!-- **[[Massachusetts]] -->
**[[Outline of Massachusetts]]
**[[Index of Massachusetts-related articles]]
<!-- **[[Bibliography of Massachusetts]] -->
<!-- **[[Book:Massachusetts]] -->
*[[List of Governors of Massachusetts]]
*[[National Register of Historic Places listings in Massachusetts|List of National Register of Historic Places in Massachusetts]]
*[[List of people from Massachusetts]]
*[[Massachusetts in 2010]]
*[[New England]]
* {{cite book |title=New England's outpost : Acadia before the conquest of Canada |last1=Brebner |first1=John Bartlet |year=1927 |publisher=Columbia University Press |location=New York, NY |isbn=0-7812-6367-0}}
* {{cite book |title=Anthropology and Migration:Essays on Transnational Ethnicity and Identity |last1=Brettell |first1=Caroline |year=2003 |publisher=[[AltaMira Press]] |location=Walnut Creek, CA |isbn=0-7591-0320-8}}
* {{cite book |title=Massachusetts: A Concise History |last1=Brown |first1=Richard D. |last2=Tager |first2=Jack |year=2000 |publisher=[[University of Massachusetts Press]] |location=Amherst, MA |isbn=1-55849-248-8}}
*{{Cite book |author=Dejnozka, Edward L.; Gifford, Charles S.; Kapel, David E.; Kapel, Marilyn B.; |year=1982 |title=American Educators' Encyclopedia |publisher=[[Greenwood Press]] |location=Westport, CT |isbn=0-313-20954-5}}
*{{Cite book |author=Goldfield, David; Abbott, Carl; Anderson, Virginia DeJohn; Argersinger, Jo Ann E.; Argersinger, Peter H; Barney, William L.; & Weir, Robert M. |year=1998 |title=The American Journey – A History of the United States |publisher=[[Prentice Hall]] |location=Upper Saddle River, NJ |isbn=0-13-656562-X}}
* {{cite book |title=Smallpox:The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scurge |last1=Koplow |first1=David A. |year=2004 |publisher=[[University of California Press]] |location=Berkeley, CA |isbn=0-520-24220-3}}
* {{cite book |title=Handbook of Local Government Administration |last1=Sokolow |first1=Alvin D. |year=1997 |publisher=Marcel Dekker Inc. |chapter=Town and Township Government: Serving Rural and Suburban Communities |location=New York, NY |isbn=0-8247-9782-5}}
==Further reading==
===Overviews and surveys===
<div class="references-small">
* Hall, Donald. ed. ''The Encyclopedia of New England'' (2005)
* [[Works Progress Administration]]. ''Guide to Massachusetts'' (1939)
===Secondary sources===
<div class="references-small">
* Abrams, Richard M. ''Conservatism in a Progressive Era: Massachusetts Politics, 1900–1912'' (1964)
* Adams, James Truslow. ''Revolutionary New England, 1691–1776'' (1923)
* Adams, James Truslow. ''New England in the Republic, 1776–1850'' (1926)
* Andrews, Charles M. ''The Fathers of New England: A Chronicle of the Puritan Commonwealths'' (1919), short survey
* Conforti, Joseph A. ''Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century'' (2001)
* Cumbler, John T. ''Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790–1930'' (1930), environmental history
* Fischer, David Hackett. ''Paul Revere's Ride'' (1994), 1775 in depth
* Flagg, Charles Allcott, [ ''A Guide to Massachusetts local history''], Salem : Salem Press Company, 1907.
* Green, James R., William F. Hartford, and Tom Juravich. ''Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts Workers and Their Unions'' (1996)
* Huthmacher, J. Joseph. ''Massachusetts People and Politics, 1919–1933'' (1958)
* Labaree, Benjamin Woods. ''Colonial Massachusetts: A History'' (1979)
* Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783–1860'' (1921)
* Peirce, Neal R. ''The New England States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England States'' (1976), 1960–75 era
* Porter, Susan L. ''Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts'' (1996)
* Sletcher, Michael. ''New England'' (2004).
* Starkey, Marion L. ''The Devil in Massachusetts'' (1949), Salem witches
* Tager, Jack, and John W. Ifkovic, eds. ''Massachusetts in the Gilded Age: Selected Essays'' (1985), ethnic groups
* Zimmerman, Joseph F. ''[ The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action]'' (1999)
==External links==
{{Sister project links|Massachusetts}}
* [ The Commonwealth of Massachusetts]
* {{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Massachusetts}}
* [ Massachusetts Historical Society]
* [ Massachusetts State Guide] from the Library of Congress
* [ Energy Profile for Massachusetts- Economic, environmental, and energy data]
* [ USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Massachusetts]
* [ Massachusetts Geological Survey]
* [ Maps of Massachusetts]
* [ 1837 descriptions of Massachusetts cities, towns, mountains, lakes, and rivers, from ''Hayward's New England Gazetteer.'']
* [ Massachusetts State Symbols]
* [ Miscellaneous Massachusetts Facts]
* [ Massachusetts State Facts from USDA]
* [ Massachusetts Constitution and Laws]
* [ Massachusetts Tourism Board]
* [ Maritime History of Massachusetts, a National Park Service ''Discover Our Shared Heritage'' Travel Itinerary]
* [ Atlases of Massachusetts]. 1871-Walling&Gray, 1891-Walker, 1892-Mass., 1904-Walker. Large Images at Salemdeeds.
|titlestyle = background:#15317E; color:#fff
|title = <span style="font-size:11pt;">Topics related to Massachusetts</span> <br /> ''The Bay State''
|list =
{{Government of Massachusetts}}
{{Massachusetts cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}
{{Protected Areas of Massachusetts}}
{{New England}}
{{United States political divisions}}
{{United States topics}}
{{Geographic location
| Northwest =
| North = {{flag|Vermont}} • {{flag|New Hampshire}}
| Northeast = {{flag|Maine}}
| West = {{flag|New York}}
| Centre = ''Massachusetts'': [[Outline of Massachusetts|Outline]] • [[Index of Massachusetts-related articles|Index]]
| East = Atlantic Ocean
| Southwest = {{flag|New Jersey}}
| South = {{flag|Connecticut}} • {{flag|Rhode Island}}
| Southeast = [[Cape Cod]]<br>[[Martha's Vineyard]] • [[Nantucket Island]]
| preceded = [[Connecticut]]
| office = [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood|List of U.S. states by constitutional ratification date]]
| years = Ratified [[Constitution of the United States of America|Constitution]] on February 6, 1788 (6th)
| succeeded = [[Maryland]]
[[Category:Massachusetts| ]]
[[Category:States of the United States]]
[[Category:New England]]
[[Category:Northeastern United States]]
[[Category:Former British colonies]]
[[Category:States and territories established in 1788]]
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[[ug:Massachuséts Shitati]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.935053
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 02:51:20 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 02:51:20 AM #101914
Bradley (anonymous)